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Midterm 1 _ POLS 203

by: Seong Yong Park

Midterm 1 _ POLS 203 POL S 203

Seong Yong Park
Intro to International Relations

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I have a lot written on the study guide because if you know much you can write much on the essay part even if you forget some part. It'd be wise if you skim through it couple of times and write th...
Intro to International Relations
Study Guide
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This 20 page Study Guide was uploaded by Seong Yong Park on Friday April 24, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to POL S 203 at University of Washington taught by Caporaso in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 145 views. For similar materials see Intro to International Relations in Political Science at University of Washington.

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Date Created: 04/24/15
The ones that are written in red were on the exam A good way to ace the exams is that you give a brief definition about the term and relate that term with another term or something you learned from the class definition and significance Waltz was the founder of neorealism didn t talk about peripheries Mearshiemer used Waltz s idea and twisted it and developed it Unipolar MomentKrauthammer the reason why unipolar is more stable than bipolar system It didn t actually indicate whether it s more stable The article mainly clarify the misconceptions of Unipolar or multipolar Restore internationalist foreign policy against isolationism and the diminishing of threat nationstates states that have one culture and so on like Japan and Germany what we know nationstate system international system US is not technically a nationstate but US and Frence uses nation state system Q What does it mean by unitcentered How does it differ from systemic systemic level of analysis uses unitcentered analogy to convey their theory unitactor liberalismmany actorsunitcentered realismone actorstatessystemic Q 2 Why don39t the strong gobble up the weak Why does the number of states increase over time 51 signed UN Charter 1945 193 with S Sudan today The territorial integrity norm weak states surrounded by the strong persist An emerging territorial integrity norm realists might lower security spread out o liberalists institutions like UN create mechanisms for peace facilitate discussion talk it out nations want to develope their own states 00 Liberals point to Japan Since 1945 Japan has taken the economic path 2nd to 3rd largest economy The Cold War is over and Japan won C Johnson WHY do liberalists point to Japan and Germany What are they trying to say 0 economic market interactions with western economy IMF and etc 0 japan didnt really have a choice but liberalists would say does it matter it worked 0 Levels of trade 0 Foreign direct investment 0 States cooperate in many areas from security to food standards to crime control Review of Terms Week 1 1 anarchy absence of government and absolute freedom of the individual regarded as a political ideal Anarchic systemtextbook A realist description of the international system that suggests there is no common power or central governing structure significance weakens trust fosters security dilemma prevents cooperation 2 sovereignty supreme power or authority a selfgoverning state Textbook The condition of a state having control and authority over its own territory and being free from any higher legal authority It is related to but distinct from the condition of a government being free from any external political constraints 3legal monopoly of violence Max Weber claims that the state is any quothuman community that successfully claims the monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force within a given territoryquot thus quotthe modern state is a compulsory association which organizes dominationquotln other words Weber describes the state as any organization that succeeds in holding the exclusive right to use threaten or authorize physical force against residents of its territory Such a monopoly according to Weber must occur via a process of legitimation when there is a civil war the people causing civil war don t think the state is not legally allowed to use the violence because they are not following some rules 4 state an organized community living under one government States may be sovereign The term state is also applied to federated states that are members of a federal union which is the sovereidn state Some states are subject to external sovereidntv or hedemonv where ultimate sovereignty lies in another state The state can also be used to refer to the secular branches of government within a state often as a manner of contrasting them with churches and civilian institutions Textbook A legal territorial entity composed of a stable population and a government it possesses a monopoly over the legitimate use of force its sovereignty is recognized by other states in the international system 5 the nationstate system while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state refers properly to states in which a single nation is dominant such as Portugal or Ireland A nation state may at the same time be a federal state as for instance the Federal Republic of Germany and the United States of America Textbooknationstate A political community in which the state claims legitimacy on the grounds that it represents all citizens including those who may identify as a separate community or nation I think the above definitions are for nationstate not nationstate system The definition of nationstate system found online is the pattern of political life in which people are separately organized into sovereign states that interact with one another in varying degrees and in varying waysquot 6nationalism Societal Level of Analysis Bear a belief creed or political ideology that involves an individual identifying with or becoming attached to one39s nation Textbook The idea that the world is divided into nations that provide the overriding focus of political identity and loyalty which in turn should be the basis for defining the population of states Nationalism also can refer to this idea in the form of a strong sense of identitysentiment or organizations and movements seeking to realize this idea politics 7 liberalism Its roots lie in the broader liberal thought originating in the Enlightenment The central issues that it seeks to address are the problems of achieving lasting peace and cooperation in international relations and the various methods that could contribute to their achievement Textbook A theory that argues for human rights parliamentary democracy and free tradewhile also maintaining that all such goals must begin within a state 8 realism is a tradition of international theory centered upon four propositions o The international system is anarchic 0 There is no actor above states capable of regulating their interactions states must arrive at relations with other states on their own rather than it being dictated to them by some higher controlling entity 0 The international system exists in a state of constant antagonism see international anarchv 0 States are the most important actors o All states within the system are unitary rational actors 0 States tend to pursue selfinterest 0 Groups strive to attain as many resources as possible see relative ain o The primary concern of all states is survival 0 States build up military to survive which may lead to a security Mew In summary realists think that humankind is not inherently benevolent but rather self centered and competitive This perspective which is shared by theorists such as Thomas Hobbes views human nature as egocentric not necessarily selfish and conflictual unless there exist conditions under which humans may coexist It is also disposed of the notion that an individual39s intuitive nature is made up of anarchy In regards to selfinterest these individuals are selfreliant and are motivated in seeking more power They are also believed to be fearful This view contrasts with the approach of liberalism to international relations Textbook A theory that analyzes all international relations as the relation of states engaged in the pursuit of power Realists see the international system as anarchic or without a common power and they believe conflict is endemic in the international system 9 bipolarity a distribution of power in which two states have the majority of economic military and cultural influence internationally or regionally Often spheres of influence would develop For example in the Cold War most Western and capitalist states would fall under the influence of the USA while most Communist states would fall under the influence of the USSR After this the two powers will normally maneuver for the support of the unclaimed areas Textbook An international political order in which two states dominate all others It is often used to describe the nature of the international system when the two superpowers the Soviet Union and the United States were dominant powers during the Cold War 10 multipolarity a distribution of power in which more than two nationstates have nearly equal amounts of military cultural and economic influence httpenwikipediaorgwikiPolarityi nternationalreationsBipolarity 11unipolarity in international politics is a distribution of power in which one state exercises most of the cultural economic and military influence absence of peripheral parties smaller states supporting bigger states makes unipolar more unstable Read some Waltz to understand more 12 power Modern discourse generally speaks in terms of state power indicating both economic and military power Those states that have significant amounts of power within the international system are referred to as middle powers redional powers great powers suoerpowers or hedemons although there is no commonly accepted standard for what defines a powerful state The Q the E and the are seen as forum of governments that exercise varying degrees of influence within the international system httpenwikipediaorowikiPower international relations Textbook This is a contested concept Joseph Nye 2011 states that power is the capacity to do things and in social and political situations to affect others to get the outcome one wants Sources of power include material or tangible resources and control over meaning or ideas 13 distribution of power Systemic Level of Analysis a distribution and opposition of forces among nations such that no single nation is strong enough to assert its will or dominate all the others review 7375 14 security dilemma also referred to as the spiral model is a term used in international relations and refers to a situation in which actions by a state intended to heighten its security such as increasing its military strength or making alliances can lead other states to respond with similar measures producing increased tensions that create conflict even when no side really desires it Textbook In an anarchic international system one with no common central power when one state seeks to improve its security it creates insecurity in other states 15 citizenship distinguish from nationality Nationality differs technically and legally from citizenship which is a different legal relationship between a person and a country The noun national can include both citizens and non citizens The most common distinguishing feature of citizenship is that citizens have the right to participate in the political life of the state such as by voting or standing for election However in most modern countries all nationals are citizens of the state and full citizens are always nationals of the state Nationality vs citizenship Nationality is legally a distinct concept from citizenship Conceptually citizenship is focused on the internal political life of the state and nationality is a matter of international dealings In the modern era the concept of full citizenship encompasses not only active political rights but full civil rights and social rights Nationality is a necessary but not sufficient condition to exercise full political rights within a state or other polity mNationality is required for full citizenship and some people have nationality without having full citizenship A person who is denied full rights is called commonly called a secondclass citizen formal vs informal membership Review of Terms Week 2 1 nationalism and nations nationalism a belief creed or political ideology that involves an individual identifying with or becoming attached to one39s nation Nationalism involves national identity by contrast with the related construct of patriotism which involves the social conditioning and personal behaviors that support a state39s decisions and actions nationalismtextbook The idea that the world is divided into nations that provide the overriding focus of political identity and loyalty which in turn should be the basis for defining the population of states Nationalism also can refer to this idea in the form of a strong sense of identity sentiment or organizations and movements seeking to realize this idea politics nationstextbook A community of people who share a common sense of identity which may be derived from language culture or ethnicity this community may be a minority within a single country or live in more than one country 2 national stereotypes Individual Level of Analysis Cognitive Theory 3Munich analogy appeasement1938 realists would use this to support their theory At the Munich Conference of 1938 France and England followed a policy of appeasement toward Adolf Hitler choosing not to challenge him on his takgwel of Qzechoslovakia in the hope that German aggression toward neighboring states would stop there and that war in Europe could be averted The failure of this appeasement approach in preventing the outbreak of World War II subsequently made the Munich agreement a metaphor for weakness in foreign policy and the quotlessonquot of the Munich Conference has permeated the American political world ever since The Munich analogy has not only been used consistently in American presidential and governmental rhetoric but has also affected foreign policy decisions at crucial moments in US history Presidents from Franklin D Roosevelt to George H W Bush from the 1940s to the 1980s have used the example of Munich as a warning to the public about the inherent dangers of appeasing aggressors diaspora This has to with the nationalism because some nationalism ideas could cause a war and this is one of them Simple definition the dispersion of any people from their original homeland Tianshu a scattered population with a common origin in a smaller geographic area Diaspora can also refer to the movement of the population from its original homeland Diaspora has come to refer particularly to historical mass dispersions of an involuntary nature such as the emulsion of Jews from Judea the African TransAtlantic slave trade Europeans from north western Europe the southern Chinese or Hindus of South Asia during the coolie trade or the centurylong exile of the Messenians under Spartan rule Recently scholars have distinguished between different kinds of diaspora based on its causes such as imperialism trade or labor migrations or by the kind of social coherence within the diaspora community and its ties to the ancestral lands Some diaspora communities maintain strong political ties with their homeland Other qualities that may be typical of many diasporas are thoughts of return relationships with other communities in the diaspora and lack of full integration into the host country unitary rational actor Realists thought advocates that a state should not be dependent on another state by any means thus it becomes a Unitary rational unit examples could be derived from the time of Industrial revolution ie Britain France Spain required raw material to run their industries effectively however since they did not want to depend on each other because they were bitter enemies and competitors in race to power they headed in different directions to seek the raw material Realism basically is a zerosum game If it is good for me it is bad for you Liberalism on the other hand promotes mutual cooperation in order to achieve goals so interdependence does occur and hence the nations cannot be considered as unitary 6irredentism or irredentist movement Societal Level of Analysis is any position advocating annexation of territories administered by another state on the grounds of common ethnicity or prior historical possession actual or alleged Some of these movements are also called pannationalist movements 7 national selfdetermination came up during the Treaty of Versailles 1919 to solve the problem of colonies nations based on respect for the principle of equal rights and fair equality of opportunity have the right to freely choose their sovereignty and international political status with no external compulsion or interference quotAll peoples have the right of selfdetermination By virtue of that right they freely determine their political status and freely pursue their economic social and cultural developmentquot from UN Charter Textbook The right or desire of distinct national groups to become states and rule themselves 8 Vietnam and quagmire image The US intervened the Vietnam War because if Vietnam was to be taken over by the Communists the whole South Asia region would go into Communists hand The US lost 47000 young soldiers and a lot of money during the Vietnam War And US did not win Quagmire Digging yourself deeper in a desperate situation point of no return If we stop backing south Vietnam now then all the prior resources poured onto them was a waste 9ingroups and outgroups an ingroup is a social group to which a person psychologically identifies as being a member By contrast an outgroup is a social group with which an individual does not identify For example people may find it psychologically meaningful to view themselves according to their culture genderme or religion It has been found that the psychological membership of social groups and categories is associated with a wide variety of phenomena 10citizens the status of a person recognized under the custom or aw of a m that bestows on that person called a citizen the rights and the duties of citizenship That may include the right to vote work and live in the country the right to return to the country the right to own real estate legal protections against the country39s government and protection through the military or diplomacy A citizen may also be subject to certain duties such as a duty to follow the country39s law to pay taxes or to serve in the military A person may have multiple citizenships and a person who does not have citizenship of any state is said to be stateless Review of Terms Week 3 1systemic level of analysis NeorealistsKenneth Waltz support it The systemic level of analysis explains outcomes from a system wide level that includes all states It takes into account both the position of states in the international system and their interrelationships The position of states constitutes the systemic structural level of analysis This involves the relative distribution of power such as which state great middle or small power and geopolitics such as which state is sea or land power The interaction of states constitutes the systemic process level of analysis At this level we are concerned with which state aligns with which other states and which state negotiates with which other states Thus we can explain World War I in terms of the absence of system wide institutionsanarchy such as League of Nations which was not created until after World War I to prevent such wars in the future However system wide institution does not always mean harmony among nations as seen in the World War II The cause of World War II is seen as the failure of a systemic institution which led new institutions of the United Nations to carry on reformed legacy of the League of Nations Liberals on the other hand believe that anarchy forces states to create rules and develop regimes or governing arrangements aimed at encouraging cooperation and multilateralism Today many liberals focus on more effective global governance across policy areas As the world has learned with the very recent global economic crisis rules and regulations that govern all markets are indeed essential bipolarity multipolarity unipolarity Warsaw Treaty Organization alliance set up under a mutual defense treaty signed in Warsaw Poland in 1955 during Cold War by Albania Bulgaria Czechoslovakia East Germany Hungary Poland Romania and the Soviet Union Communist States The organization was the Soviet bloc39s equivalent of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization Initiated as an alliance made necessary by the remilitarization of West Germany under the Paris Pacts of 1954 the treaty was binding for 20 years but would lapse in the event of a general European collective security treaty North Atlantic Treaty Organization NATO an intergovernmental militarv alliance based on the North Atlantic Treaty which was signed on 4 April 1949 The organization constitutes a system of collective defence whereby its member states agree to mutual defense in response to an attack by any external party NATO39s headquarters are in Brussels Belgium one of the 28 member states across North America and Europe the newest of which Albania and Croatia joined in April 2009 An additional 22 countries participate in NATO39s Partnership for Peace program with 15 other countries involved in institutionalized dialogue programs The combined military spending of all NATO members constitutes over 70 percent of the global total Members39 defense spending is supposed to amount to 2 percent of E NATO was little more than a political association until the Korean War galvanized the organization39s member states and an integrated military structure was built up under the direction of two US supreme commanders The course of the Coi M led to a rivalry with nations of the Warsaw Pact which formed in 1955 Doubts over the strength of the relationship between the European states and the United States ebbed and flowed along with doubts over the credibility of the NATO defence against a prospective Soviet invasion doubts that led to the development of the independent French nuclear deterrent and the withdrawal of the French from NATO39s military structure in 1966 for 30 years After the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 the organization was drawn into the breakup of Yugoslavia and conducted its first military interventions in Bosnia from 1992 to g and later Yuoioslavia in 1999 Politically the organization sought better relations with former Warsaw Pact countries several of which joined the alliance in 1999 and 2004 Council of Mutual Economic Assistance CMEA an economic organization from 1949 to 1991 under the leadership of the Soviet Union that comprised the countries of the Eastern Bloc along with a number of socialist states elsewhere in the world The Comecon was the Eastern Bloc39s reply to the formation of the Organization for Eur0pean Economic CoOperationOEEClater OECD1948 in Western Europe European Economic CommunityEEC an international organization created by the Treatv of Home of 1957m Its aim was to bring about economic integration including a common market among its six founding members BeldiumFrance Italy Luxembourg the Netherlands and West Germanv The EEC was also known as the Common Market in the Englishspeaking world and sometimes referred to as the European Community even before it was officially renamed as such in 1993 the Long Peace the failure of realism The Long Peace is a term for the historical period following the end of World War II in 1945 This period of Cold War 1945 1991 was marked by the absence of major wars between the great powers of the period the USA and the USSRszw Following the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 and the rise of China as a major power there followed two decades of continued absence of direct conflict between major states though lesser military conflicts occurred A phrase meant to express the length of the peace in Europe since 1945 is quotIt has been 2000 years since an army has not crossed the Rhine for so long a timequot It is speculated that the obvious political errors leading to World War and World War II with their consequent horrors and thereafter the acquisition of thermonuclear weapons by the opposing powers exerted a restraining influence on the leaderships of the major powers 10arms race WW1 naval arms races Nuclear arms races and during the Cold War a competition between two or more parties to have the best armed forces Each party competes to produce larger numbers of weapons greater armies or superior militarv technoloqv in a technoloqical escalation International conflict specialist Theresa Clair Smith defines the term as quotthe participation of two or more nationstates in apparently competitive or interactive increases in quantity or quality of war material andor persons under armsquot Nowadays the term is mostly used to describe any competition where there is no absolute goal only the relative goal of staying ahead of the other competitors essentially the goal of proving to be quotbetterquot 11lntegration race EEC vs CMEA I think this is referring to these economic organizations that competed to have individual states join their economic pact ECC for the UN CMEA for the Sovietstheir allies 12Absence of peripheries According to Kenneth Waltz there are no grey areas and each state knows who their enemies are in a bipolar system Waltz has it listed as one of the four factors conjoined to encourage the limitation of violence in the relations of states 13 why we will soon miss the Cold War John Mearsheimer Distribution and character of military power among states are the root causes of war and peace seperate paper 14 The Thucydides trap China vs US a rising power rivals a ruling power as Athens did in 5th century BC and Germany did at the end of the 19th century Most such challenges have ended in war Peaceful cases required huge adjustments in the attitudes and actions of the governments and the societies of both countries involvedquot Thucydides described this natural process regarding Athens and Sparta as a combination of rise and fear which inevitably leads to war Why we will soon miss the Cold War We will lament the loss of order the Cold War gave to anarchy of international relations Untamed anarchy is a prime cause of armed con ict The prospect of major crises and wars in Europe is likely to increase dramatically now that the Cold War is receding through history Distribution and character of military power among states are the root causes of war and peace The peace in Europe since 1945 is due to 1 The bipolar distribution of military power on the continent 2 The rough military equality between the polar powers the US and USSR 3 The ritualistically deplored fact that each of these superpowers is armed with a large nuclear arsenal The new Europe will involve multi polar distribution of power which was plagued with war from the founding of the European State system Post war era more peaceful due to the multi polar distribution of power in Europe and the imbalance of strength that often developed among the great powers as they jostled for supremacy or advantage A bipolar system is more peaceful because they demand allegiance from minor powers which are secure from each other as well as from the attack by the rival great power Deterrence is difficult to maintain in a multi polar state system because when power asymmetries develop the strong become hard to deter A major power might simply bully a weaker power in a one on one encounter which is unknown in a bipolar state The resolve of opposing states and the size and strength of opposing coalitions are hard to calculate because the shape of international order to remain in ux The aggressors can coerce others by bluffing war The size of the gap in military power between two leading states in the system is a key determinant of stability Small gaps foster peace large gaps promote war Nuclear weapons are a powerful force for peace States that possess nuclear deterrents can stand up to one another The single greatest domestic threat to peace is hypernationalism Bipolarity an equal balance of military power and nukes are the key to elements for the long peace Without nukes Europe would have crisis tension and possibly war USSR and unified Germany would be the most powerful states Europe would be disturbed by hypernationalism A scenario in which current ownership continues without proliferation seems very unlikely The Germans will eventually look to nuclear weapons as the surest means of security The most probable scenario is further nuclear proliferation in Europe Well managed proliferation could help bolster peace By increasing the number of fingers on the nuclear trigger proliferation would increase the risk that nuclear weapons would be fired by accident or captured by terrorists or used by madmen The best time for nuclear proliferation to occur would be during a time of relative international calm Obsolescence of war theorv posits that modern conventional war had become do deadly by 1945 as to be unthinkable as an instrument of state craft The fact that WWII occurred casts doubts on this theory The key aw is the assumption that all conventional wars will be long and bloody wars of attrition There is no systematic evidence that Europeans believe war is obsolete Prosperity will make for peace unified European Market This scenario is based on economic liberalism which assumes that states are primarily motivated by the desire to achieve prosperity and that leaders place the material welfare of their publics above all other considerations including security Stability ows from creation of a liberal economic order A liberal economic order requires significant political cooperation to make states richer It fosters economic interdependence When interdependence is high there is less temptation to cheat or behave aggressively toward other states because all states can retaliate economically This theory has one grave aw states operate in both an international political and international economic environment and the former dominates the latter when the two systems come into con ict When security is scarce states become more concerned with relative than absolute gains In times of crisis or war states that depend on others for economic critical supplies will fear cutoff or blackmail They may respond by trying to seize the source of supply by force of arms The cold war was the prime cause of cooperation among western democracies and the main reason intra EC relations have ourished Without a common soviet threat or an American night watchman western European states will look upon one another with abiding suspicion War is avoided under the peace loving democracies theory because liberal democracies simply do not fight one another In a democracy the citizens are more hesitant to start trouble because it is they who must pay the price Citizens of a liberal democracy respect popular democratic rights and democratic governments are viewed as or legitimate than others The west has an interest in maintaining the cold war order and has an interest in continuing the cold war confrontation The fate of the cold war is mainly in the hands of the Soviet Union How to maintain peace in a multipolar Europe 1 US should encourage the limited and carefully managed proliferation of nuclear weapons in Europe 2 Britain and the US and continental state will have to counter any emerging aggressor actively and efficiently in order to offset the hanging up and bullying that are sure to arise in post cold war Europe Both states must maintain military forces that can be deployed against continental states that threaten to start a war 3 A concerted effort should be made to keep hypernationalism at bay States that teach a dishonestly selfexculpating or selfglorifying history should be publicly punished and sanctioned why we will soon miss the cold war the stability of a bipolar world nationalism gt


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