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Final Exam _ POLS 203

by: Seong Yong Park

Final Exam _ POLS 203 POL S 203

Seong Yong Park
Intro to International Relations

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I have a lot written on the study guide because if you know much you can write much on the essay part even if you forget some part. It'd be wise if you skim through it couple of times and write th...
Intro to International Relations
Study Guide
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Seong Yong Park on Friday April 24, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to POL S 203 at University of Washington taught by Caporaso in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 211 views. For similar materials see Intro to International Relations in Political Science at University of Washington.


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Date Created: 04/24/15
One Rule DO NOT DELETE ANYTHING When you have to add something please do it on the bottom of what is already written with different font colors so other people can compare Q examples of differences between international institutions and international organizations 0 International institutions 0 It can exist without physical organizations WTO International organizations It cannot exist without institutions NATO Essay questions 0000 What are the major changes in the distribution of power in the global system today Is the present distribution of power unipolar bipolar or multipolar How do you expect the international system to change in the next couple of decades in terms of power distribution Be sure to discuss specific countries 0 Present unipolar US 0 GDP per capita 0 military strength 0 even a coalition of other countries would be unable to have a significant effect against the US feel free to add more here Future rising China population 4x that of US population economic size rapidly increasing estimated that by 2030 will surpass US remember here that smaller economies sometimes grow quicker by taking advantage of research and development that has already been performed quintupled x5 GDP since end of cultural revolution in mid1970s OO39O a military spending ranks 2nd to US increased five times since 2002 0 global manufacturing center 2 The Global South Third World is often treated as a single category as if all countries within the global south were the same Address the issue of the diversity among countries in the global south What distinct types of countries can you identify What development strategies are useful for each of the categories Distinct types of countries Lip LL 1 the worst of Ex Somalia 110 year Burundi 190 year Congo 200 year etc amts are GDP per capita according to notes although wikipedia says otherwise Development Strategy Take advantage of wealth of natural resources oil gold metals diamonds that are present in some of these countries Southsouth trade a good thing Follow China s example providing infrastructure investments in exchange for copper cobalt and rare metals Subsistence Agriculture self sufficiency farming in which the farmers focuses on growing enough food to feed themselves OPEC Organization of PetroleumExporting Countries Ex Middleeastern oil exporters such as Saudi Arabia Iraq Iran but also countries outside the region Venezuela and Indonesia Some OPEC members are not apart of this category Angola Congo Ecuador gg jlE 3 7 r r V r J 7 r r J r g 39 r r r a r H V J if r J El 7 7 ft 7d 1 r L J2 Ls 1 1 a e i L filzltelgiifglthgtys 2E vi39l lvquotil viin NIC Newlylndustrialized Countries Ex Asian Tigers Portugal Spain Greece Turkey etc United by the fact that they have all just experienced large industrial transformations L L7 wEgJDUUEDUu ltgulLDltilLgj a U A p l L s a J J r Jr 4 Economies in Transition Ex Czech Republic Hungary Poland Countries from Cold War Second World Not poor many industrialized Neeel te experiemee merket eeememiee whieh reeeiree perfermemee em bettemalime thimkimg here bueget eemetreimte 3 How convinced are you by democratic peace theory First outline the basic framework of democratic peace theory including the Kantian triangle What are the strengths and weaknesses of democratic peace theory What evidence exists for and against democratic peace theory Democratic peace theory asserts that democratic countries are less likely to engage in war with one another Russett explains that the state of peace is not singular to democracies but rather easily sustained between democratic nations 1 the states are peaceful toward each other because they are bound by common ties in a network of institutions 2 Physically adjacent countries are more likely to fight each other combination of capability and willingness to fight neighbors is more likewise than to fight distant countries 3 Countries are more likely to make peace with other countries with a common enemy 4 Democracies are often wealthy and are beneficial to their allies 5 Political stability makes peace Countries with unstable political systems will lead country into discontent and conflict with foreign countries Kantian triangle International organizations democracy and economic interdependence all promote peace IO s do this by establishing reputations and relationships between countries and provide an outlet for conflict resolution other than war Economic interdependence also promotes relationships between countries and incentive to only pursue violence as the last option for fear of losing benefits of interdependent relationship Lastly democratic peace theory states that democracies do not fight each other but says nothing about the willingness of these countries to fight non democracies Evidence for DPT peace is easily sustained between democratic nations because a democratic leaders have to get their voting public on board diplomacy is attractive democracies less inclined to view other democracies as hostile ingroup outgroup democracies tend to possess greater public wealth Evidence against DPT main argument is that DP theorists are confusing correlation with causationnamely that democracies are not refraining from war because they re democratic rather the circumstances that cause countries to be hesitant to engage in war usually mean that they are democratic countries as well 4 Realism and liberalism are the two main paradigms explored in the course How does each paradigm deal with international law norms and institutions What are the similarities and differences and which approach is more persuasive to you Realism a lack of consensus on law and moral values because your take on human rights may be different from my take everyone is out for his or herself b good intentions may lead to bad results Ex crusades d no enforcement mechanism Ex veto power by US in UN security council when forgot which country sued America basically claiming UN as useless e Peace is highest value and BOP is the enforcement mechanism Liberalism 5 During the course we have examined two theories of war and peace Liberalism and Realism which theory is more persuasive as an explanation of war and peace for the Cold war period 19451989 and the post cold war period 1989present Be sure to back up your reasons for being persuaded by one theory more than the other Realist s take on war and peace Realist emphasize the natural evilness resides in everyone Thomas Hobbes argue that in the state of nature human beings are selfish brutal creatures that will fight and skill for their own survival This is the essence of realism in IR States are constantly seeking power and maximize their own securities Concept of relative and absolute power come into play when waging war explanations for peaceful period In a world in which you can t trust anyone you never want to be interdependent God knows when your socalled allies will turn against you for their own sake It is not possible to persuade all state to become democratic IMPOSSIBLE Strong review for realism httpswwwyoutubecomwatchvUnKEFSVAiNQ super helpful I ve watched it like 20 times Liberalists take on war and peace Liberalists recognize human capacity in doing harm however they also see and focus on human s ability to do good and cooperate Immanuel Kant perpetual peace encompasses democracy economic interdependence lOs These mechanisms prevents war from happening etc 6 Nationalism and Civilization gt6 nationalism and civilization tend to come together because they are both about identity but they have different level of analysis what are the strengths and weakness of those two approaches for understanding international politics 7 Third World realist v liberalist ex Should North help South Realist North ought not to help South states are independent of one another collaborations between states do no exist Use the same State of nature argument to answer all these type of questions ex In what ways north can help south Week 7 Liberal Approaches to Peace the Democratic Peace or Liberalism and IR 1 Democracy It means governed by people includes certain normative The sovereignty remains on citizens 0 Significance the US has been trying to spread out liberal democratic ideas to the rest of the world but it has downsides Economic instability Wealth gap Environmental destruction Conflicts between developed and developing countries Wilson was responsible for League of Nations 2 Markets where capital is stored where trade and exchange takes place 0 Significance lnterdependency would stop or at least reduce conflicts between or among states 3 Efficiency voluntary exchange capitalism leads to mutual benefits which leads to interdependence Pareto efficiency state of efficiency in which no party can gain more without taking away from one another 0 Significance Globalization has seen the emergence of ideals of efficiency as a touchstone for law and policy Although both Pareto optimality analysis and KalderHicks efficiency analysis acknowledge potentially broad parameters for notions of public goods the discourse of efficiency tends to consign to a secondary role essential goals of development sustainability and public goods on such issues as safe and secure employment housing healthcare education and environmental protection Yet even private goods ideals of efficiency often go unmet in practice as a result of human behavioural preferences Weaknesses of efficiency theories result in part from assumptions about the universality of liberal norms of efficiency and a corresponding lack of appreciation that enforcement of regulatory regimes aimed at furthering efficiency ideals depends on consensus of underlying norms and values Such normative consensus is particularly elusive in cross cultural context Limited government It gives citizens more control on how they shape their local environment and policy More emphasis becomes placed on local government and policy giving more citizen access to participate It also provides a stronger free market system so that the citizenry have more opportunity for real success In a limited government the power of government to intervene in the exercise of civil liberties is restricted by law usually in a written constitution A government with powers that are limited either through a written document or through widely shared beliefs Significance idea of invisible hand by Adam Smith government should have as little influence on the free market as possible for it to function Encourages political responsibility and provides strengthened accountability for volatile or aggressive actionspromoting peace in the process Democratic dyads Democratic countries do not fight against each other Significance Some fear that the democratic peace theory may be used to justify wars against nondemocracies in order to bring lasting peace jus ad bellum United Nations Founded in 1945 following World War II it is an international organization composed of 193 member states dedicated to addressing issues related to peace and security development human rights humanitarian affairs and international law textbook Significance httpwwwun0rgenun6060ansJ global problems can never be resolved by any one country acting alone As the world s only truly universal institution the United Nations offers the best if not the only forum to galvanize global action to meet the challenges ahead UN statement 7 UN Security Council The council made up of five permanent member states sometimes called the P5 namely Great Britain China France Russia and the United States and ten nonpermanent members The P5 all have a veto power over all Security Council decisions textbook Composed of the Big Five and ten nonpermanent members to be elected by the General Assembly for 2year terms The task of achieving Collective Security was left to the Security Council It rested on the assumption of Great Power unity The SC was oriented toward military security If challenged by an aggressor then he UN would respond with the overwhelming force of the world community Meredith39s pneumonic to remember the P5 GBCFRUS Grizzly Bears Cry For Really Ugly Snails 0 Significance Security Council has primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security SC takes the lead in determining the existence of a threat to the peace or act of aggression It calls upon the parties to a dispute to settle it by peaceful means and recommends methods of adjustment or terms of settlement UN statement o httpwwwunorgensc 8 Collective security An arrangement where each state in the system accepts that the security of one is the concern of all and agrees to join in a collective response to aggression textbook Collective Security is a policy in which a group of nations commits not to attack each other and to defend one another if attacked by one of the others 0 Significance Gulf War 19901991 0 The Korean War 9 Peacekeeping Active diplomatic efforts to seek a resolution to an international dispute that has already escalated The interposition of thirdparty military personnel to keep warring parties a part 0 Significance Haiti W Sahara Mali S Sudan KosovoCyprus and Afghanistan Crimea 10The zone of peace Democratic countries don t fight each other ex 0 Significance democratic countries want to keep expanding the zone would be the area fall under the peaceful democratic countries 11lnterdependence A condition where states or peoples are affected by decisions taken by others Interdependence can be symmetric ie both sets of actors are affected equally or it can be asymmetric ie the impact varies between actors lf political or economic costs of interdependence are high a state is in a vulnerable position If costs are low it is a situation of sensitivity interdependence textbook OR changes in one part of the system have direct and indirect consequences for the rest of the system 0 Significance States do not want to start a war because it will be bad for parties who engage in war 12The Kantian Triangle 1 Political institutions of democracy lead to external peace among democracies not between democracies and nondemocracies 2 economic institutions of market capitalism lead to economic interdependence and shared international interests Also lessens probability of war 3 liberal democracies join IGOs which in turn moderate conflict encourage social learning and are also a force for peace 0 Significance This is why the Western want to promote their idea of liberal democracies but it has downsides Economic instability Wealth gap Environmental destruction Conflicts between developed and developing countries This could be used as a justification of war jus ad bellum Newly democratized countries start more wars Week 8 Constructivist and liberal Approaches International Law and International Institutions or international law norm and morality 1 From is to ought ldealism has basis on normative ideas It lost significance as World War II happened Liberalism not just look at the facts but also argue what we ought to do 0 Significance Lost it s significance after WW2 based on the realist notion that there is no overarching consensus of normative ideas by all nation states 1 quotisquot is positive theory which basically explains past events while quotoughtquot is normativeprescriptive theory which draws from past events and prescribe how it ought to act in future 2 this is significant in that it implies the two fold shift in moving from materialistic view to ideational view that involve the presence of international law norms and morality 3 this shift is important in that it provides the foundation to the argument that institution can promote cooperation 4 Also it is vital in explaining important conception of International Relations such as soft power success of NGO nuclear taboo and so on 2 International institutions Complexes of norms rules and practices that prescribe behavioral roles constrain activity and shape expectations International institutions can exist without any organizational structure Many institutions have organizational dimensions though The World Trade Organization formerly the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade is an institution with a very strong organizational structuretextbook 0 Significance International and regional organizations and international law play an important role in the governance of our global society These institutions provide the infrastructure of a truly global sLstem in which it is possible to think about a global common good and a world where human interests trump national interests There are three pillars of global governance 1 A political pillar that include diplomacy international law and global and regional organizations like the United Nations the World Trade Organization and the European Union 2 An economic pillar that includes multinational corporations international banking and industry associations global labor movements and global economic movements 3 A social pillar that includes actors within the global civil society such as NGOs and global social movements like the Jubilee Movement led by U2 and Radiohead that sought to get states to forgive developing countries debt Clearly international and regional organizations play a critical role in governing the policy areas that transcend the nationstate The effectiveness and perhaps the fairness of global policv will often depend on the efficacv of international law Thus all these institutions plav a role in the governance of this global societv As we have seen in this chapter the capacity of the United Nations in its economic and social work its development work and its management of peacekeeping and postconflict reconstruction has expanded since the 19903 Nonetheless the predominance of US military power the possibility that the United States will act again without clear UN authorizations the heightened concern over terrorism and WMD the inability to respond effectively to the crisis in Darfur and the pervasiveness of inequality and injustice across the world signal that further changes and adaptations within the UN system will be necessary With regard to regional organizations the EU is the best example of how far the integration process can go and how much sovereignty states are willing to share or surrender The prospect of an everwider EU has raised serious questions about the nature and direction of the integration process The most wideranging proposals and the most significant change in the language of integration came with the treaty establishing a constitution for Europe that EU heads of state or government signed in 2004 The very fact that the EU should discuss something referred to in the media as a European Constitution is a sign of how far it has developed from its modest beginning However the time may still not be right for such a project For all of these reasons international law and international organizations remain works in progress International institutions 1 international institutions treaties organizations regimes conventions and so on are relatively stable sets of related constitutive regulative and procedural norms and rules that apply to the international system the actors in the system including states as well as nonstate entities and their activities 2 International institution is significant in that reduces conflict because it reveals preferences of actors thus fosters cooperation and provides arena for nego a on 3 especially Institution as rules helps overcoming bad equilibrium in PD games of international relations in that it increases the value of reputation provides better information and monitors the actors in the international politics 3 Prisoners Dilemma game A game theory that may explain why rational actors do not cooperate According to this it is both better for the two prisoners to cooperate as they would both get reduced sentencing but one knows that betraying the other and having no sentence is better Problem is the other person knows that as well and is likely to choose to betray as well leading both persons to receive harsher punishments httpswwwvoutubecomwatchvt9Lo2fdeHw this is a video my TA sent us about the Prisoner s Dilemma and I thought it was easy to understand and pretty helpful 0 Significance Explains reasons why nation states may not cooperate in many areas such as economics state to state military interestsconflict and so forth 4 The value of reputation Changes Prisoners39 Dilemma game because in reality states are in communication with each other and establish reputations for themselves Reputation explains why states aren39t betraying each other all over the place as predicted by Prisoner39s Dilemma because it39s not in the interest of the state to be labelled as the quotstate that will always defectquot 0 Significance 5 Jus in Bello vs Jus ad Bellum Jus in Bello pertains to how a war is fought justly rightly fairly humanly while Jus ad Bellum is about fighting a just war in the first place Jus ad Bello is about having ethically sound reasons to get involved in a war Jus in Bello conducting war in a just manner Jus ad Bellum having a just reason to wage war httpswwwvoutubecomwatchv708Squs g httpswwwvoutubecomwatchvPV7EZpgjgks Significance In a sense you could then say that a state could be doing Jus In Bello fighting a war rightly example being not excessively killing citizens while at the same time not adhering to Jus ad Bellum started the war by an unjust cause and vice versa 0 Another significance could be that it supports the liberalists optimism saying that even in war there are norms and perceived acceptable conduct amongst the international community 6 Battle of Agincourt A battle that was part of 100 years war English vs French Major English victory Significance Prisoners of war was kept in tact as ethics But Henry killed POW because if they were attacked then they would most likely lose because the POV would be freed and then English would be very out numbered The order was given by Henry the king and men at arms refused to do so But either way the archers were order to kill POV The point International law Jus in bello 7 The Red Cross An NGO that provides care for the sick dying etc in this context soldiers that are dying in the midst of war Not responsible for the test 0 Significance Jus in bello and normative conceptions of war You don t shoot the red cross in the midst of a battlefield 8 INGOs and IGOs a NGO An organization usually a grassroots one with policy goals but not governmental in makeup An NGO is any group of people relating to each other regularly in some formal manner and engaging in collective action provided the activities are noncommercial and nonviolent and are not on behalf of a government textbook b INGO A formal nongovernmental organization with members from at least three countries textbook 0 Significance The process of globalization is more than the interactions of governments and international and regional organizations comprising governments Since the midnineteenth century lNGOs and other transnational actors like MNCs foundations think tanks research institutes and wealthv individuals and celebritv diplomats have played an increasingly important role in global affairs Global corporations banks and investment firms make choices that challenge the sovereignty and power of states The recent global economic meltdown gave the world clear insights into how difficult it is for governments to control investment flows but INGOs as members of global civil society occupy the space between the governmental public world and the corporate private world As many nationstates lack the resources or the political will to address significant global challenges nonstate actors may either step up or push national leaders to act Week 9 Overview of the Global Political Economy NorthSouth Relations 1 Nlenewly industrialized countries Diverse group united only by the fact that they have experienced a series of important transformations in the industrial sector Most successful amongst the poor countries built themselves up 0 Significance There are a lot of Nle in the international economics and it became more complicated to deal with it o More competition at the international stage Yes also increase in globalization as economic growth is supplemented by the exporting of goods South Korea did this according to the prof Policy package Export promotion reliance on low skilled manufacturing move of tech latter etc Don t necessarily need raw material to grow the economy Significance Every country has the power to build back their economy through something that they can do better etc no matter how poor they are 2 OPEC Cartels Groups of countries or firms that come togther to gain market advantage oil countries Power of Cartel is the control of resources the mission of OPEC is to coordinate and unify the petroleum policies of its Member Countries and ensure the stabilization of oil markets in order to secure an efficient economic OPEC mission statement Larry 0 Significance liberalism 3 Delinking Dewesternization is not a geographic but a political concept and refers to all States corporate states which are consolidating their economies without following the dictates of the US the EU the IMF or the World Bank Delinking here does not mean delinking from a type of economy but from the instructions of the World Bank the IMF and related institutions The delinking is contained in the sphere of authority 0 Significancede linking also meant that in relation to North and South relations and dependency theorists that poorer countries cutting of ties with richer countries so that they can become economically dependent and join the international economy without an overarching reliance on a influential state But as the guest lecturer or professor said I can t remember who many have abandoned dependency theory 0 Starting Could you expand on What you mean by delinking in this particular instance and how it integrates into modes of dewesternization and the various layers of decolonization Read for 1 2 paragraphs good insights Basically it is saying part of world is shifting away from western hegemony in international economy httpcriticalleoialthinkinocom20120502delinkino decolonialitvdewesternizationinterviewwithwaltermionolopartii 4 Terms of trade It refers to the relative price of exports in terms of imports and is defined as the ratio of export prices to import prices It can be interpreted as the amount of import goods an economy can purchase per unit of export goods Terms of trade refers to the relative prices of exports and imports 0 Significance 5 Subsistence A selfsufficiency farming in which the farmers focuses on growing enough food to feed themselves and their families A nonmonetary economy which relies on natural resources to provide for basic needs through hunting gathering and subsistence agriculture Subsistence means supporting oneself at a minimum level in a subsistence economy economic surplus is minimal and only used to trade for basic goods and their is no industrializations 0 SignificanceCompletely go against the liberal approach in international economy globalization 6 Wasting asset An item that irreversibly declines in value as a function of time We just need to know that wasting asset in this class refers to oil Wasting assets include vehicles machinery and other fixed assets Accountants attempt to quantify the amount that assets decrease in value over time by assigning depreciation schedules to wasting assets therefore recognizing the decrease in value each year 0 Significance OPEC countries produce nonrenewable resources 7 Rich but not developed country Czech Republic Hungary Poland This is a category made up of countries out of the Cold War Second World These countries are not poor and many of them are industrialized yet they do not have the experience of market economies which requires performance and bottom line thinking hard budget constraints 0 Significance The question of how to incorporate these countries into the international economy 8 ImportSubstitution Industrialization ISI A trade and economic policy which advocates replacing foreign imports with domestic production ISI is based on the premise that a country should attempt to reduce its foreign dependency through the local production of industrialized products The term primarily refers to 20thcentury development economics policies although it has been advocated since the 18th century by economists such as Friedrich List and Alexander Hamilton 0 Significance ISI policies were enacted by countries in the Global South with the intention of producing development and selfsufficiency through the creation of an internal market ISI works by having the state lead economic development through nationalization subsidization of vital industries including agriculture power generation etc increased taxation and highly protectionist trade policies Import substitution industrialization was gradually abandoned by developing countries in the 19803 and 19903 due to structural indebtedness from ISIrelated policies on the insistence of the IMF and World Bank through their structural adjustment programs of marketdriven liberalization aimed at the Global South 9 Global Bargaining Carl von Clausewitz was the first to define war as a bargaining interaction He wrote that war has no value itself thus no one pursues war without having a larger goal In the 19503 the limited conflicts of the Cold War furthered the bargaining theory Because wars were limited it was determined that war usually ends with a bargain rather than a total military victory In the 19603 Thomas Schelling claimed that most conflict was a bargaining interaction and defined the end of World War II in bargaining rather than military terms Formal Bargaining Model of Wars were introduced in the 19803 The formal models focused on the causes of war as well as the ends and defined them as bargaining interactions as well Bargain with the global North for resources aid technology market access But at the same time includes tariffs for your own country s bu3ine33e3 etc 0 Significance COMPLETE VERSION Week 7 Liberal Approaches to Peace the Democratic Peace or Liberalism and IR 13 Democracy 13 Markets 13 Efficiency 13 Limited government 13 Democratic dyads 13 United Nations 13 UN Security Council 13 Collective security 13 Peacekeeping 13The zone of peace 13 Interdependence 13The Kantian Triangle Week 8 Constructivist and liberal Approaches International Law and International Institutions or international law norm and morality From is to ought International institutions Prisoners Dilemma game The value of reputation Jus in Bello vs Jus ad Bellum Battle of Agincourt The Red Cross INGOs and IGOs 99999999 Week 9 Overview of the Global Political Economy NorthSouth Relations 10Nlenewly industrialized countries 100PEC 10Delinking 10Terms of trade 10Subsistence 10Wasting asset 10 Rich but not developed country 10lmportSubstitution Industrialization ISI 10Global Bargaining


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