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Final Exam Study Guide

by: Alyssa Hendrixson

Final Exam Study Guide HY 102

Alyssa Hendrixson
GPA 3.0
Western Civilization Since 1648
Charles Clark

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Western Civilization Since 1648
Charles Clark
Study Guide
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This 26 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alyssa Hendrixson on Friday April 24, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HY 102 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Charles Clark in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 360 views. For similar materials see Western Civilization Since 1648 in History at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 04/24/15
Underlying causes The Roots of the Great War 0 Germany France and the alliance system Italy Germany and AustriaHungary France and Russia England decided to ally with left side French army Bismarck and his goal Prevent France from finding an ally Not overly concerned about England Only options were Russia and AustriaHungary 3 emperors league 0 France Britain are dirty democracies all others are empires and need to stick together 1880s 0 Convinces Russia to sign reinsurance treaty 0 National and colonial competition Social Darwinism leads to tension among nations Hoped war would reduce tensions o Fears of internal dissent 0 Military planning arm races and mass armies With exception of Britain all nations took young men into army 2 years active service 6 years active reserve and be able to get drafted and fight until age 45 Arms race On land and at sea Land 0 Buy more machine guns Sea 0 Watch and built battleships o Built navy power 0 The Summer Crisis 1914 0 Current monarch was in power since 1849 o Assassination Franz Ferdinand Heir to throne of AustriaHungary Most persistent voice in Austria against war Liberalizing the empire Worried about parts of empire under Serbian control 0 Tried to keep parts loyal to Austria Goes off route and gets murdered by a member of the Black Hand 0 Austria and Serbia Germany and Russia Austria Prepares letter for Serbia 0 Designed to be rejected o If propositions would not be fulfilled war would start Worried about Russia not Serbia 0 Russia will enter war on Serbia s behalf 0 June 28 1814 0 Starts war with Serbia Russian troops go to German border German troops go to France 0 Attack Belgium 0 August 4 1914 o All but ltaly were at war 0 Italy had no reason to go to war 0 Fighting the war 0 War they got was not what they wanted 0 First 6 months of war was open fire 0 Stalemate on land Trench Warfare Crenellation Neither side moves more than 4 miles July 1916 0 Douglas Haig August Haig gave up after 600000 dead or injured Material battle Fired 40 million shots total 0 Industrialized war 0 German efforts to widen the war Seek advantage in Europe but did not work At sea 0 Hidden in ports did not want to fight royal navy 0 Submarines are most effective when not announcing their presence 0 Unrestricted submarine warfare You sink without warning Overseas Germany cut off from overseas food imports by British blockade o 1916 0 Slowly defeat royal navy Sent out wireless transmission which was intercepted by British intelligence 0 Never mentions where attack would be Forced British to deploy 0 British ships going down while German ships are coming up 0 Tbone Royal Navy 0 Failed to raise blockade Key words Reinsurance Treaty 0 Temporary for 3 years 0 Convinces Russians 0 not sign a treaty with France Fashoda 0 Russia poses huge treat to India 0 France is in Africa 0 Britain decides to ally with them 0 Wilhelm II o Socialist party 0 Thought he could run things himself 0 Believed that Russia would ally with France 0 Nicholas II 0 Russia 0 Signed ally with France 0 Alfred von Schieffen 0 Head of German general staff 0 Will not fight a twofront war War by timetable 0 Will take 6 weeks to get ready be able to mobilize 0 Split army into 8 portions Defeat France then go on a train and defeat Russia 0 Alfred Tirpitz 0 Left arm was shorter than the right so he couldn t fight 0 Build fleet and challenge royal navy of Britain Risk Fleet France and Russia have the next biggest and powerful navies o Franz Ferdinand o ArchDuke of Austria 0 Gavrilo Princip 0 Black Hand 0 Assassinator of Franz Ferdinand Battle on the Somme Douglas Haig 0 Uses artillery to defeat German 0 Ceased stalemate Battle of Verdun Lusitania 0 Reserved cruiser in Royal Navy 0 120 Americans killed when torpedoed 0 Caused Germany to back away from unrestricted submarine warfare in 1915 Battle of Jutland o 1916 Society and the Great War Mobilizing for total war 0 The dangers of propaganda France 0 Used to serve purpose to claim that the war was not being fought for nothing Britain 0 Tank 0 Women want you to go coward if you don t 0 Traditional gender roles Did not have a draft until late 1960 Germany 0 Peace is almost at reach Uboat officers are treated as royalty Hungary Allies surrender to get a keg of beer Brutality exaggerated stop shooting and start talking 0 War socialism Materialistic items Tanks airplanes machine guns gas masks hats Free trade fell Government becomes involved in war one way or another 0 Woman and the war French Peaked at employment outside home in 1914 o Told to go home and have next generation of soldiers German Went into factories sooner than expected but gained no citizenship after war Britain and US 0 Suffragette movements Traded military service and working on factories for citizenship after the war 0 Hard to generalize experience 0 War and the Social Question 0 Initial burst of patriotism Farther east you go the harder it is to feed and pay population Fortress Truce Germany 0 Hold line on workers little to no raise Prices go up 0 Army does not ration food bought food on open market France and Britain 0 Good portions of food ltaly AustriaHungary Russia 0 Starvation o Strained alliances 1917 was a bad year for allies Ending the war and the peace of Versailles 0 German success German failure 1917 0 Good year for Germany 1918 Signed a treaty with Russia that took Russia out of the war Proved how to figure out how to get through the trenches Ask for peace 0 Under terms of 14 Points 0 Wilson the idealist o Clemenceau the avenger 0 Lloyd George the realist The world the treaty made 0 Treaty of Versailles 0 New nationstates Changed map of Europe 0 Stripped Germany of colonies O o The League of Nations Key Words Ministry of Munitions 1915 in great Britain Due to shortest of artillery shells Has power to sell shell prices and all military goods lf factory does not meet price ministry can take our factory War Raw Materials board 1915 in Germany Legally forbid steal manufacturers from selling abroad Walter Rathenau Rationalization of Germany first step Reason Germany lost marathon of war Defence of the Realm Act DORA 1914 in Britain Allows king in parliament to imprison people for flying kites or say that we should make an alliance with Germany Fear of German spies and air strikes Burgsfriedehalfe Fortress Truce Germany Failed Everyone troops broke down in about 2 years Food management was bad Woodrow Wilson January 1918 14 Points President of US Fight to end war in Europe Fourteen Points Knowitall plan to end war No more secret meetings and provisions Freedom of the seas British hate No blockades with subs or cruisers No more arms races National Selfdetermination of peoples How should national boundaries be drawn If you want a territory vote on it Do not attack neighbor to add territory International organization where nation states can go to neutral 3rd party for help A peace without victory Georges Clemenceau the tyrant Remembers German unification Was not a single country called Germany so why not go back to that France will not threaten Germany again Divide into 4 countries but ultimately into 2 David LloydGeorge Founded Ministry of Munitions Doesn t know a lot about eastern Europe If you weaken Germany too much it will empower its neighbors Thinks it s a bad idea Treaty of Versailles Big 3 US Germany Britain LloydGeorge Clemenceau and Wilson Article 231 Germany and allies accepted sole responsibility for starting the war Allies charged Germany for cost of war efforts League of Nations Wilson s supernatural organization Revolutions in Russia The Great War and the Romanovs 0 Russia and the War Economic issues Modernizing 0 Building factories and railroads etc Expanded faster than it should have Printed more money 0 Had to print in the US 0 Cheaper Agriculture 0 World s major wheat producer 0 Distribution system problems Inefficient system 0 Every time wheat changes hand prices grew Peasant give up selling Revolution started as rallies for bread Loss of confidence on the Czar Nicholas II failed to keep confidence of people 0 Czar was no longer in charge of as of April 1917 o The first Russian revolution April 1917 No enemies on the left Kerensky s slogan Anybody politically to the left are allies 0 Turned to Bolsheviks to defend him German plots 0 Arthur Zimmerman argues that we can weaken Russia further by taking the Bolsheviks Looking for advantage in Great War lt s Vl Lenin 0 Vladimir Lenin o The October Revolution November 1917 Civil War 19171922 0 Red and White Russians Red 0 Bolsheviks White 0 AntiBolsheviks Dictators like Lenin 0 Not willing to work with others 0 Restore traditions to Russia Green Peasant revolts against Bolsheviks o The Allies and the Russian Civil War 1918 Treaty of BrestLitovsk Sent forces to Siberia British American Japanese Allies supplied troops equipment Tried to make sure Bolsheviks did not stay in power 1922 Lenin in control of Russia Joseph Stalin 0 Traditional Transform Russia into something that can defend itself from Allies o Trotsky s call to expand is heard outside Russia Key Words Bolsheviks Social democrats Minority Marxist heretics Lenin was the leader Argues that a small group of revolutionaries should seize power and guild Russia through industrialization Shortcircuit industrialization Mensheviks Social democrats Majority Believe that it is inevitable for revolution Side with Cadets to turn Russia into Britain Grigory Rasputin Siberian Told Nicholas not to get into the war Told Czar to take personal command of army when entering the war Alexander Kerensky Social democrat Provisional government Make Russia into Britain Not what people wanted Decided to continue the war Killed government April Theses All power in Russia should go to newly formed workers councils Created in factories Soviets Not Bolsheviks Peace land and bread Soldiers want peace Most important Peasants want land Free Russian serfs No money to buy land Urban workers wanted bread Vl Lenin Vladimir Lenin Underground revolution activity April Theses Leon Trotsky Best intellectual theorist of revolution and practical organizer Hammer of industrial worker and sickle of agricultural worker are the people who own the nation Took former soviet soldiers and converted them into Bolsheviks Treaty of BrestLitovsk o rightwing extremism 1 Fascism in Italy Mussolini 2 Weimar and the culture of decadence 1 Hitler39s critique of Weimar o Hitler believes Ludendorf39s lie that Jews betrayed Germany c He is assigned to spy on the German Worker39s Party Leaves army and joins German Worker39s Party and adds the ideas of socialism to it Marx and Trotsky are Jewish Hitler hates communism C the Depression 1 economic collapse 0 It was better to burn money than to use it to buy coal 0 Hitler argues Germany should be the dominant power in the world 0 He says Weimar has gotten away from German culture which he thinks is the supreme culture race Says Germans are the master race Hitler attempts to overthrow Weimar government 0 Ludendorf is trying to overthrow Germany too 0 At Hitler39s trial for treason he only gets a couple years in prison because he39s right winged o Writes Mein Kampf Says people are sheep Outlines race ranks o 2006 Nicholas opposed by far right communist candidates and Trotsky candidate 0 Trotsky got 6 of vote 0 Nazis got 2 o Unemployment peaked at 40 0 Britain and France are unable to handle the unemployment 2 the end of liberal democracy 0 The argument is that you need to end democracy 0 People start listening to Hitler39s argument that the economy needs fixing 3 voting the Nazis into power 19281933 0 Nazi39s got 33 of the group o The government is hoping to deradicalize him and use his popularity to their gain 0 Hitler has an agenda and sticks to it D the Nazi state 193338 1 the Enabling act and dictatorship o A mentally challenged boy sets fire to a government building Somehow this ends up passing the Enabling Act which gives Hitler dictator authority 0 Begins taking steps to Nazify Germany Wants to bring every aspect of German life to Nazi control He wants to create the community in Germany which means he has to rid himself of certain allies 2 propaganda 0 Night of the Long Knives 0 Hitler other Nazis murder 1000 members of the Nazi party Gets spun that he just learned of the unsavory characteristics and had to do something about it 0 Why people liked him Nazism 0 Putting people back to work 0 KDF would let you buy a car 0 Economic success 0 Obviously at a cost 0 Nuremburg laws define who39s Jewish If you have two Jewish grandparents you39re Jewish If you practice the faith The Second World War part one A German expansion 19361939 What Hitler wants in 1936 the international business language to be German wants the mark to be the dominant currency wants Germans to be supreme o Wants to have power over all of Europe 0 He backs out of the treaty of Versailles 0 First major expansion 0 Sends German army in the Rhine Land 0 Hitler invades Germany He convinced the West that they could not fight Germany Charles Limburg visited the factories of Germany and concluded that nobody should fight them because nobody could possibly produce that many planes Hitler invades Austria 0 Austrians don39t fight back Fall of 1938 o Demands rim of Czechoslovakia 0 Claims there is a German minority there being repressed o Neville Chamberlain prime minister of UK Flies to Munich and agrees to give Sudan land to Hitler with the condition that Hitler wouldn39t do this anymore Hitler becomes furious Declares war with Czechoslovakia Chamberlain is talking peace but is telling Sedan to get ready for war 1 appeasement and aggression o Chamberlin dropped appeasement with Hitler c When Hitler demands Poland Chamberlain gives Poland their support 0 Hitler convinces the West that they are allied with France and you can39t attack Germany from the west 0 British French and Hitler court Stalin trying to get power 0 NaziSoviet pact says Hitler and Stalin aren39t allies but won39t attack each other 2 Stalin and Hitler 3 the fall of Poland and the wider war 0 Hitler claims the Polish were about to attack Germany when in reality they were preparing to defend themselves against an attack from Germany B Avoiding the twofront war 0 Blitzkrieg means to avoid the twofront war 0 Isolates his opponents and fight them in sequence rather than fight everyone at once 0 May of 1940 Hitler attacks France 1 the fall of France 0 The feeling of France at this point is quotWell who has Hitler actually beatenquot Now he39s fighting France Take the tanks behind France which is not what anyone expected France was defeated by their leadership They basically say better the Germans occupy us than having to deal with the demands of our workers 2 the battle of Britain 0 Germany wants to invade Britain 0 They know they need control of the channel 0 O O O 0 George VI thought the Nazis were ok before the war started Spent every day on the grounds of Buckingham palace practicing with his revolver Very good propaganda Germany needs control of the channel German air force is going to defeat the Britain navy but they have to defeat the British air force first Germany attacks the air fields 0 Killed British pilots faster than they could replace them but not enough planes to destroy their air force 0 British air force productions outnumber Germany 5 to 1 o Hitler goofs One of the bombers accidently bombs them Hitler attacks london 0 Britain squashes it Hitler stops with Britain and says ok we39re going after the Soviets C the big show war with the Soviets o Hitler is convinced that he39s going to die young and his successors won39t have the stomach to do what he will attack the soviets so they have to do it now 1 Barbarossa and the German plan 0 Operation Barbarossa is the plan to attack Germany 0 Don39t go at Russia from the West 0 Divide up into 3 groups and go after Russia 0 They catch the Soviets offguard 0 Germany tells Tokyo that they39re going to invade Russia and a soviet spy sends it to Russia 0 They took around 2 million prisoners of war 0 However Russia has much better tank technology 0 Russia has the resources that Germany doesn39t but maybe not the will to fight them 0 The Soviets were happy about it because Stalin was so terrible 2 the hinge of fate December 1941 o Soviets after brief panic Stalin who had disappeared comes back and brings in Georgi Zhukov and takes over the defense of Moscow 0 He is the only one who can say no to Stalin 0 They craft a plan 3 Soviet home front and battlefield 0 Hitler declares war on the US 0 To win the second world war Hitler just has to convince the Soviets that he39s better than Stalin c He doesn39t succeed c He feeds them less than they39re already getting under Stalin o The Soviet home front held together 0 1942 Germans try to take Soviet Georgia They failed 0 Hitler attacks Stalingrad Symbolic battle because it39s named after Stalin 0 They fought room by room 0 American aid arrives o LendLease is the American effort to supply our allies so they don39t have so many casualties They gave shovels for trenches War and Holocaust o ldea that Nazis are brutally efficient o In actuality they39re just brutal 0 France Denmark Belgium Poland allied 0 Germany didn39t make nearly as many air planes or tanks as the US allied powers Britain on the other hand had a brutally efficient home front 0 Part of the problem 0 Nazis didn39t always know who was telling them what to do A German mobilization and home front 1 confused bureaucratic structure 0 When it comes time to figure out how to allocate resources it was scattered o 4 year plan office wanted to rearm the German office secretly o The closest person who could allocate the resources shot himself after doing the math 0 Nazis did little to make the civilians stop producing civilian goods and start producing military goods 0 This is how America did it 0 Also America had more production power 0 1942 Nazis finally start making the effort to stop making civilian goods 0 Albert Speer is the head of this Speer used the SS to threaten factory workers who didn39t want to stop making civilian goods 0 Enthusiastically used the work camps O Speer expanded German production 35 x39s 0 He39s not only a cheerleader for continuing the war it39s his organizational techniques which allow the war to continue 0 He never got control for procurement of the SS 0 SS is the Nazi parties private army 0 Ex Albert Speer says you39re going to make x tanks but the factory goes and makes antiwar guns there was nothing which would monitor this 0 German homefront didn39t want a war 2 postponing war weariness 0 They mobilize the population to fight against the Bolsheviks and Americans 0 Hitler decides that Americans are the worst of all possible things 0 The most effective part of the propaganda that Hitler put out against America is the bombs 0 America dropped bombs on many civilians o The Eternal Jew is propaganda against Jews 0 The best way the postponed war weariness was to convince people that things will be very bad if America wins B The holocaust from separation to extermination First separates GermanJewish population then EuropeanJewish population Holocaust is the Hebrew word for burnt offering Hitler39s question was quotWhat do we do to remove Jewish culture from Germanyquot 0 He rewarded his subordinates for more and more radical ideas 0 Nuremburg laws is part of the separation phase 0 Hitler is terrified that he will die young and that he39ll die before quotanswering the Jewish questionquot 0 1941 first major step toward Jewish extermination the final solution The final solution 1 The einsatzgruppen Special purpose units 0 Not hardcore Nazis 0 Not hand picked Whoever they can scrape together 0 And yet they shot 3 million 0 At least half the Jews died this way In the Soviet Union it39s not surrender or die it39s surrender and die Seeing increasing psychological problems in the men who are committing the atrocities Heinrich Himmler is worried about how to readjust these men into society after the war 0 Army officers come together to figure out a new final solution 0 Adolf Eichmann commands the army who is responsible for policing the Jews 0 They look over the euthanasia reports Considered people unworthy of life 0 Mentally ill handicapped gays Jehovah witness etc 0 Rather than directly exterminating the Jews in mass 0 They separate the killing by taking Jews to concentration camps 2 The camps Anyone could end up in a camp for being an enemy of the state Auschwitz gassed at least a million people 0 Largest killed more people than any other 0 Had around 3000 people Treblinka had fewer than 40 survivors 0 At Treblinka there wasn39t even the hope of being worked to death you were just gassed o In 1944 they stop deportation to everywhere except Auschwitz and had the Jews worked to death primarily 3 Allied lack of response We did not intervene during WWII to stop the Holocaust Soviets were closest to the camps o Auschwitz was liberated by Soviets Joseph Stalin was almost as antiSemitic as Hitler Stalin denied the Nazis attacked the Jews he wanted it to be an attack on the Soviets It is also incorrect to assume that allied government didn39t know about it they did GermanJewish refuge in Switzerland sends a telegram to the American state department describing the final solution in detail 1984 there was an allied bombing raid on Auschwitz US had the technology but it wasn39t a priority Publication on the war didn39t focus on the Holocaust Said Germany was bad for invading their neighbors o Wallenberg saved tens of thousands of Jews by sheltering them in Swedish buildings C Endgame in Europe While Soviets were pouring every resource they had into Stalingrad Germany was split between fighting soviets and Jews American army moves much more effectively than Germans 1 the Ardennes and the Soviets Hitler turns his attention directly to the Soviets 0 Battle of the bulge 0 Defense of Bastone 0 American soldiers resisted the German advance 0 Americans sent word to the soviets a message asking them to move up their advance 0 The Soviets lost somewhere between 20 and 25 million people 0 America kept postponing when they would invade North Western Europe 0 In 1944 when we asked for aid from the Soviets they gave it to take pressure off of the allies World War lnto Cold War A The Asian connection 1 the race for the atomic bomb 2 race and war in the Pacific 3 the bomb and European politics B the origins of the Cold War in Europe 1 allies of convenience and the quotGerman Questionquot 0 From the Soviet perspective the allies only aided them because it was convenient o Allies lost very few 0 What do we do with Germany c What do we do with the Nazis Put high level Nazis on trial for crimes against humanity Strangely the British don39t want to do this 0 They simply wanted to execute them America believed that this would convince future people that they would be held personally responsible o What do you do with the midlevel guys 0 How do you separate the ones who joined the Nazi party to get ahead and who joined it because they genuinely like the Nazis The American perspective is that we don39t imprison the useful ones 0 The Russians took the approach if you are a Nazi you are finished 2 Elections and economic aid End of war doesn39t bring relief There39s no currency You would need a quintillion of the Hungarian currency to by a US dollar 0 Fall 1936 we held local elections Communists won them in France and Italy 0 Free elections in Western Europe 0 Voting for communism 0 George Marshal analyzes the situation in Europe and says this is remarkably similar to Germany in 1933 o Proposes European Economic Recovery Marshal Plan US spent 17 billion dollars to repair Europe39s economy 0 We need to trade with them Marshal39s argument is that the people of Europe will be less willing to communism Offer Marshal plan aid to soviet union 0 Joseph Stalin knew that the purpose was to make other countries look like the US 0 Franklin Roosevelt says the League of Nations was a good idea but it was weak Decides to set up a new council United Nations Supposed to be an agency that prevents war 0 The problem with the UN is that to get the security council working you have five countries who never leave France GB China and Russia 00 0 During the cold war if we didn39t veto something the soviet union did 0 1 country one vote pissed people off 3 the Berlin airlift 19481949 c 1947 Greek rebels fighting against Greek government 0 Government is basically a monarchy 0 Britain has mortgaged its empire twice during the wars 0 British quietly come to the Americans and suggest that they can39t support the Greek government anymore and they think they39re going to become communist c We are under the mentality that all communists or rebels is being supported by Stalin o Truman doctorate any legitimately elected government the US has your back If you39re a rebel group you39re on your own The US and Soviet Union unwilling to face each other directly 4 NATO and divided Germany c 1948 occupation zones in Germany c Stalin decided he wanted to get the allies out Stalin cut off access to Berlin 0 For 11 months Americans flew thousands of tons of products into Berlin a day The Berlin airlift Neither side likes or trusts each other Nuclear weapons causes a huge distrust between both sides and at the same time preserves the peace North Atlantic Treaty Decolonization A The dynamics of decolonization 0 Under the umbrella of the Cold War there is a movement in Asia and Africa to destroy the European empires that were built before 1 bankrupt Europe 0 0 Europe is broke Most of the major European governements didn39t have wealth needed to maintain the empire Most assumed getting an empire would make you rich but it39s the other way around you can have an empire if you39re rich By the end of WWI Britain went from being the biggest creditor to the biggest debtor France is the second largest empire and it39s in ruins Most of the European countries faced a choice 0 They could enact a series of social welfare programs o If we expect the population to sacrifice their lives the state owes them something 0 Faced with this choice Britain decided to give up the empire and focus on the lives of their people 0 Frantz Fanon tried to expose Europe39s moral bankruptcy o All Fanon has to do is point toward European behavior during their imperialization attempts For all the European claims of their Enlightenment anyone who contests it is dealt with brutally o Fanon argues that the occupied are at least as good if not better than the occupier o Fanon is brought a man having nightmares Fanon discovers it39s because he39s been torturing Algerian rebels 2 rising confidence among colonials 3 the Soviet complication 0 Without the Cold War the process of decolonization would have gone a little easier 0 After the war the US tried to set up an alliance with France 0 We backed the governments in Britain and France but not the soviets Made it look like we support the occupier o In addition to the pragmatic attraction to the Soviet Union there was an ideological attraction 0 However some were being occupied by the Soviet Union 4 the Chinese example 0 China had been carved up into spheres of influence 0 Mao Zedong 0 His mistakes caused more deaths than Joseph Stalin39s purges o 1949 soviet union detonated its first nuclear weapon 0 Mao wins Chinese civil war 0 Mao unifies China under a strong Chinese government 0 Up until the 50s the Chinese had been speaking in English at press conferences they start speaking in Mandarin which is to tell the world quotYou want to talk to the most populous country in the world you need to learn their languagequot B The details of decolonization 1 The British empire India 0 British decided in 1947 to let lndia go 0 There had been a long lndian independence movement 0 British liked the idea of castdriven government in India because Britain could sway it to get what they want 0 Mohandas Ghandi Ghandi embodies a radical rejection of the ideas of the West 0 Went to law school in the West Goes to British SouthAfrica and German EastAfrica At the British empire he is told to sit among the common laborers He starts taking the law cases of these laborers Decides that the direction he was going in his life was not productive Emerges as the uniter of British India Without violence confronts the ridiculousness of the British occupa on One day Ghandi stepped out of his door and 10000 people were there to see what he was doing 0 He goes to the shore picks up sea salt Says I39m going to go home and use this 0 He39s arrested because the British enforce that you must buy it from them 0 He has an aesthetic of suffering c He says you39re going to repeal this salt law or I won39t eat 0 Because he is so popular this is a threatening move to the British government 0 Show the violence necessary to keep up the system and you can destroy the system Despite being a devout Hindu Ghandi says that every religion was searching for the truth Ghandi has a vision of a decentralized rural almost agrarian India 0 This vision is not shared by Jawaharlal Neru o Neru wants a fusion of the modern world that is uniquely Indian 0 Mohammed Ali Jinnah 0 Islamic leader 0 Believes that if Ghandi and Neru gets their one vote democracy reality then the Islamic will be misrepresented o Jinnah39s Islam is a cultural identity not a radical idea 0 India39s Muslim population is interwoven with Hindu 0 British come up with a bad solution 0 They come up with new geography for India 0 This dislocates many Indian people Ghandi goes to Calcuda to stop the violence Says when the violence starts so does my hunger strike 0 The violence tapered off almost immediately Ghandi was assassinated a few months later by a Hindu fanatic 2 The French empire Indochina and Algeria 0 Have a pair of imperial possessions which they would fight to keep 0 The Japanese occupation of Indochina provoked US to cut off Japan39s oil which provoked Pearl Harbor 0 The best thing which happened to Mao was the Japanese invasion of Indochina which basically made Japan a target 0 Britain was going to get back whatever Japan had taken from them a getting the Americans involved America complicated trying to work with Ho Chi Minh instead of the French France threatened an alliance with the Soviets if we didn39t choose them The Vietnamese are given a choice either the Chinese can occupy you or it can be the French Vietnamese history is rich with their struggle with Chinese occupation Ho Chi Minh put it quotI39d rather eat French shit for the next 20 years instead of smell Chinese any longerquot o In 1954 French military went hunting Went into Vietnam to fight The problem was that Vietnam now felt ready to fight They laid siege to the French base We had been backhandedly funding the French at this point so we encouraged them to meet in Geneva but Vietnamese already defeated the French base Geneva accords said that by 1966 free and fair elections would take place in Vietnam Ho Chi Minh rebels against free and fair elections Dien 0 He39s got a lot of problems but he39s America39s guy 0 Americans start supporting the republic of Vietnam 0 Algeria Three way civil war 0 French government OAS FLN o Renewed scholarly interest in the battle of Algiers One of the generals resorted to torturing the captured Algiers because quotWhat if they know about the next bombingquot o Developments in European society had overtaken the idea of empire Discontent East and West Soviet evolution 0 Stalin had stroke in 1953 No one went to get him the next morning 0 Khrushchev s reforms Move to a system towards a deeppoliticized party Denounces crimes of Stalin purges Where was he during all this Hiding in the corner hoping Stalin didn t get mad at him Remove most prisoners of Gulag 1958 Caused confrontational policy with the west 0 Kennedy 0 Inherited plan to roll back communist domination of Cuba Castro 0 Equip Cuban exiles in Miami and takeover Castro o Threatened to cut Cuba off from the rest of the war by setting up a blockade 13 day standoff between Russian and American missiles Russians backed down 0 Bay of Pigs 1962 o Russians put shortrange missiles in Cuba Sputnik 1 0 Map earth better 0 The Soviets and their empire 1954 prepared to invade Iran for oil 0 Not what Red Army was for Warsaw Pact in 1955 lmre Nagy Dubcek Red army was not for western Europe 0 Used to show up own empire 1968 Brezhnev Doctrine 0 True believers were gone 0 Communism was a sham used for Soviet power Philosophical crisis 0 The existentialists Optimists JeanPaul Sartre Popular in the 1950s 0 de Beauvoir and the new wave of feminism implications in politics epinomics and things women do are devalued Women are borderline property Destigmatize things that are connected to women 0 The consumer revolution and its discontents o Massproduced youthoriented culture Blue jeans 0 American working pants Music 0 Jazz rock and roll hip hop 0 Started by black culture popularized by white culture 0 Started in America and found its way to Europe 0 The Beatles 0 Youth discontent o Antimusic and the seventies The Sex Pistols Key Terms Nikita Khrushchev 0 Chairman of Communist Party after Stalin s death 0 Alexander Solzhenitsyn 0 Published critic of Gulag system by someone who lived through it Inner brutality o Remained in Gulag until 1953 0 Uncut Stalinist idea 0 Cuban Missile Crisis lmre Nagy o Reform minded Communist in Hungary Wanted to withdraw from Warsaw Pact o Influenced by American broadcasts Rise up against Soviets Alexander Dubcek o 1968 elected president of Czech 0 Reach Marxist goals without oppression that is necessary Brezhnev Doctrine o Soviets have senior communist power in world 0 Have right to Warsaw Pact for ensure they keep power JeanPaul Sartre o Enlightenment ideals 0 Looking for a way to overcome brutality of history Away from substance thinking 0 What you are is what you do 0 No outside view 0 Your meaning is what you make of your life Your actions make you who you are To do is to be Simone de Beauvoir 0 Makes argument that women are seen as the second sex 0 What is a women Anyone who isn t a man 0 The Beatles 0 The Sex Pistols The end of the Cold War and the End of History A D tente and the end of the Cold War 1 Helsinki s impact 2 Afghanistan and the Red Army 0 Red Army had psychological damage after fighting red army Similar to vietnam o Soviet Union should have collapsed in the 70s but oil has kept them afloat 3 Gorbachev moves toward a thaw 0 Last leader of soviet union 0 Decided that if the su was going to survive they were going to need to reorient their economy 0 Has to reduce his military spending and reorient that money to consumerism To do this he has to make peace with the West 0 However Reagan pursued confrontation with SU o Reagan decided that Gorbachev was sincere o Reagan took heat for this because he had previously denounced the SU as an quotevil empirequot 0 In Poland the pope had been a truck driver in the army who cares B The collapse of the Soviet empire 1 the Baltic Solidarity a group of workers demanding more rights 0 Riots break out in Lithuania Hardliners in communist party tell Gorbachev to send the red army into Lithuania Gorbachev doesn39t do this but says they were no longer going to acknowledge their peace treaty 2 Germany c Became clear that SU was no longer going to support East Germany 0 Germany is one of the more powerful economies in Europe 3 Central Europe 0 The quotVelvet Revolutionquot There is a book that refers to people in the Czech Republic as Czechs and Slovaks The Czechs and Slovaks split peacefully after asking communists to step down The problem with the removal of soviet power 0 The Soviets tried to suppress postwar aggression like in the Balkans a The mess in the Balkans 0 You had Serbia and the Serbs outside Serbia Serbs outside Serbia started purifying everyone where they lived who were not Serbian The victims are called quotBosniacsquot o The Serbs turned on everyone C PostCold War triumphalism 1 the end of history and the last man a A lot of the pronouncements of American superiority had deep fear of quotWhat if we39re not rightquot


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