Final: Study Guide
Final: Study Guide PSC 321
Popular in US National Security
One Day of Notes
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Political Science
This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Erica Kugler on Friday April 24, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSC 321 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Frazier in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 280 views. For similar materials see US National Security in Political Science at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
Reviews for Final: Study Guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 04/24/15
Final Study Guide The final is noncumulative This study guide includes all topics covered since the midterm DHS Congress the Media and Lobbying Department of Homeland Security 0 Established after 911 to managecombat terrorism by improving cooperation coordination and information sharing among gov t agencies and different levels of govt 0 Key focus is on combating terrorism gt prioritize depts that deal wterrorism over other depts o DHS has a complex structure gt many agenciesdepartments that deal wvarying topics 0 DHS was created by taking away from the Department of Defense agencies that dealt with homeland issues terrorism intel natural disasters energy etc o DHS mission 3 key priorities 0 Prevent terrorist attacks on US soil 0 Reduce US vulnerability to global threats 0 Minimize damage and ensure rapid recovery from attacks if attacks were to occur 0 Agencies win DHS TSA US Secret Service US Customs and Border Patrol Immigration FEMA Congress Politics affects national security and national security affects politics Divide bwn Democrats and Republicans has 0 created political gridlock o bogged down the nat l security process gt consensus votes on issues can t be reached Congressional debates gt should US be isolationist or internationalist 0 Different ideologies can lead to inability to agree on foreign policy What is the constitutional mandate gt powers of Congress guaranteed by the constitution 0 These powers limit the President s authority over national security 0 3 key mandates foreign policy powers of Congress Article 1 Section 8 I Appropriation of funds I Declaration of war I Senate approval of treaties ambassadors and aides 0 Congress can I Influence budgets committee reports foreignnat l sec choices treaty ratification ambassador confirmation media reports I Pressure the executive to focus on broad themes that might be problematic for specific relationships 0 Congress has large world views Executive holds countryspecific views 0 Ex Human rights large view vs deals wChina country specific and China has HR issues I Change processes which can affect outcomes ex Process for base closings 0 Important parts of Congress that relate to national security 0 Senate Foreign Relations Committee House Committee on Foreign Affairs Armed Services Committees Homeland Security Appropriations House Oversight 0 Intelligence 0 Wnational security the Constitution creates quotan invitation to struggle o struggle bwn exec and leg branches to influence national security affairs 0 Why does Congress often defer to the Executive on national security issues I Congressional challenges to the executive s authority tend to be cyclical o Cyclical Defer influence over national security affairs to the executive during times of crisis but try to regain control over national security affairs during times of peace 00000 0 Cycle over control of nat l sec affairs allows power Congress and President to expand and contract like an accordion 0 key trend crises empower the President rather than Congress 0 Congressional staffers and national security gt issue selection contacts interstaff relations 0 Congressional balancing act bwn between national security and constituencies district voters o How to reconcile constituents interests wnational interest 0 Workplace cultures 0 Congress confrontational divisive favor media coverage like to attack the Pres o Presidentexecutive branch secret seem unified o safe seats reelection highly likely ie those Legislators in Congress for many years 0 Issue how to strike a balance bwn too much and too laxed oversight of executive branch 0 Too much constrains the President too laxed black check to the President for action 0 Congress rarely outright rejects presidential foreign policy initiatives I Usually rejects parts of the initiative but not the whole thing 0 Overlapping committee jurisdiction gives Congressman many ways to challenge Pres s power 0 Oversight and investigations necessary evil 0 Necessary prevent abuses and expose wrong doing 0 Evil reveal embarrassing revelations Lobbies o Lobbies represent an interest 0 Gather info engage wpublic networking seek alliances wreps of similar interest 0 Behavior gt network development research coordination wCongress to pressure Executive 0 Transparency share info wpublic gt requirements for disclosure about 0 Lobby supporters 0 Monetary contributions to lobbies 0 Which lobbies support certain Congressional members 0 National security lobbyists are most often employed on one of four types of engagements 0 Work to support specific commercial ventures that need federal licensing or guarantees 0 Work to deter a proposed US policy action 0 Work to develop sympathy for a particular bilateral relationship or other nat l interests Media 0 Work inhouse wNGOs What lobbies tend to be successfulgt ones walliances money access and media success Washington s Farewell Address advised against competing factions ie Special Interest Groups Common theme of lobbying campaigns in US interest to adopt the preferred policy lobbyists offer a winwin option US nat l interest and lobbyists client s interest aren t in conflict lobbyists use talking points framed messages that represent policy Most effective lobbyists former policymakers or policy staffers 0 Veteran lobbyists use insights into exec branch and policymaking lobbying on national security matters is specialized 0 Use experts and focus on specific issues win broader context I Ex Specific air pollution in US broad climate change GoodBad cop paradigm work wcountries on issues but highlight things that they do wrong 0 Ex work wRussia to improve HRs but also work wAI to highlight human rights abuses 0 Work on both sides of an issue ex lobbies for war and peace Roles win national security process 0 Oversight of decisionmakers 0 Agenda setting gt influence what major issues should dominate the country s attention 0 Communication tool 0 Information provider 0 Filter gt can pick and choose which info to present to the public or leave out of stories Media bias and its effect on national security gt credibility and influence in the public Media can influence events in international relations and national security Four types of media coverage of US national security 0 Correspondents gt focus on diplomaticmilitary policymaking 0 Foreign correspondents gt abroad focus on world news of US interests I Discuss reality of US policy abroad witness breaking news in other countries 0 War correspondents gt assigned to combat areas embedded journalists 0 Regional journalist for military representationgt work near major military bases Problem wmedia and national security leaks Story source animosity gt Unnamed source story source doesn t want to be identified Fullvalue info vs filtered info Media s role in shaping govt decision making draw attention to overlooked issues 0 Shockoutrage resulting from media coverage produced calls for change 0 Cycle Journalist brings an issue to the public s attention Public attention leads to political action to address the issue Reform of the issue I Journalist is awarded for shedding light on the issue Media amplifier of issues negative news can do good gt question legality of things push for responsible govt US Global Leadership 0 Leadership 3 parts gt 1 to directcommand 2 to go first lead by example 3 to induce o 3 types of international leadership I Hegemony gt one state dominates international affairs and influences policy I Unilateralism gt onesided action ex acting alone when facing a security threat I Multilateralism gt acting with a multitude of other actors ex coalitionalliance 0 Leadership ability to produce collaborative action by several actors use of power to orchestrate actions of a group toward a collective end 0 Legitimacy gt right to claims of some sort behavioral moral etc I Normative process of gaining legitimacy 0 Longterm engagement in a certain action makes others assumeexpect you to carry out that same action in the future 0 Repeated action gain right to that action I Process vs substance ways to gain legitimacy 0 Process legitimacy based on way things are carried out 0 Substance legitimacy based on outcome gt ends justify the means 0 Challenges to US legitimacy in international system 0 Double standards gt say one thing but do another 0 Idea that legitimacy comes from home not abroad Who conveys legitimacy to the US I Which holds more power in determining the legitimacy of an action domestic public or international community I National pride vs subjugation to international views 0 Leadership Facets 5 types 0 ProcessInitiation gt ID a problem createimplement strategies lead others 0 Issue Framing gt frame security issues so that other states reach the same conclusion as you regarding those issues have other states see things your way 0 Interest Consideration gt try to take into account the problems of other states while not diminishing your ability to solve your problems 0 Institutional Development gt deal wissues and create solutions via a third party 0 Deployment of Power gt willingness and ability to use coercive resources to gain cooperation and consensus on security issues 0 Willingness to use force resolve actual ability to use force capability 0 Evaluating legitimacy 0 Right process gt Does a state go through the right steps before starting a certain action 0 Consistency wnorms gt Does a state work winstitutions and uphold universal values 0 Consistentcohesive implementation gt how effectiveconsistent are state s actions 0 quotSoft Power in exerting leadership gt refrain from using coercion to gain leadership status 0 Use incentives rather than forcethreats to make others do what you want to happen 0 Appear more friend than foe gt easier to maintain good relations wfriends than foes 0 US faces constraints to its leadership 0 Fragmentation win US foreign policy process I Growth in bureaucracy gt more actions involved harder to coordinate things I Growth in Congressional oversight gt more committees more avenues for forpolicy to be debatedchanged o Extremism gt focus resources on new security threat ex US policy toward terrorism I tunnel view gt other security threats are blocked out or become less important I Reasons for extremism behavior 0 Executive advantage gt President s power increase during crises 0 Rally around the flag effect gt surge in national pride makes people more supportive of govt decisions 0 Uniformed domestic public regarding foreign policy 0 Lack of accountability held against govt leaders 0 Low audience cost 0 Uniformed public few challengers to govt decisions govt can operate wo fear of negative repercussions political backlash loss of support from the domestic audience the citizens o Other states taking more of a unilateral role rather than turning to the US to solve issues I US isn t automatic goto state to fix international issues 0 More states besides just US are taking on a leadership role win international affairs Energy Security 0 Energy security is the quotuninterrupted availability of energy sources at an affordable price 0 Longterm energy security energy investment that takes into account economic development and the environment 0 Shortterm energy security ability to react promptly to sudden changes in the supply and demand of energy resources 0 NSS and Energy Security 0 US global leader in oil and gas production I US is insulated from external vulnerability gt can withstand shocks in oil supply I US having energy doesn t help our allies bc they depend on oil others 0 Ex Europeans rely heavily on Russian oil supplies 0 Promotion of diversification of types of energy used gt fossil fuel vs clean energy 0 Competition for the development of clean energy I US is not leading the way on the use of clean energy China and Germany are 0 Competition in untapped areas like the Arctic or offshore locations I Potential for conflict to arise as countries 0 want to find new energy source locations 0 lay claim to same pieces of energyholding territory 0 Fossil fuel usage and climate change gt what is good today vs what is good for tomorrow 0 Relationship bwn national security and energy security OIL 0 Oil is the most important energy resource 0 US security concerns need for a constant oil supply oil price shocks hurt the economy 0 Variables to consider regarding energy security 0 Dependence on oil gt US reliance on foreign oil is irrelevant I Even if the US stops using foreign oil other countries will still demand oil so the supplydemand for oil hasn t significantly changed Consumption gt more oil consumed larger negative impacts on price increases Supply vulnerability gt significance of an interruption in oil supply Offsetting capabilities gt use own energy resources quotstrategic petroleum reserve 0 3 main variables are dependence consumption and vulnerability o 6 ways these variables interact to affect US security 0 US military capability economic development Protecting access to oil threatens others Presence of oil can lead to territorial disputes as oilland is valuable Oil producers in conflict gt affects supply 0 Oil disputes affect cooperation in other areas 000 0 Oil as a cause of conflict 0 MEast instability can lead to disruption in supply of oil gt US can t leave the region 0 Consumption of oil by powerful states mainly US China and India I 0 security dilemma ability of oil producing states to affect the supply of oil to other states who are heavily dependent on oil I China is significantly concerned about the US ability to disrupt its access to oil 0 China needs oil to build up its navy 0 US can block oil to China and in effect limit China s naval buildup o Blocking of oil supply at chokepoints concentrated shipping 0 Oil producers can inflate prices by imposing embargoes or supply shortages as a retaliation policy against an adversary WeakFailed States and US National Security 0 Weak and failed states produce consequences that can affect other states 0 politicaleconomicsocial instability within one state can spill over to neighboring states thus expanding the weakfailed state problem 0 How can weak and failed states threaten US national security interests Human rights violations gt conflict wNSS initiative about universal values Location gt is weakfailed state in region of US interest ex Middle East Trade gt instability and disruption of trade affect US economy and domestic prosperity Presence of US citizens gt US has obligation to protect its citizens even those abroad Presence of US investments gt US wants to protect its interests Threats to US alliespartners gt threats to alliespartners threats to US Presenceabsence of international institutions to help deal with the troubled state I Is UN military orgs or regional orgs willing to help solve the conflict o If not the conflict can continue and grow gt may require US action 0 Potential of the weak or failed state to devolve into an even worse problem I No action taken now conflict can fester into a larger problem in the future 0 Potential of the weak or failed state to spawn other security issues OOOOOOO I Ex weak or failed states are often safe havens for terrorists 0 Position of US adversaries toward the situation of the weak or failed state I If an adversary of the US is interested in the decline of a state they could use that state as a puppet to expand its influence and create a new government favorable to its policies 0 US involvement in resolving weak or failed state situations 0 Evacuationsgt evacuate US citizens from unstable states I Pros save US citizens Cons shows that the US doesn t have faith in that state Diplomacy gt peace negotiations State Dept negotiate wstate vs nonstate actors nte updates to help make decisions about getting involved gt utilize DNI Troops gt help wevacuations protect US interests instill order Serve as an overseer of actions by US adversaries I Prevent adversaries from taking advantage of unstable states 0 Act more multilaterally than unilaterally gt US should use alliances and institutions 0 US policiesactions other than intervention in weak and failing states 0 Promote democracy gt fairfree elections election monitoring new constitutions I Implementing a constitution est legexecjudicial branches Strengthening rule of law gt judicial independence equality under law Promotion of civil liberties Economic development initiatives gt ex aid Promotion of human security gt better security servicesmilitary diplomacy aid quotnaming and shaming gt call attention to states who encourage weakfailing behavior 0000 00000 US involvement in weak or failed state conflicts is based on 3 key things 1 Motives 2 Interests 3 Goals view conflicts in holistic way to see broader implications and how these conflicts impact US natl security some motivesinterestsgoals will other overshadow others gt prioritization of motivesinterestsgoals aignment of these 3 key things unified reasoning as to why US should get involved makes conflict resolution efforts stronger since all actors are on the same page nonaignment of these 3 key things nonunified reasoning for US involvement makes conflict resolution efforts harder since actors are doing their own thing based on what they think are the biggest issues Helpful definitions 0 Weak state key components 0 Weak government gt inability to provide services to the public 0 Detached elites gt leads to corruption elites don t care about social welfare of the ppl 0 State lacks a monopoly over the control of violence gt increase in crime and militias o No effective legaljudicial system 0 Lack of border protection gt leads to transnational criminal and division of the state 0 Failed State key components 0 Collapse of government 0 No recognized legitimate government for external actors to negotiate with 0 Characteristics of weak states see above are more rampant o Widespread violence between intrastate groups 0 As states get weaker they are more likely to experience failure 0 The use of the terms weak and failed is controversial 0 States exhibit different levels of stability so grouping states of different stability levels into one collective group is a misrepresentation of reality 0 mpies a normal stability status gt What constitutes normal state functioning Arms Control Deterrence NonProliferation and Missile Defense 0 Arms control regulate limit or restrict the use of weapons quantity control of weapons 0 Disarmament focusing on reducing or eliminating weapons elimination of weapons 0 Goal of arms control agreements limit states wweapons limit of weapons states possess o Hague Conference gt balance out the of armaments among the thenworld powers 0 Washington Naval Conference gt balance out naval power among world powers 0 Baruch Plan gt UN given authority over use of atomic energy 0 Rapacki Plan gt prevent the appearance of nuclear weapons in Central Europe 0 Strategic Arms Limitation Talks gt SALT 0 Purpose stabilize nuclear arms race bwn US and USSR 0 Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty gt SORT 0 23 reduction in strategic nuclear warheads over a 10 year period I Would result in each superpower having only 2200 nuclear warheads 0 Strategic Arms Reduction Talks gt START 0 Purpose reduce the nuclear arsenals of superpowers 0 Several treaties and conventions have been held to move the world toward a reduction in arms 0 NonProliferation Treaty 1968 0 Biological Weapons Convention 1975 0 Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty 1996 0 Chemical Weapons Convention 1997 o AntiPersonnel Mine Ban Convention 1997 o Deterrence bargaining wthreat of force to prevent a state from acting as it would normally do 0 Goal try to make another state do what you want it to do 0 2 types of deterrence simple and extended 0 Simple deterrence threats that are used to prevent an attack 0 Extended deterrence threats that are used to prevent an attack on a third party ally I Ex do not attack state Y our ally or else 0 2 types of deterrence timeframes general and immediate 0 General occurs over a long period of time wo a sign of an imminent attack 0 Immediate specific target of the deterrence threats and attack is imminent o Rational Deterrence Theory gt interplay bwn defender and challenger o defender actor who responds to the aggressive behavior of another actor o challenger actor that is acting aggressively o Defender s calculations gt benefits of successful deterrence vs costs of failed deterrence o Challenger s calculations gt credibility of defender s threats costs of backing down Making extended deterrence threats credible o Jointmilitary exercises o Distinguish bwn allies and partners I Alliance higher credibility for use of force if needed 0 Allies are usually bound by treaties to help one another I Partnership lower credibility for use of force if needed 0 Partners are not bound by treaties to aid one another 0 Distinguish bwn credibility and resolve I Credibility physical ability to carry out a threat via use of force I Resolve willingness to use force to back a threat 0 Alliance renewals gt show other actors that you are committed to your alliances o How to weaken a deterrence threat How to make deterrence threats less credible o Salami tactics gt gradual action rather than suddenlyallatonce actions I Harder for others to stop your actions since your actions are gradual and others do not know how far you are willing to go with your actions 0 Result deterrence threats are weakened because the state issuing the deterrence threats does not know when to actually carry them out o compellence threatuse of force to get an opponent to reverse an action it has already taken 0 Some things can help strengthen an extended deterrence threat ie make it more credible 0 Military capabilities gt militarily strong more able to carry out threats of force 0 History of alliance behavior gt history of acting upon alliances or abandoning alliances I history of upholding alliance obligations your threats are made more credible Alliances gt power in groups deterrence threats made stronger Economic ties gt incentive to uphold threats to prevent a disruption to the economy Politicalmilitary linkage gt polmil ties incentive to uphold threats 0 Proximity gt close allies are more likely to act on their threats to protect each other 0 Problem of terrorists and using nuclear deterrence against them 0 Terrorists are nonstate actors so issue is where to launch an attack against them 000 0 Using nuclear weapons as a deterrence mechanism has its positives and negatives o Positives 1st strike prevention more bang for buck less foot soldiers resources needed 0 Negatives start wars large loss of life certain of enemy s destruction I Rationality of nuclear weapon use gt use of one nuke leads others to use them 0 Nuclear vs Conventional war gt nukes do same job wless soldiers nukes give more certain win 0 Hiroshima and Nagasaki gt seeing results of those bombs deters ppl from future use of nukes 0 Criteria for stable nuclear deterrence o Relatively equal capabilities among the actors in conflict 0 Second strike capability gt ability to strike again after first launching a nuclear weapons 0 Avoid mutually assured destruction 0 Avoid accidents that could lead to the launching of a nuclear weapon 0 Make sure that regimes are stable gt instability can lead to hot head decision 0 India and Pakistan both have nuclear weapons 0 Argument that India and Pakistan are not fine if they have nuclear weapons I Arms race may lead to war bad mil structure could lead to misuse of nukes o Argument that India and Pakistan are fine if they have nuclear weapons I Internat l rules help prevent wars I amp Pls proximity deters use of nukes I Proximity If one was to use a nuclear weapon it would feel the effects of its own weapon because the postexplosion affects would reach it Protection main motivation for states to have nukes arms control makes them feel insecure 3 No s regarding nuclear weapons gt no loose nukes new nukes new nuclear states 0 avoid uraniumplutonium enrichment Missile defense is the main problem that comes out of nonproliferation talks Missile defense systems can have both positive and negative utility 0 Positive prevent proliferation protect self and allies from attacks limit nuke damage 0 Negative expensive undermine nuclear deterrence Assumptions of missile defense can be built when needed work efficiently International Terrorism Is terrorism a US national security issue Look at of fatalities location and severity of attacks Key components to terrorism deliberate violence political motives noncombatant targets I Fear as an effect not as a byproduct o quotpreemeditated politically motivated violence perpetuated against noncombatant targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents usually intended to influence an audience Terrorism as a means to an end gt terrorism is an avenue through which people achieve a goal Terrorism is seldom mindless or irrational gt terrorists act for a reason Mass murder is not the main objective of terrorism gt favor small frequent attacks Credible threat and capabilities are more important than actually carrying out the threatdeeds Purpose of Terrorism Gain concessions gt ex prison exchanges release our members or face an attack Gain publicity gt media focuses on attacksdeath thus giving terrorists media attention Create widespread disorder gt people will look for protection so terrorists step in Provoke repression and counterterrorism by those it attacks Enforce obedience and cooperation gt use intimidation to make ppl support terrorists To punish enemies gt enemy A did X so it needs to be punished o Gain control of regimes and territory Strategies of Terrorist Groups 0 Attrition gt fight an enemy until the enemy can t fight any more 0 Spoiling gt sabotage spoil peace negotiations o Intimidation gt threaten politiciansleaders so that they concede to terrorist demands 0 Outbidding gt competition bwn terrorist groups to gain leadership and followers 0 Provocation gt attack a state and enrage it to the point that it will attack back Main location of terrorist violence is in Middle East where Islam is prominent Radicalism has influenced the rise of violent extremism 82 of attack occurr in 5 countries gt Iraq Afghanistan Pakistan Nigeria and Syria 0 Only 5 occurred in the West OOOOOO o 2013 18000 deaths by terrorist violence 2012 homicide rate 44000 0 66 of terrorist attacks in 2013 were conducted by ISIL Boko Haram Taliban alQaeda terrorism is a national security interest not necessarily because of a direct threat it poses to the US like an attack on the homeland but rather because of the instability it causes in the Middle East 0 Regional political instability can breed other issues that can then threaten the US 0 Instability affects I oil supply impacts US energy security and economy I human rights US s NSS focus on universal values I democracy US s NSS focus on international order 0 Likely test question Should US be concerned about terrorism 0 Yes US s concern should focus on regional instability terrorism produces 0 Think of the structure of terrorism as being a pyramid starting with the base 0 Underlying conditions gt things that allow terrorist groups to form poverty inequality I Process of alienation intersection of ragehumiliation and radical ideology 0 When people feel alienated they turn to something ie terrorist groups that makes them feel included 0 International environment gt context in which terrorists develop globalization tech 0 States gt where terrorist groups are located safe havens I virtual state finance and communication networks 0 Organization gt loosedecentralized vs hierarchical 0 Leadership gt single leader or a group of leaders I Leaders provide overall vision and strategy of the terrorist group I Loss of leadership gt effect depends on group s organization 0 Hierarchical one leader easier to beat once that leader is eliminated 0 Loose more than one leader harder to fightdefeat because eliminating one leader does little to stop the group 0 Future of International Terrorism gt cooperation among terrorists WMDs more offensive acts 0 WMDs why terrorists might use WMDs gt used wo detection unconcern wpunishment o WMDs are US national security concerngt focus on how to respond to WMD attacks 0 Types I Chemical agent noxious industrial chemicals I Biological agents gt instill fear in the public Amerithrax I Radiological Dispersion gt use of radioactive material I Nuclear weapons 0 War against terrorism Shortterm policy costs vs longterm policy future benefits 0 Need to attack the underlying conditions that allow terrorism to develop I Shortterm attack the underlying conditions I Longterm reduce the potential for more terrorist groups to form 0 Promote democratization has a shortterm policy reform to stop the spread of terrorism 0 Management not resolution gt unrealistic to win war on terror terror will always be present 0 Instead states should focus on how to minimize the extent of damage caused by attacks 0 prevent the establishment of new terrorist groups contain terrorism 0 Managing terrorism hopefully lead to less terrorist attacksless terrorist groups closer to resolution of making the world a safer place 0 Counterterrorism actions taken to fight against and prevent terrorism 0 Key aspects of counterterrorism 0 Foreign policy decisionmaking Identify full range of threats Fracture and disrupt terrorist groups Selectivevaried use of tools gt terrorism is nonconventional so use new techmethods Peace negotiations to resolve underlying problems I Key question should we negotiate with terrorists 0 Reality yes avoid public negotiations with terrorists 0 Stop state sponsors of terrorism 0 International cooperation gt Multilateralism vs unilateralism use more multilateralism 0 US CounterTerrorism Policy 0 No concessionmaking gt do not give into terrorists demands 0 Bring terrorists to justice gt treat terrorism as a criminal offense 0 Pressure states that sponsor terrorism 0 US Goals End States Protect Americans the homeland and US interests Disrupt dismantle degrade and defeat alQaeda Prevent the development acquisition and use of WMDs Eliminate safe havens and financial resources to terrorist 0 Build permanent counterterrorism partnerships and capabilities 0 Avoid overly focusing on terrorism bc doing so diverts US attention from other problem areas 0000 0000 Asia Asian Pivot 0 Key issue in the region stability stability ensures international order 0 pivot shift in US attention from MEast to Asia 0 Does not mean a complete withdrawal of US attention from MEast but rather a devotion of more resources to Asia as well as more engagement in that region 0 Recognition of importance of Asian region in economics politics and security 0 Recognition of China s growth economy navy and China s potential for instability 0 US needs to be more uptodate with situations in Asia 0 Increase cooperation wpartners and regional powers 0 Main regional powers China Japan and India 0 Goal maintain international order despite new players 0 Pivot doesn t mean 0 Team America gt US is not looking to take overdominate the region 0 Fear of Team China gt US focus on Asia isn t out of fear of China 0 Abandon old alliesproblemsgt US still involved wMEast and European situations 0 Holistic approach to the region gt don t let China overshadow other states in the region 0 US pivot to contain China containment China feels insecure may act aggressively in future o ASEAN Association of Southeast Asian Nations 0 ASEAN wants freedom of action from US but it wants US protection Issues in Asia relating to US National Security 0 Declining importance of US in Asia 0 US is economically dominate but dependence on US economy is decreasing I More Asian economies are growing which means more interregional trade 0 Reduction in security leadership by US I US ability to ensure peace in Asia has been tarnished by several factors 0 North Korea s nuclear issue 0 More involvement by China in bilateral agreements o Japan s growing security independence from US 0 ASEAN development gt solve more issues wo US help 0 Reduction in US soft power 0 Soft power ability to get states to do what you want wo the use of forcethreats I Declining US influence means that less states are willing to listen to US and do what it says 0 Rise of China and concern wChina s intentions o ASEAN s dependence on China gt this dependence is increasing China s regional power 0 quotSecurity dilemma figuring out China s place in the region 0 China s misunderstandings China doesn t see itself as a regional power I How can we the Chinese be a threat to the region I If we the Chinese are not a threat then what explains an increase in US presence in Asia China s answer US wants to threaten China and stop its growth contain China 0 US misunderstandings I US concerns are global in scope and China s concerns are domestic and regional 0 Ex US NSS 4 pillars are global concerns that China doesn t care about 0 China wants to be seen as important and US actions to undermine C makes it unhappy 0 China and US frenemy someone that you need but do not like all the time 0 US needs China for S and products US doesn t like China s totalitarian govt o Territorial and maritime disputes 0 China and Taiwan dispute 0 Spratly Islands dispute gt competing claims of ownership by China and SE Asian nations 0 Senkaku Islands gt competing claims of ownership by China and Japan 0 North Korea nukes stability 0 2005 joint statement by US and North Korea I No nukes and return to NonProliferation Treaty provisions I US declaration of no intent to attack I No nukes for South Korea 14 missile tests restart of a nuclear facility 15 sanctions imposed by US Sony cyber attacks worsening of US and NK relations 0 How to solve issue wNorth Korea I Apply lessons learned from Iran I Figure out what will make North Korea feel secure gt avoid use of nukes I Promote Chinese engagement wNK to pressure NK to stop hostility o Normalization ofJapan gt return to normal state status have own military less US control 0 Article 9 of postWW2 constitution prohibits Japan from maintaining an armed force and prohibits the use of force to settle conflicts Selfdefense forces are okay 0 Problems with normalization possible demilitarization ofJapan 0 Path to normalization help wglobal peace missions est a NSC defensive forces 0 Trilateral relations and treaties Japan China North Korea 0 IndiaChina rivalry gt border disputes 0 Protection of global commons gt common something that can be used by everyone 0 Ex protection of seassea trade routes from piracy and chokepoint problems 0 Concert of Power 0 US China and Japan working together on how the region should move forward 0 collegiality of US China and Japan cooperative relation between colleagues 0 Problem Concert leaves out other important states in Asia like India and SE Asian nations Middle East 0 Common theme of colonialism except for Iran Turkey and Saudi Arabia 0 These three noncolonial states use that status as a way to prop themselves up in terms of importance makes them feel superior to the other regional states 0 InterArab rivalries gt win Islam Sunni and Shia Arabs vs Persians Iranians 0 Arab nationalism gt goal unite the Arab world against external Western influences o PalestineZionism Movement gt conflict has undermined stability and peace in the Middle East 0 History of conflicts gt IsraelPalestine IranIraq IsraelSyria 3 key areas of US national security interests Maghreb Levant and the Gulf Maghreb 0 States Libya Tunisia Algeria and Morocco 0 Issues Libya s civil war Arab Spring W Sahara annexation conflict bwn Libya Algeria Mor o Libyan Civil War gt Qaddafi overthrown in Arab Spring 0 led to a power vacuum gt extremists stepped in now extremists vs moderates Levant 0 States Israel Jordan Syria Egypt Lebanon and Turkey 0 Excluding Syria these states have proWesternUS sentiment 0 Issues Syrian civil war ISIS IsPal IsraelSyria territory claim disputes Egypt s democratization o Syrian civil war gt this civil war is important to US national security 0 Breakdown of SyriaIraq border gt border failure signals signs of weak state 0 Chemical weapons gt potential for use against civilians and use abroad ie against US o Iran s influence on Syria and Levant is increasing I Saudi Arabia is working to keep Iranian influence out of Syria 0 Refugees to Jordan Lebanon and Turkey gt can destabilize recipient countries 0 IsraelPalestine dispute 0 Has taken a backseat in US foreign policy 0 Future US leaders need to address and solve dispute to gain regional stability 0 Egypt s democratization gt democratization process has slowed down 0 Slowdown may be good thing slow transitions normally lead to longterm stability 0 US national security interests gt stability in Levant 0 Preferences democracy stability vs reality autocracies conflicts Gulf gt ISIS threat ties the Levant and Gulf regions States Iraq Iran Saudi Arabia Yemen Oman Kuwait Bahrain Qatar UAE Issues ISIS rivalries Gulf coop for protection from IraqIran SunniShia conflict ISIS gt promote SunniShia conflict by recruiting Sunnis to kill Shias and est a caliphate 0 Three way conflict bwn Sunnis Shias and Kurds over land in Iraq 0 Stopping ISIS contain it within Syria and prevent it from spreading further into Iraq Rivalries IranIraq Saudi ArabiaYemen SunniShia conflict gt has grown in intensity over time now war bwn the two groups Overall Regional Issues 0 Middle East Peace Process gt undermined by ISIS and interstate rivalries 0 Relationship bwn Israel and ArabMuslim states I Israel has troubled relations wIran Syria and Saudi Arabia 0 SArabia funds extremists Wahabbism who have contempt for Israel 0 Relationship bwn Iran and Iraq 0 IsraelPalestine conflict 0 Terrorism and Western response to Islamic extremism o Threat of Islam ie ISIS to existing regimes o Kurdish population gt currently stateless but they want their own state 0 Oil 0 Water gt decreasing water sources can lead to wars more regional instability 0 Arab Spring outcomes gt civil wars rise of extremist groups instability o IsraelPalestine o quottwostate solution independent Israeli and Palestinian states I Solution is backed by the Quartet UN US EU and Russia I US established a quotRoadmap Outline that has 3 phases to solve the conflict 0 Phase 1 end terror and violence normalize Palestinian life build Palestinian institutions 0 Phase 2 transition phase gt est provisional borders promote security 0 Phase 3 permanent status agreement of the Palestinian state 0 Currently conflict is stuck bwn phases 1 and 2 0 Solving the IsraeliPalestinian conflict better prospect for MEast stability and peace Russia EU US nat l sec prioritization on Russia depends on how we view Russia 0 Russia adversary gt high priority Russia less adversarial lower priority Historical theme 1 Russia s need for strategic space protection from other states 0 Territory comprising strategic space Poland Ukraine Belarus Historical theme 2 Russia s insecurity fear of European invasion Napoleon Hitler PostWW2 Cold War gt superpower competition between US and Russia PostCold War Russia s loss of superpower status decline of Russia and rise of EU Late 19905 rise of Putin o Redesign Russia s power via economic reform gt keep Russian S in Russia 0 Nationalism resurgence of Russian pride combat the WestNATO s expansion 20005 issue with Georgia gt Russia invaded for oil resources and geopolitical power 0 Halted the expansion of NATO gt Georgia had been a prospective NATO member NATO if Cold War is over and Rus isn t a major global threat why does NATO still exist 0 NATO formed in Cold War by European states amp US to countercontain Russia I safeguard freedomsecurity of members via politicalmilitary means 0 NATO has expanded to incorporate formerUSSR states I Makes Russia feel more insecure and more hostile to NATO s intentions o NATO now involved winternat l issues outside of Europe C Asia Middle East 0 NATO ties the US hands in European conflicts and affairs 0 Prerequisites forjoining NATO democracy human rights protections 0 Expanding NATO more liberal democracies good for US 0 Rus favors sovereign dem govt decisions based on citizens wants I Growth in liberal democratic states threat to Russia USRussia relations and national security 0 Nukes gt nuclear arms control is ongoing both prefer to not use nukes 0 UN Security Council gt cooperate vs veto 0 Russia uses veto power to control US foreign policies and objectives 0 Issue for US is Russia and China s competition for influence over Central Asia 0 Should US overreact to Rus s acts in E Euro No may hurt RusUS relations I But do stay concerned about Russia s intentions and actions
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'