TOP TEN Chapter Five 1. Qualitative vs. quantitative measures/data (and examples of each) Qual: data collected with use of narrative observations ∙ Story/ interview Quan: numerical data ∙ Statistics 2. 4 levels of measurement and examples of questions for each ∙ nominal datDon't forget about the age old question of todd palmer uf
Don't forget about the age old question of According to the social psychologist Elliot Aronson, "People who do crazy things are not necessarily crazy." What does this mean?
We also discuss several other topics like _____ is a price tactic that charges freight costs from a given point, regardless of the city from which the goods are shipped.
Don't forget about the age old question of canvas jmu
Don't forget about the age old question of martin block uva
We also discuss several other topics like kin 2501 lsu
a into categories that are mutually exclusive o what is your sex? (M/F/T) ∙ ordinal – categories, mutually exclusive & exhaustive, rank order – cant measure o how do you describe your level of satisfaction? (not, satisfied, very) ∙ interval – same as ordinal except you can measure it o temperature of the day ∙ ratio – including all but also contains an absolute zero o how much insulin do you take? o Grade of a test / score 3. Reliability (4 types) ∙ Internal consistency ∙ Testretest (stability) reliability ∙ Rater reliability ∙ Parallel forms reliability 4. Validity (4 major types) ∙ Face: appears to measure what is suppose to be measured ∙ Content: items are a representative sample of the content being addressed ∙ Criterionrelated: scores correlated with other measurement of behavior/ performance ∙ Construct: measure correlates with other as expected o Convergent = should correlate o Discriminant = should not correlate 5. Fairness ∙ Measure is appropriate for the individuals of various ethnic groups with different backgrounds, genders and educational levels ∙ To insure fairness, have an understanding for priority population 6. What is bias and how can a planner/evaluator limit bias? ∙ Distorted data HPEB 300, Dr. Winningham Page 1∙ Can be limited by altering the way the data is collected 7. What are the steps in evaluating an existing instrument? 1. Identifying measurement instruments 2. Getting your hands on the instrument 3. (identify) Is it the right instrument? Psychometric qualities? Used with similar participants? Standard or normative scores? Culturally appropriate? Reading level? Cost to use? 4. Final steps before proceeding. (specifics) Permission? Other conditions? 8. Define and distinguish between probability sample and nonprobability sample. Name and describe sampling procedures for each. ∙ Probability: o All elements of survey population have equal change of being selected Random sample Systematic (constant interval) matrix ∙ Nonprobability o All elements do NOT have an equal chance of being selected. Participants can be included due to possession of a certain characteristic Convenience Homogeneous quota 9. What are the ethical issues associated with measurement? ∙ Voluntary participation should not be coerced ∙ Right to discontinue participation ∙ Private data must be protected ∙ Illegal acts during data collection ∙ Reporting of results 10. Definitions: Demographics ∙ psychometric qualities ∙ instrument shows reliability, validity, and fairness psychosocial characteristics ∙ sensitivity ∙ those with (true positive) HPEB 300, Dr. Winningham Page 2specificity ∙ those without (true negatives) survey instruments ∙ scale ∙ Likert scale ∙ less structured, but still close ∙ scale (SA A N D SD) and multiple choice questions with an ''other'' option Sample ∙ group (some) of the participants pilot test ∙ set of procedures used by planners/ evaluators to try out various processes during program development on a small group of subjects prior to actual use/implementation ∙ A representative sample of the priority population is used to determine the quality of the instrument. cultural competence ∙ a set of values, principles, behaviors, attitudes, and policies that enable health professionals to work effectively across racial, ethnic, and linguistically diverse populations TOP TEN Chapter SIX 1. What is a vision statement? ∙ States where the program will be in the future 2. What is a mission statement? And how does it differ from a vision statement? ∙ A program overview, written based off of a vision statement 3. What are the vision statements for the CDC and Healthy People 2020? CDC: “Health protection.. health equality” Healthy ppl 2020: “A society in which all people live long, healthy lives.” 4. Define goals and objectives and distinguish between the two. ∙ Goals: used to explain the general intent of a program ∙ Objectives: written in measurable terms and are more precise details of the goals 5. List and describe the different levels of objectives. Be able to identify examples of each. ∙ Process HPEB 300, Dr. Winningham Page 3o Daily activities. The Project planners do this to accomplish other levels ∙ Impact o Changes in KASBE Learning (KAS) (knowledge / attitude/ skill) Behavioral (B) Environmental (E) 6. List and describe the characteristics of a SMART objective. ∙ S specific ∙ M measurable ∙ A achievable ∙ T time phased 7. State and describe the 4 necessary elements of an objective. ∙ Who (is going to do) project planners / priority population ∙ What outcome ∙ (by) When conditions ∙ (and to) What Extent? criterion 8. Be able to identify the “WHO, WHAT, WHEN, and HOW MUCH/WHAT EXTENT” of a written objective. 9. Briefly explain the Healthy People Initiative. ∙ Establishes priorities and set goals to improve the health of americans. Priorities, goals and an outline of how to reach those goals are developed cooperatively with local state and federal agencies. ∙ Blueprint using 10 yr plan and evaluated at 5 years ∙ Each set becomes more detail than the previous 10. Describe the connection between MAPIT and Healthy People 2020. ∙ MAPIT stands for mobilize, assess, plan, implement, and track. ∙ The developers of Healthy People 2020 felt that the best way to achieve the goals would be to implement the national objectives with the framework referred to as MAPIT. TOP TEN Chapter SEVEN 1. Define : Theory ∙ Predict/ explain Model ∙ Pieces of the theory to predict/ explain Concept ∙ An idea HPEB 300, Dr. Winningham Page 4 Construct ∙ A concept added to a specific theory Variable: ∙ Operation form of construct: how a construct will be measured 2. List 6 ways that theories can be helpful to program planners. What is the primary focus of behavior change theories? Define and differentiate the three levels of influence. 1. Identifying why people are not behaving in healthy ways. 2. Identifying information needed before developing an intervention. 3. Providing a framework for selecting constructs to develop the intervention. 4. Providing direction and justification for program activities. 5. Providing insights into how best to deliver the intervention. 6. Identifying what needs to be measured to evaluate the impact of the intervention. ∙ INTRApersonal Beliefs, self concept o SRT o TRA/ TPB o HBM o TTM o PMT o PAMP o IMB ∙ INTERpersonal btwn us and the environment o Social cognitive theory (SCT) o Social network theory (SNT) ∙ Community 3. For the Stimulus Response Theory: 1. What is the level of influence? o INTRA 2. What are the key constructs? o stimulus response consequence 3. What does this theory suggest about increasing/decreasing behavior? o You can either reinforce or punish 4. For the Theories of Reasoned Action and Planned Behavior: 1. What is the level of influence? o INTRA 2. What are the key constructs? HPEB 300, Dr. Winningham Page 5o Attitude towards behavior/ subjective norms behavioral intention ( perceived behavioral control) behavior 3. How are these theories different from one another? o Planned behavior has perceived behavior control 5. For the Health Belief Model: 1. What is the level of influence? o INTRA 2. What are the key constructs? o Individual perception o Modifying factors o Likelihood of action 3. Upon which type of behaviors does this Model typically focus? o Preventative action 6. For the Protection Motivation Theory: 1. What is the level of influence? o INTRA 2. What are the key constructs? o Information in cognitive mediating process (cost benefit analysis) coping modes (behavior change) 3. Identify examples of program interventions that use PMT. o Breast selfexamination, sun protection behavior & weight loss 7. For the InformationMotivationBehavioral (IMB) Skills Model: 1. What is the level of influence? o INTRA 2. What are the key constructs? o Information motivation behavior skills 3. This model was initially developed for which type of prevention efforts? o Preventative behavior 8. For the Transtheoretical Model: 1. What is the level of influence? o INTRA 2. What are the key constructs? o Stages of change decisional balance self efficiency process of change & temptation 3. What are the stages of change? o Precontemplation contemplation preparation action relapse maintenance termination HPEB 300, Dr. Winningham Page 69. For the Precaution Adoption Process Model: 1. What is the level of influence? o INTRA 2. What are the key constructs? o Unaware of the issue unengaged by issue deciding about acting decided to act OR deciding not to act acting maintenance 3. What are some things that would move people through the stages of this model? o Communication from significant other, media, personal experience, time and effort, beliefs about likelihood/ effectiveness/ difficulty etc.. 10. For the Social Cognitive Theory: 1. What is the level of influence? o INTER 2. What are the key constructs? o Behavior capability expectations expectancies selfcontrol/ regulation selfefficiency emotionalcontrol responses reciprocal determinism locus of control 3. What does this theory say about behavior change and social relationships? o They all interact and influenced one another (reciprocal determinism) TOP TEN Chapter EIGHT 1. Define intervention. o (treatment) an activity that helps achieve outcomes seated in goals and objectives 2. Identify and briefly describe 7 categories of intervention strategies (include tools or examples for each). o Health communication Inform and influence individual and community decisions to influence health Tool: phones (outreach/ help lines) POSTtechnology to create health promotion Health literacy ability to understand basic health information HPEB 300, Dr. Winningham Page 7 Health numeracy degree to which people have capacity to access, and act on numerical info needed to make healthy and effective decisions o Health education ten principles of learning health education provides the opportunity to gain in depth knowledge about a particular health topic curriculum/ scope/ sequence Kinzies modification of Gagne’s “events of instruction” o Health policy/ enforcement Executive orders, laws, regulations, etc.. Based on common good to protect the public’s health Policy and enforcement go hand in hand o Environmental change Help remove barriers to change in the environment in order to make healthier choices Characterized by changes “around” individuals Economic, social, cultural, etc.. Sidewalks / trash v. recycle bins o Health related community service Reduces barriers to the accessibility to services HRA’s/ clinical screenings/ check ups/ mammogram van o Community mobilization Helping communities identify and take action on shared concerns using priority decision making Include methods such as empowerment o Other Behavior modification activities Organizational cultural activities Incentives/ disincentives Social support groups 3. What is POST and how does it help program planners? o Using technology to create health promotion interventions o People/ objectives/strategy/ technology HPEB 300, Dr. Winningham Page 84. Explain the following terms as they relate to health education strategies: o Curriculum what priority population will be taught o Scope depth of material covered o Sequence order in which material is presented o units of study collection of educationally designed objectives o lessons subdivisions of study o lesson plans outlines for lessons 5. State and briefly describe the five stages of Kinzie’s (2005) modified framework for instructional design. 1. Gain attention (convey heath threats & benefits). 2. Present stimulus material (tailor message to audience knowledge and values, demonstrate observable effectiveness, make behaviors easy to understand and do). 3. Provide guidance (use trustworthy models to demonstrate). 4. Elicit performance and provide feedback (for proficiency and self efficacy). 5. Enhance retention and transfer (social support & behavioral cues). 6. Define the terms: community mobilization strategies o helping communities identify and take action on shared concerns using participatory decision making o include such methods as empowerment community organizing o community groups are helped to identify common problems or goals, mobilize resources, and in other ways develop and implement strategies community building HPEB 300, Dr. Winningham Page 9o orientation to a community that is strengthbased rather than need based and stresses the identification, nurturing, and celebrating of community assets community advocacy o process in which those in the community become involved in the institutions & decisions that impact their lives 7. What are the APHA/CDC Guidelines for developing Health Promotion Interventions? o Address risk factors o Reflect a consideration of its target groups o Include interventions that effectively reduce a target risk factor and is appropriate for the setting o Make optimum use of the available resources o be organized in such a way that its operation and effects can be evaluated 8. Explain the following terms: best practices using interventions that have undergone critical review best experiences fall short of best practices but show promise best processes original interventions based on theory segmenting dividing broader population into smaller groups tailoring interventions created or specific needs/ interest/ circumstances 9. What are EBIs and HIPs and what key factors must be considered when they are adapted to fit other settings and/or communities? CDC’s division of HIV/AIDS developmental guide EBI evidence based interventions Adaptation framework: HPEB 300, Dr. Winningham Page 10 Assess select prepare pilot implement 10.Define: communication channel o Route through which a message is spread to the priority population health literacy o ability to understand basic health information o degree to which people have capacity to access, and act on numerical info needed to make healthy and effective decisions health numeracy o degree to which people have capacity to access, and act on numerical info needed to make healthy and effective decisions health advocacy o direct service to the individual or family as well as activities that promote health and access to health care in communities and the larger public. HPEB 300, Dr. Winningham Page 11