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phys295

phys295

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How Much Testosterone Is Necessary?




How Much Testosterone Is Necessary?




How Much Testosterone Is Necessary?



Chapter 4 Sexual Arousal and ResponseThe Brain and Sexual Arousal • Cerebral cortex (mental events) – Reasoning, language, and imagination • Limbic system and sexual behavior • Hypothalamus  • Neurotransmitters – Dopamine facilitates sexual arousal – Serotonin inhibits sexual arousalThe Limbic System and Sexual Behavior
We also discuss several other topics like appm 1350
We also discuss several other topics like siu automotive
ercontent.com/sxtRULfeR6-D06A1IpUHiD7eOEATOQGJj1Na4NEQgQR8LSllv9ZttZsavO7Nrj0ZiFRtuBSiJoZsKu9whoXEGf_9TvEiiADEU3HZt6NE52io3PxtnmRMS6c5TMr3A0ewpLCxQpIJ" style="width: 488.32px; height: 432.00px; margin-left: 0.00px; margin-top: 0.00px; transform: rotate(0.00rad) translateZ(0px); -webkit-transform: rotate(0.00rad) translateZ(0px);" title="">SMALL GROUP ACTIVITY Each group gets one sense Under your sense, describe things that can be arousing via that  senseThe Senses and Sexual Arousal • All sensory systems can contribute to arousal • Touch is the dominant “sexual sense” – Primary erogenous zones – Secondary erogenous zones • Vision usually next in dominance  – Visual stimuli • Men self-report higher arousal than  women • Women and men have similar  physiological responses Other Senses and Sexual Arousal • Smell may arouse or offend – Pheromones • Taste plays a minor role • Hearing plays a variable roleAphrodisiacs • Substances believed to arouse sexual desire or  increase capacity for sexual activity – Food – Drugs and alcohol – Yohimbine • No clear evidence of genuine aphrodisiac  qualities – Role of expectations  • Placebo effect • Sex aids?? – Viagra, Cialis, etc. – KYAnaphrodisiacs • Inhibits sexual behavior – Drugs (e.g. opiates, tranquilizers) – Antihypertensives, antidepressants & antipsychotics – Birth control pills – Nicotine  • Constricts blood flow • Possibly reduces circulating testosteroneThe Role of Hormones in Sexual  Behavior • Steroid hormones  – Androgens (including testosterone) • Produced by testes, adrenal glands, and ovaries – Estrogens • Produced by ovaries and testes – Women and men produce both types • Neuropeptide hormones – OxytocinSex Hormones in Male Sexual Behavior • Testosterone  – Linked to sexual desire and genital sensitivity – Castration leads to reduced sexual desire – Antiandrogen drugs • Reduce level of testosterone in the blood stream – Hypogonadism • Testosterone deficiency caused by certain diseases of the  endocrine systemSex Hormones in Female Sexual  Behavior • Estrogens – Overall link between estrogen and female sexual  behavior is unclear – Help produce lubrication – Estrogen Therapy (ET) • Testosterone – Role as major libido hormone in femalesHow Much Testosterone Is Necessary? • Two forms of testosterone (free and bound) – Free testosterone linked to libido – Although women have less free testosterone, their  cells are more sensitive to it than men’s • Too much testosterone is linked to adverse  effects • Testosterone levels decrease with age – Fairly rapid decrease for women at menopause;  more gradual decline for men • Testosterone Replacement TherapyOxytocin and Sexual Behavior • Secreted during cuddling and physical intimacy – Increased skin sensitivity – High levels associated with orgasmic release for  women and men – For women, stimulates contractions of uterine wall  during orgasmSexual ResponseSexual Response • Master’s and Johnson’s Four Phase Model – Phases of physiological responses – Two basic physiological processes • Vasocongestion – Increased blood flow to areas of sexual excitement • Myotonia – Increased muscle tension in body during sexual excitementSexual Response CycleFemale Sexual ResponseMale Sexual ResponseOrgasm • Shortest phase of sexual response cycle – Men and women’s subjective descriptions of orgasm  are similar – Most female orgasms result from stimulation of the  clitoris – Grafenberg spot • Area on lower front wall of vagina • Sensitive to pressure • Sometimes results in “ejaculation” – Do we need physical touch to reach orgasm?Locating the Grafenberg SpotSex Differences in Sexual Response  • Greater variability in female response • Male refractory period • Women can experience multiple orgasmsAging & Sexual Response Cycle • Older women – Response cycle continues, but with decreased  intensity  – Excitement: • Vaginal lubrication begins more slowly, reduced amount – Plateau: • decreased vagina flexibility – Orgasm: • number of uterine contractions decrease – Resolution: • occurs more rapidlyAging and the Sexual Response Cycle • Older men – Response cycle continues, with changes in intensity  and duration of response – Excitement: • lengthened time to erection – Plateau: • able to sustain plateau phase longer – Orgasm: • reduced muscular contractions and force of ejaculation – Resolution: • occurs more rapidly • refractory period lengthensAge-Related Changes  in the Sexual Response CycleChapter 4 Sexual Arousal and ResponseThe Brain and Sexual Arousal • Cerebral cortex (mental events) – Reasoning, language, and imagination • Limbic system and sexual behavior • Hypothalamus  • Neurotransmitters – Dopamine facilitates sexual arousal – Serotonin inhibits sexual arousalThe Limbic System and Sexual BehaviorSMALL GROUP ACTIVITY Each group gets one sense Under your sense, describe things that can be arousing via that  senseThe Senses and Sexual Arousal • All sensory systems can contribute to arousal • Touch is the dominant “sexual sense” – Primary erogenous zones – Secondary erogenous zones • Vision usually next in dominance  – Visual stimuli • Men self-report higher arousal than  women • Women and men have similar  physiological responses Other Senses and Sexual Arousal • Smell may arouse or offend – Pheromones • Taste plays a minor role • Hearing plays a variable roleAphrodisiacs • Substances believed to arouse sexual desire or  increase capacity for sexual activity – Food – Drugs and alcohol – Yohimbine • No clear evidence of genuine aphrodisiac  qualities – Role of expectations  • Placebo effect • Sex aids?? – Viagra, Cialis, etc. – KYAnaphrodisiacs • Inhibits sexual behavior – Drugs (e.g. opiates, tranquilizers) – Antihypertensives, antidepressants & antipsychotics – Birth control pills – Nicotine  • Constricts blood flow • Possibly reduces circulating testosteroneThe Role of Hormones in Sexual  Behavior • Steroid hormones  – Androgens (including testosterone) • Produced by testes, adrenal glands, and ovaries – Estrogens • Produced by ovaries and testes – Women and men produce both types • Neuropeptide hormones – OxytocinSex Hormones in Male Sexual Behavior • Testosterone  – Linked to sexual desire and genital sensitivity – Castration leads to reduced sexual desire – Antiandrogen drugs • Reduce level of testosterone in the blood stream – Hypogonadism • Testosterone deficiency caused by certain diseases of the  endocrine systemSex Hormones in Female Sexual  Behavior • Estrogens – Overall link between estrogen and female sexual  behavior is unclear – Help produce lubrication – Estrogen Therapy (ET) • Testosterone – Role as major libido hormone in femalesHow Much Testosterone Is Necessary? • Two forms of testosterone (free and bound) – Free testosterone linked to libido – Although women have less free testosterone, their  cells are more sensitive to it than men’s • Too much testosterone is linked to adverse  effects • Testosterone levels decrease with age – Fairly rapid decrease for women at menopause;  more gradual decline for men • Testosterone Replacement TherapyOxytocin and Sexual Behavior • Secreted during cuddling and physical intimacy – Increased skin sensitivity – High levels associated with orgasmic release for  women and men – For women, stimulates contractions of uterine wall  during orgasmSexual ResponseSexual Response • Master’s and Johnson’s Four Phase Model – Phases of physiological responses – Two basic physiological processes • Vasocongestion – Increased blood flow to areas of sexual excitement • Myotonia – Increased muscle tension in body during sexual excitementSexual Response CycleFemale Sexual ResponseMale Sexual ResponseOrgasm • Shortest phase of sexual response cycle – Men and women’s subjective descriptions of orgasm  are similar – Most female orgasms result from stimulation of the  clitoris – Grafenberg spot • Area on lower front wall of vagina • Sensitive to pressure • Sometimes results in “ejaculation” – Do we need physical touch to reach orgasm?Locating the Grafenberg SpotSex Differences in Sexual Response  • Greater variability in female response • Male refractory period • Women can experience multiple orgasmsAging & Sexual Response Cycle • Older women – Response cycle continues, but with decreased  intensity  – Excitement: • Vaginal lubrication begins more slowly, reduced amount – Plateau: • decreased vagina flexibility – Orgasm: • number of uterine contractions decrease – Resolution: • occurs more rapidlyAging and the Sexual Response Cycle • Older men – Response cycle continues, with changes in intensity  and duration of response – Excitement: • lengthened time to erection – Plateau: • able to sustain plateau phase longer – Orgasm: • reduced muscular contractions and force of ejaculation – Resolution: • occurs more rapidly • refractory period lengthensAge-Related Changes  in the Sexual Response CycleChapter 4 Sexual Arousal and ResponseThe Brain and Sexual Arousal • Cerebral cortex (mental events) – Reasoning, language, and imagination • Limbic system and sexual behavior • Hypothalamus  • Neurotransmitters – Dopamine facilitates sexual arousal – Serotonin inhibits sexual arousalThe Limbic System and Sexual BehaviorSMALL GROUP ACTIVITY Each group gets one sense Under your sense, describe things that can be arousing via that  senseThe Senses and Sexual Arousal • All sensory systems can contribute to arousal • Touch is the dominant “sexual sense” – Primary erogenous zones – Secondary erogenous zones • Vision usually next in dominance  – Visual stimuli • Men self-report higher arousal than  women • Women and men have similar  physiological responses Other Senses and Sexual Arousal • Smell may arouse or offend – Pheromones • Taste plays a minor role • Hearing plays a variable roleAphrodisiacs • Substances believed to arouse sexual desire or  increase capacity for sexual activity – Food – Drugs and alcohol – Yohimbine • No clear evidence of genuine aphrodisiac  qualities – Role of expectations  • Placebo effect • Sex aids?? – Viagra, Cialis, etc. – KYAnaphrodisiacs • Inhibits sexual behavior – Drugs (e.g. opiates, tranquilizers) – Antihypertensives, antidepressants & antipsychotics – Birth control pills – Nicotine  • Constricts blood flow • Possibly reduces circulating testosteroneThe Role of Hormones in Sexual  Behavior • Steroid hormones  – Androgens (including testosterone) • Produced by testes, adrenal glands, and ovaries – Estrogens • Produced by ovaries and testes – Women and men produce both types • Neuropeptide hormones – OxytocinSex Hormones in Male Sexual Behavior • Testosterone  – Linked to sexual desire and genital sensitivity – Castration leads to reduced sexual desire – Antiandrogen drugs • Reduce level of testosterone in the blood stream – Hypogonadism • Testosterone deficiency caused by certain diseases of the  endocrine systemSex Hormones in Female Sexual  Behavior • Estrogens – Overall link between estrogen and female sexual  behavior is unclear – Help produce lubrication – Estrogen Therapy (ET) • Testosterone – Role as major libido hormone in femalesHow Much Testosterone Is Necessary? • Two forms of testosterone (free and bound) – Free testosterone linked to libido – Although women have less free testosterone, their  cells are more sensitive to it than men’s • Too much testosterone is linked to adverse  effects • Testosterone levels decrease with age – Fairly rapid decrease for women at menopause;  more gradual decline for men • Testosterone Replacement TherapyOxytocin and Sexual Behavior • Secreted during cuddling and physical intimacy – Increased skin sensitivity – High levels associated with orgasmic release for  women and men – For women, stimulates contractions of uterine wall  during orgasmSexual ResponseSexual Response • Master’s and Johnson’s Four Phase Model – Phases of physiological responses – Two basic physiological processes • Vasocongestion – Increased blood flow to areas of sexual excitement • Myotonia – Increased muscle tension in body during sexual excitementSexual Response CycleFemale Sexual ResponseMale Sexual ResponseOrgasm • Shortest phase of sexual response cycle – Men and women’s subjective descriptions of orgasm  are similar – Most female orgasms result from stimulation of the  clitoris – Grafenberg spot • Area on lower front wall of vagina • Sensitive to pressure • Sometimes results in “ejaculation” – Do we need physical touch to reach orgasm?Locating the Grafenberg SpotSex Differences in Sexual Response  • Greater variability in female response • Male refractory period • Women can experience multiple orgasmsAging & Sexual Response Cycle • Older women – Response cycle continues, but with decreased  intensity  – Excitement: • Vaginal lubrication begins more slowly, reduced amount – Plateau: • decreased vagina flexibility – Orgasm: • number of uterine contractions decrease – Resolution: • occurs more rapidlyAging and the Sexual Response Cycle • Older men – Response cycle continues, with changes in intensity  and duration of response – Excitement: • lengthened time to erection – Plateau: • able to sustain plateau phase longer – Orgasm: • reduced muscular contractions and force of ejaculation – Resolution: • occurs more rapidly • refractory period lengthensAge-Related Changes  in the Sexual Response CycleChapter 4 Sexual Arousal and ResponseThe Brain and Sexual Arousal • Cerebral cortex (mental events) – Reasoning, language, and imagination • Limbic system and sexual behavior • Hypothalamus  • Neurotransmitters – Dopamine facilitates sexual arousal – Serotonin inhibits sexual arousalThe Limbic System and Sexual BehaviorSMALL GROUP ACTIVITY Each group gets one sense Under your sense, describe things that can be arousing via that  senseThe Senses and Sexual Arousal • All sensory systems can contribute to arousal • Touch is the dominant “sexual sense” – Primary erogenous zones – Secondary erogenous zones • Vision usually next in dominance  – Visual stimuli • Men self-report higher arousal than  women • Women and men have similar  physiological responses Other Senses and Sexual Arousal • Smell may arouse or offend – Pheromones • Taste plays a minor role • Hearing plays a variable roleAphrodisiacs • Substances believed to arouse sexual desire or  increase capacity for sexual activity – Food – Drugs and alcohol – Yohimbine • No clear evidence of genuine aphrodisiac  qualities – Role of expectations  • Placebo effect • Sex aids?? – Viagra, Cialis, etc. – KYAnaphrodisiacs • Inhibits sexual behavior – Drugs (e.g. opiates, tranquilizers) – Antihypertensives, antidepressants & antipsychotics – Birth control pills – Nicotine  • Constricts blood flow • Possibly reduces circulating testosterone

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