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EMU / Psychology / PSY 309 / early research in social psychology conducted by max ringelmann reveal

early research in social psychology conducted by max ringelmann reveal

early research in social psychology conducted by max ringelmann reveal

Description

School: Eastern Michigan University
Department: Psychology
Course: Social Psychology
Professor: Stephen jefferson
Term: Winter 2016
Tags: social, Psychology, psych, psy309, Eastern, and Michigan
Cost: 50
Name: Exam 1
Description: This is the first exam for this class. The final is optional for the class and would have covered all 3 tests. But this is the first exam without the answers
Uploaded: 03/13/2017
10 Pages 162 Views 0 Unlocks
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What is NOT one of the three processes upon which social facilitation depends?




What is the goal behind someone who commits an “imitated suicide?




According to research (like the bridge study) who will demonstrate more interest (attraction toward) in Alice as a result?



Exam 1, Psych 309, 2017-W Name:________________________ Be sure to put your name and BUBBLE IN your E-ID # on the scantron (failure to do so will  result in a ZERO grade for the exam). Your exaWe also discuss several other topics like umass chem 112
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m will be calculated on a percentage system. You  must answer 50 multiple choice items, each worth 2 % of the total. For each response, select the  answer that is most correct.  1. The major difference between social psychology and other social sciences, such as  anthropology and political science, is that social psychology relies most heavily on  ____________ to derive knowledge about human behavior. A. experimental (empirical) research B. logical principles C. observational research D. evolutionary principles 2. Although a group psychiatrists who were asked to predict the results of the Milgram  experiment on obedience thought that approximately _____ people would use the highest  possible shock, in reality approximately _____ of the people delivered the highest level of  shock (use approximate estimates as actual numbers vary).  A. Most; less than 1% B. 15%; 40% C. 50%; 50% D. Less than 1%; Most 3. According to research presented in class on helping in cities with small and large populations,  in which of the following cities would helping be LEAST LIKELY? A. A city of one million people who are densely packed together (e.g., 200 people per square  acre). B. A city of one hundred thousand people who are moderately packed together (e.g., 80  people per square acre). C. A city of two million people who are moderately packed together (e.g., 80 people per  square acre). D. A city of one hundred thousand people who are densely packed together (e.g., 300 people  per square acre). 4. In his study of the effects of media coverage of teenage suicides, David Phillips found that: A. Coverage of the confusion and grief surrounding the suicides produced a decrease in teen  suicides following the coverage.  B. There was an increase in teen suicides following the coverage.  C. The suicide rate following the coverage remained surprisingly unchanged—pointing to  the limited effects of media coverage of news events.  D. The suicide rate increased moderately at first, followed by a sharp decrease as mental  health workers responded to the crisis. 1 Exam 1, Psych 309, 2017-W 5. According to the social psychologist Elliot Aronson, "People who do crazy things are not  necessarily crazy." By this he means that: A. Situations can cause most normal people to behave in abnormal ways.  B. Psychosis, at least from a social psychological view, does not exist.  C. People generally think of others in very much the same way they think of themselves.  D. Human behavior can be explained by using the scientific method.  6. Assume that Alex is in a loud and arousing environment, but Conrad is in a quite peaceful  environment. During the day, Alice walks by Alex, but she also walks by Conrad. According  to research (like the bridge study) who will demonstrate more interest (attraction toward) in  Alice as a result?  A. Alex  B. Conrad C. They both will like her if she is attractive.  D. The both will dislike her because the environments are inconsistent with noticing Alice.  7. Which of the following phenomena best illustrates the relationship between social influence  and behavior? A. acting more cooperative when you are in a good mood (as opposed to a bad mood) B. preferring to drive with the car radio on (as opposed to off) C. cycling faster when people are watching you (as opposed to when you are alone) D. getting into more arguments when the temperature is above 80 degrees (as opposed to  under 80 degrees) 8. Social psychology focuses especially on the power of ____. A. genetics B. reinforcement C. situations D. unconscious. 9. Foot-in-the-door compliance methods and the Milgram Obedience to Authority studies are  similar in that A. they both ask people to comply with a small, relatively unobjectionable action at first. B. they both need to use authority figures to induce compliance. C. neither of them creates stress. D. neither of them studies the impact of step-by-step requests.2 Exam 1, Psych 309, 2017-W 10. Mike will be more likely to agree with the recommendations of others on the best tax  preparation company to use, a matter about which he knows little, because people are  particularly susceptible to informational (descriptive) social influence when they A. are in a bad mood. B. need to be mocked. C. need to be correct. D. have internalized cultural norms. 11. In Asch's conformity study, the discomfort felt by subjects who conformed could result from  the conflict between two important goals. It was suggested that the goals in conflict are: A. the goal of being correct and the goal of being liked.  B. the fear of being wrong and the fear of being right.  C. the goal of being correct and the goal of being consistent.  D. the goal of being liked by the goal of being an individual.  12. What is the goal behind someone who commits an “imitated suicide?  A. The need to correct.  B. Effective action.  C. To be famous.  D. None of the above.  13. Imagine that you are waiting for class to start. Another student sits down next to you and  offers you one of his two Cokes. You like Coke, so you take it. A few days later, the same  student sits next to you again. This time, you have a bag of potato chips, and you feel  obligated to offer him some. This urge you have is a manifestation of A. the reciprocity norm. B. the door-in-the-face technique. C. the foot-in-the-door technique. D. public compliance. 14. Early research in social psychology conducted by Max Ringelmann revealed that people  ____ when they work as part of a group (e.g., pushing a car off of the road with two other  people) compared to when they work alone at the same task. A. do not work as hard B. work harder C. feel like they are doing more work D. feel like they are doing less work3 Exam 1, Psych 309, 2017-W 15. One implication discussed from Milgram's obedience experiment is: A. It is important to follow the rules, so society has norms to guide it.  B. Obedience is important in training soldiers, so they can be a united force.  C. Many innocent people had been killed by Nazi soldiers because the soldiers were  following orders.  D. Many innocent people had been killed by Nazi soldiers because the Nazi's were sadists.  E. None of the above.  16. In replications of the Milgram obedience study, it was found that: A. the closer subjects were to the victim, the less they shocked the victim.  B. the more similar the victim was to the experimenter, the less they shocked the victim.  C. subjects shocked the victim less when the study was conducted at a prestigious university  than at a run-down office in an industrial district.  D. subjects from Australia were less obedient than subjects from the United States.  17. In a helping study, in which subjects waiting for an experiment were led to believe that a  female janitor in the next room had fallen and hurt herself, subjects were more likely to  come to her assistance when: A. they heard her moan, "I've fallen and can't get up." B. she was silent, as if unconscious.  C. they were alone.  D. they were with others.  18. According to research on helping, an individual is more likely to be helped when potential  helpers: A. feel themselves to be very different from the person in need.  B. are great in number.  C. have trouble determining if the situation is a real emergency.  D. are from a group of people like registered nurses.  19. Groups are unlikely to develop groupthink if the ____. A. group members are extremely similar to one another B. group has a strong, directive leader C. group members lack cohesion D. group is isolated from other people4 Exam 1, Psych 309, 2017-W 20. Mikell telephoned her uncle to see if she could live with him and his family for a year while  she sorted out what she was going to do with her life. Unsurprisingly, he declined. She then  asked if she could stay with him for just a couple of weeks, and he agreed to this. This  demonstrates the effectiveness of the A. door-in-the-face technique. B. that’s-not-all technique. C. the “knew it all along” technique. D. negative state relief technique. 21. What is NOT one of the three processes upon which social facilitation depends? A. evaluation apprehension B. distraction C. bodily arousal D. social loafing 22. According to research on social loafing, in order to get the most money in tips from diners, a  waitperson should serve A. 6 solitary diners who are at separate tables.  B. 3 couples who are at separate tables.  C. 2 dining trios who are at separate tables.  D. 1 group of six diners who are seated together.  23. When our behavior is a result of our boss telling us to do something, it is a form of A. obedience. B. acceptance. C. conformity. D. compliance. 24. If you clean your dorm-room because your roommate asks you to, your behavior is a form of A. obedience. B. acceptance. C. conformity. D. compliance. 25. A classmate across the room yawns and then several other students yawn, this is an example  of A. informational influence. B. psychological reactance. C. group cohesion. D. social mimicry.5 Exam 1, Psych 309, 2017-W 26. Bill knew that he was right not to smoke marijuana (by laws), but was afraid that if he didn’t  try it he would never get a fraternity bid. Bill is A. experiencing psychological reactance B. experiencing bystander intervention C. experiencing normative influence D. experiencing informative influence 27. Several restaurant managers complied with orders from a telephone caller, posing as a police  officer, to strip search a customer or employee. This is an example of the power of _______.  A. group influence B. personality factors C. the closeness of the authority D. the legitimacy of authority 28. Doing as others do is what social psychologists call A. norm formation. B. conformity. C. obedience. D. compliance. 29. Sally has found herself lost in a crowd and is therefore experiencing deindividuation. This  means Sally is A. more self-aware, less focused on other people, and more inhibited. B. less self-aware, less focused on other people, and less inhibited. C. less self-aware, more focused on other people, and less inhibited. D. more self-aware, more focused on other people, and less inhibited. 30. Conformity is greater when people don’t know what to do. This pattern reflects A. compliance. B. acceptance. C. Normative (injunctive) influence. D. Informational (descriptive) influence. 31. Sam has a tendency contribute little effort to group assignments, as he thinks others will be  sure to pick up the slack in an effort to get a good grade. This is an example of  A. social facilitation B. social loafing C. deindividuation D. mere presence6 Exam 1, Psych 309, 2017-W 32. Assume you are in a conformity study. Which of the situations below is likely to lead to the  MOST conformity A. a unanimous group, with public responses, for people uninformed on the task domain.  B. a split-decision group, with public responses, for people uninformed on the task domain.  C. a unanimous group, with private responses, for people uninformed on the task domain.  D. a unanimous group, with public responses, for people informed on the task domain.  33. What is least likely to occur as a result of groupthink? A. The group feels that it is morally superior to other groups. B. People within the group appear to be unanimous in their points of view. C. People within the group routinely play "devil's advocate" and argue against their usual  point of view. D. The group is under the illusion that it is invulnerable. 34. Which of the situations below would lead to the most obedience?  A. A legitimate authority, with the experimenter present and the victim (or consequence)  distant B. An illegitimate authority, with the experimenter present and the victim (or consequence)  distant C. An illegitimate authority, with the experimenter absent and the victim (or consequence)  distant D. A legitimate authority, with the experimenter absent and the victim (or consequence)  distant 35. The concept of altruism refers to A. behavior that enhances the survival of one’s own genes. B. unselfish behavior that benefits others without regard to consequences for the self. C. feelings of compassion toward a needy other. D. an action intended to benefit both the self and someone else at the same time. 36. Compared to people who do not have a strong belief in a just world, people who do have a  strong belief in a just world are MORE likely to ____. A. show a tendency to help attractive victims more than unattractive victims B. blame victims for their plight C. help others in emergency situations D. help others in both emergency situations and non-emergency situations7 Exam 1, Psych 309, 2017-W 37. A psychiatrist is interested in determining if the condition of individuals who are clinically  depressed improves with either 20 or 40 milligrams of Prozac. She uses random assignment  to administer 20 milligrams to of her clients and 40 milligrams to the other half. She finds  that, after six months of strictly controlling patients dosages, the clients who took 40  milligrams of Prozac are significantly less depressed than those clients who took 20  milligrams of Prozac. Which type of research did the psychiatrist conduct? A. correlational research B. experimental research C. controlled research D. hypothetical research 38. The major purpose of random assignment in an experiment is to A. maximize the differences between groups. B. minimize the differences between groups. C. control the independent variable. D. control the dependent variable. 39. How might conformity be used to increase someone’s pro-environmental behaviors?  A. By having attractive others model pro-environmental behaviors.  B. By forcing people to be obedient to green-peace.  C. By having attractive others model anti-environmental behaviors.  D. None of the above.  40. In a well-known study, men were asked questions by either a male of female experimenter  after crossing either a scary or a safe bridge. As the results showed, the men were A. more attracted to the female experimenter when crossing the scary bridge than the safe  bridge B. more attracted to the female experimenter when crossing the safe bridge than the scary  bridge  C. more attracted to the male experimenter when crossing the scary bridge than the safe  bridge D. more attracted to the male experimenter when crossing the safe bridge than the scary  bridge  41. The experimental factor that a researcher manipulates in a study is called the _____ variable. A. control B. independent C. dependent D. correlational8 Exam 1, Psych 309, 2017-W 42. Which of the following is the MOST important step in the decision model of helping? A. noticing the incident B. interpreting the incident as an emergency C. weighing the costs and benefits of helping D. assuming responsibility for intervening 43. A stranger has collapsed on a city sidewalk due to a heart attack. According to Latané and Darley, what is the first thing that must happen before you will help in this emergency? A. You must recognize the event as life-threatening. B. You must assume responsibility for helping. C. You must notice the stranger. D. You must make sure the victim is alone and truly in need of help. 44. While flying to Pittsburgh, Albert (who is scared to fly) is seated beside Alice, an attractive  female. Albert considers asking Alice for a date. Research indicates that Albert's fear A. increases the likelihood that he will ask for the date B. decreases the likelihood that he will ask for the date C. has no effect on the likelihood he will ask for the date D. will make him seem like an idiot  45. Which of the following techniques should elementary schoolteachers use if they hope to  promote enduring helping tendencies in students? A. Show them films of heroes (categories of heroes) who risked their own welfare to help  others. B. Offer a new bicycle to the boy or girl who is most helpful to other students in a two-week  period. C. Reprimand and punish any overt aggression. D. Instill a sense of patriotism. 46. Group polarization occurs when group discussion _______ group members' initial  inclinations. A. challenges B. reverses C. neutralizes D. strengthens9 Exam 1, Psych 309, 2017-W 47. The idea that evolution has selected altruism toward one’s close relatives to enhance the  survival of mutually shared genes is referred to as A. nominative determinism. B. altruistic selection. C. kin selection. D. self-serving helpfulness. 48. John is taking part in a student protest, marching across police lines into an important  administrative building on campus. He is so wrapped up in the group mentality that he  actually stops thinking about himself as an individual who is separate from the group, and  fails to ask himself whether or not he is behaving responsibly. John is probably experiencing  ____________________________. A. deindividuation B. optimal distinctiveness C. social facilitation D. social loafing 49. In which case below, might a person be most likely to consume too much alcohol at a college  party? A. Pete, who is at a party with a few close friends who are drinking alcohol and openly  accept his less than positive attitude toward substance use.  B. Pierre, who is at a party with many, many close friends who are drinking alcohol and  openly accept his less than positive attitude toward substance use.  C. C. Paul, who is at a party with a few close friends who are drinking alcohol and openly  criticize his less than positive attitude toward substance use.  D. D. Pyle, who is at a party with many, many close friends who are drinking alcohol and  they openly criticize his less than positive attitude toward substance use. 50. We should expect social loafing to be greatly reduced when ____. A. people are held accountable for their inputs B. people are anonymous within the group C. the task at hand is unimportant to people D. people think that others in the group are superior to them in terms of the task at hand10

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