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fos2001 uf

fos2001 uf

Description

School: University of Florida
Department: Science
Course: Man's Food
Professor: Agata kowalewska
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: nutrition and FOS2001
Cost: 50
Name: FOS2001 Exam 2 Study Guide
Description: This study guide includes the completed given study guide for Exam 2.
Uploaded: 03/14/2017
15 Pages 16 Views 15 Unlocks
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FOS2001 Exam 2 study guide  


what is melting point?



Exam will cover material presented in modules 6 -10. All that was presented in the lectures and  in the required reading may be included on the exam. All topics are directly from the lectures and  the readings, it means that I am not using any other resources to create the questions for the  exams.  

Exam is time limited to 50 minutes to answer 50 multiple choice and true/false questions.  Questions for your individual exam are pulled from a larger bank of questions.  You have to be registered with ProctorU to take the exam. The exam is password protected and  your proctor will enter it in order to start the test.  

The topics below should help you to prepare for the exam.  

Know definition/description, elements, possible limitations and characteristics of following  terms. If there is an abbreviation know the full name of that abbreviation. It was a problem for  some of you on exam 1: 


what is trans fats?



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• Melting Point

• temperature at which a solid will melt  

• (lecture) fat & oil polymorphism  

• a crystals  

• lowest melting point, least stable  

• B’ crystals  

• intermediate melting point  

• B crystals  

• highest melting point, most stable  

• Trans Fats

• unhealthy fatty acid produced through the addition of hydrogen atoms to double bonds  of fatty acids  

• molefule assumes unnatural shape  

• found naturally in milk and meat  

• producers create by hydrogenating unsaturated fat  

• makes product solid and less susceptible to spoiling  

• 2g a day or less  

• Hard Stock (lecture)

• fully hydrogenated oils

• Advanced Lipid Oxidation End Products

• occurs naturally in heat, light  

• also caused by enzymes and ozone  

• smells rancid, bad for human health  


what is glycogen?



• Conjugated Fatty Acid

• loses a carbon  

• found in dairy and dietary supplements  

• decrease in body fat, reduce risk of cancer  

• Hemoglobin

• protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen  

• sickle cell anemia  

• amino acid is altered causing it to clump and change shape of cells. can block  blood vessels. immune to malaria.  Don't forget about the age old question of psychology exam 3

• Complete Protein

• high-quality protein  

• contains all essential amino acids  

• easy to digest and absorb  

• found in animal proteins  

• vegetables and dairy  

• Complementary Portions

• two or more foods whose amino acid content, when combined, provides all of the  essential amino acids  

• rice and beans  

• Kwashiorkor

• affects children in impoverished countries who are weaned from breast milk  • bloated belly  

• protein deficiency

• ATP

• Adenosine Triphosphate

• high energy molecule that can be broken down to usable energy  

• contains 3 phosphate groups  If you want to learn more check out 15cs33

• when bonds are broken, large amounts of energy is released and used for cellular work  (metabolism)

• Digestion

• first step in converting food to energy which occurs in the GI tract  

• chemical reactions combined with muscular movement to break down food into  compounds  

• Absorption

• movement of smaller products of digestion across the lining of the intestinal tract, into  our bodies and ultimately into our cells  

• Transition Time

• time it takes food to travel the length of the digestive tract  

• depends on what you eat, how much you drink, and health conditions  

• Metabolism

• releasing energy from nutrients or using energy to create  

• breaks down molecules for energy  

• occurs in mitochondria  

• Glycogen

• storage form of carbs in animals, found in liver and muscle  

• Energy Balance

• calories in (consumed) vs. calories out (physical activity)  

• key to weight control  

• REE

• Resting Energy Expenditure  

• energy expended by the body for heartbeat, breathing, nerve impulse transmission,  kidney function, growth and repair and other basic body functions  Don't forget about the age old question of the primary goals of inventory managers are to maintain a sufficient quantity of inventory to meet customers' needs, ensure inventory quality meets customers' expectations and company standards, and minimize the cost of acquiring and carrying inventory.

• organs use the most  

• Thermic Effect of Food

• TEF  

• energy expended by body in digestion, absorption, storing, metabolizing and processing  food  

• amounts to 10% of calories consumed  

• Resting Metabolic Rate

• (basal metabolism rate)  

• rate at which involuntary activities (basal metabolism) only, such as heartbeat, breathing,  and chemical reactions  

• more precisely defined as the REE measured after waking in the morning, at least 12  hours after the last meal

• BMI

• Body Mass Index  

• height/weight relationship to assess obesity  

• (weight x 704.5) / height (in^2)  

• 18.5: underweight  

• 25 or greater: overweight  

• 30 or greater: obese  

• cannot distinguish between between fat and muscle mass  

• Adipocytes

• cells that store fat  

• cells increase when a person gains weight, number of cells don’t decrease, only the size 

• Appetite

• desire to eat  

• psychological mechanisms that determine how much we eat

• Hunger

• need to eat  

• physiological mechanisms that determine when we eat  

• Leucine Trigger

• essential amino acid that stimulates proteins synthesis to trigger muscle growth  • Collagen If you want to learn more check out umd 105 bus

• proteins that form connective tissues such as tendons, bone, teeth and skin  

1. Lipid chemical composition, classifications, general structure, omega designation,  “short hand” representation of lipids, food sources, saturation, and functions.

• Composition  

• substances that are insoluble in water, but soluble in organic solvents such as ether,  acetone, and chloroform

• contains hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon (like carbs)  

• the shorter the chain, the more it likes water  

• fat, no double bonds, solid  

• oil, bends at double bonds, liquid  

• Classifications  

• fatty acids  

• triglycerides  

• phospholipids  

• sterols such as cholesterol  

• General Structure  

• long carbon chain with a methyl end (CH3) which is hydrophobic, and a carboxyl  end (COOH) which is hydrophilic  

• Omega Designation  

• essential fatty acids found in cell membranes  

• Omega-6  

• Omega-3  

• “Short Hand” Representation of Lipids  

• Food Sources  

• Saturated Fatty Acid  

• dairy products, meats, some plants and oils

• Unsaturated Fatty Acid  

• monounsaturated fatty acid  

• plant foods, canola & olive oil  

• polyunsaturated fatty acid  

• vegetable oil, sunflower, flaxseed, corn, safflower oils, fish oils  

• Essential Fatty Acids  

• omega-6  

• liquid vegetable oils  

• omega-3  

• plant sources (soybean & canola oils, walnuts & flaxseed)  

• fish and breast milk  

• Sterols/Cholesterol  

• hormones testosterone, estrogen, cortisol and vitamins  

• Saturation  

• changes the structure  

• fatty acid saturation  

• refers to whether a fatty acid chain is occupied by all of the hydrogen atoms  it can hold  

• saturated fatty acid  

• fully occupied by hydrogen atoms & contains no double bonds  

• solid  

• unsaturated fatty acid  

• hydrogen atoms missing & form a double bond when hydrogen atoms  aren’t present between 2 carbon atoms  

• monounsaturated fatty acid  

• fatty acid contains only 1 double bond  

• polyunsaturated fatty acid  

• fatty acid contains 2 or more double bonds  

• Functions  

• storing energy  

• supplying essential fatty acids  

• absorbing and transporting fat-soluble vitamins

• protecting and insulating vital organs  

• providing flavor in foods and promoting satiety  

• providing cell membrane structure  

• serving as a precursor to steroid hormones  

• (lecture) degree of triglyceride crystallization determines solid or liquid  • more crystalline the fat, more likely to be solid  

• factors are alpha, beta prime, and beta  

2. How properties of fatty acids change with structure of lipids

• Shorter the chain, the more it likes water  

• Full of hydrogen atoms & no double bonds (saturated) is solid

• Missing hydrogen atoms & double bonds (unsaturated) is liquid

• Hydrogenation  

• hydrogen atoms added to unsaturated fatty acid under intense heat so that there are  fewer double bonds  

• makes product into a solid and less susceptible to spoiling  

• when hydrogen is added back, it changes the arrangement of bonds  

• cis: fatty acids that remained unsaturated  

• trans: fatty acids that converted to saturated  

• Partially vs. Fully hydrogenated  

• Partially hydrogenated oils, or PHO, some cis- fatty acids are converted to  trans- before all double bonds are removed  

• fully hydrogenated oils remove all double bonds from all fatty acids  

• hydrogenated oils in cooking don’t break down under high temperatures  • Trans Fatty Acid  

• unhealthy fatty acid produced through addition of hydrogen atoms to double bonds  of fatty acids, which causes the molecule to assume an unnatural shape

3. Oxidation of lipids

• Beta Oxidation  

• In this pathway, enzymes break the carbon chains that make up fatty acids to  release two carbon fragments and convert them to acetyl CoA, which can join with  other substances and begin the Krebs cycle

• final pathway used to make ATP  

• (lecture) Lipid Oxidation  

• properties depend on structure  

• hydrogenation  

• tends to make solid and more stable to oxidation  

• degree of unsaturation  

• double bonds tend to make liquid and more susceptible to oxidation

• unsaturated fats oxidize faster  

• antioxidants are used to prevent lipid oxidation  

4. Essential fatty acids

• cannot be made by body and only provided through diet  

• Omega 6 (Linoleic acid) & Omega-3 (Linolenic acid, EPA, DHA)  

• 3 & 6 refer to where double bonds are located in fatty acid  

• Omega-6  

• found in cell membranes  

• precursors to powerful biological compounds that can play a role in reproduction  and blood flow  

• Omega-3  

• found in cell membranes  

• help prevent tissue inflammation, heart disease, and blood clots  

• EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid)  

• DHA (docosahexaenoic acid)  

• reduces risk of heart disease  

• (lecture)  

• TV - TILL - PM - H  

• Threonine, Valine - Tryptophan, Isoleucine, Lysine, Leucine -  

Phenylalanine, Methionine - Histidine  

5. Chemical composition, general structure of amino acids, and essentiality

• Chemical Composition  

• made of central carbon connected to 4 groups  

• amine group (nitrogen)  

• acid group (carboxyl)  

• hydrogen  

• side chain (R group)  

• General Structure  

• sequence unique in each different amino acid  

• that is how you can distinguish between amino acids  

• dictates function of each  

• varies in shape, size and electron charge  

• R group gives protein unique and specific qualities  

• peptide bonds  

• link amino acids together to make proteins  

• amino acid out of order or skipped, shape and function altered  

• sickle-cell anemia

• Essentiality  

• Essential amino acids  

• cannot be made in body, must obtain from diet  

• if not consumed, body will break down muscle tissue  

• Nonessential amino acids  

• can be made in body by transferring the amine group, or nitrogen, from an  essential amino acid to another compound containing a carbon, an acid  group, and an R group  

• made by reusing the nitrogen group of essential amino acids and from  proteins that have been broken down  

• called transamination  

• Conditionally essential amino acid  

• nonessential amino acids that under certain circumstances cannot be made  into sufficient quantity by the body and therefore must be consumed in the  diet  

6. Functions and denaturing of proteins

• Functions  

• growth, maintenance, and repair  

• body structure and blood clotting  

• fluid balance  

• acid-base balance  

• immune function  

• enzymes  

• hormones  

• transport  

• energy  

• protein turnover  

• balance of protein synthesis and breakdown  

• Denaturing  

• a protein’s structure and function can be changed by heat, acid, enzymes, agitation  or alcohol through denaturation  

• ex: cooking an egg  

• starts as liquid, then heat changes shape and makes solid  

• stomach acid denatures proteins of many bacteria in foods to change their function  to no longer harmful to us  

7. Vegetarianism and veganism and nutrients of concern

• vegan  

• only eats plant food and doesn’t eat anything produced from animals  • vegetarian

• do not consume animal flesh but may eat eggs and dairy products  

• nutrients of concern  

• proteins, vitamin B12, calcium, vitamin D, Iron  

• also zinc and vitamin B6  

8. Anatomy of the digestive tract including accessory organs and the main role of each  organ including possible secretions (enzymes and juices), (lectures).

• Nose  

• connection between brain, digestive system, and sense of smell  

• Mouth & Esophagus  

• chews food and mixes with saliva  

• where digestive process begins  

• amylase in saliva breaks down carbs into smaller glucose links  

• lipase breaks down fat

• bolus is the form food is in after being chewed  

• moves down esophagus by peristalsis  

• Stomach  

• J-shaped sac mixes food into chyme

• substance results after stomach mixes and liquifies food  

• can hold about 4L when full  

• pepsin breaks down protein  

• stomach produces gastric juice  

• HCI, hydrochloric acid, is a substance secreted in stomach to denature  protein  

• digestion in stomach is converting food to chyme  

• mucus protects stomach from acid  

• as chyme reaches end of stomach, must pass through pyloric sphincter into small  intestine  

• churns and mixes food, secretes gastric juice, HCI, and protein digesting enzymes  • Small Intestine  

• most absorption occurs here  

• 3 parts  

• duodenum (top)  

• jejunum (middle)  

• most absorption occurs  

• ileum (bottom)  

• end of it is beginning of colon  

• vitamin B12 absorbed  

• most minerals, except electrolytes, absorbed in duodenum and upper jejunum

• carbs, amino acids, and water soluble vitamins absorbed in jejunum and upper  ileum  

• lipids and fat soluble vitamins absorbed throughout ileum  

• designed to maximize contact w nutrients so body can absorb as many as possible  • folds back and forth many times, huge surface area  

• completes digestion and absorbs nutrients into blood or lymph  

• covered in villi and microvilli  

• villi increase surface area  

• lined with capillaries (“pick up” water soluble nutrients and carry to  liver)  

• microvilli assist absorption and secrete digestive enzymes  

• Alkaline Bicarbonate (bicarb)  

• released from pancreas into small intestine to neutralize acidic contents from  stomach  

• protects lining of small intestine

• Large Intestine  

• very little break down occurs  

• main roles  

• propulsion of contents  

• absorption of sodium and water  

• preparation of waste for defecation  

• absorbs water and sodium  

• contains bacteria  

• passes waste  

• contents take 12-24 hours to travel through  

• Lacteals  

• large vessels of lymph system that transport most fat-soluble molecules into blood  • Liver  

• makes bile, aids in digestion and absorption of fat  

• Pancreas  

• releases bicarbonate to neutralize intestinal contents, produces enzymes including  amylase, that digest carbohydrates, proteins, and fat  

• Gallbladder  

• stores bile and releases it into the small intestine when needed  

• bile helps with fat digestion  

9. General metabolic pathway of carbohydrate, protein and fat in the call (lectures) • Carbohydrate Metabolic Path

• Glucose (end product of digestion), in ATP can be made in cytosol with enough  oxygen energy is produced, in mitochondria converted to Acetyl Coa > Citric Acid  Cycle > pushed into electron transport chain> converted from ADP to ATP • Fat Metabolic Path  

• Fatty Acid (end product of digestion), in mitochondria converted to Acetyl Coa >  Citric Acid Cycle > pushed into elctron transport chain> converted from ADP to  ATP

• Protein Metabolic Path  

• Amino Acid (end product of digestion), in mitochondria converted to Acetyl Coa >  Citric Acid Cycle > pushed into elctron transport chain> converted from ADP to  ATP

10. Absorption of macronutrients in the small and large intestine

• Carbohydrates, fats, and proteins need to be digested to smaller units  before possibility of absorption  

• water, a micronutrient, does not need to be broken down before absorption  • Carbs  

• mouth (amylase) —> stomach (no more breakdown) —> small intestine —>  single sugars ready for absorption  

• in small intestine

• broken down by enzyme released from pancreas, pancreatic  

amylase, into smaller chains of glucose  

• several enzymes from lining of small intestine continue breakdown

• Fats  

• mouth (lipase) —> small intestine (most) —> emulsification (broken down to  fatty acids and glycerol) —> make triglycerides —> enter vessels of lymphatic  system (first formed into chylomicrons that enable fat to travel in watery blood) — > triglycerides broken down and used for energy or stored  

• in small intestine  

• smaller molecules rejoin to make triglycerides  

• after fat absorbed, bile continues through intestine and most reabsorbed in  ileum or bound by fiber and excreted  

• Protein  

• digestion begins in stomach —> pepsin breaks down protein —> small intestine  —> amino acids absorbed and travel to liver —> in liver, future depends how  many carbs consumed —> absorbed amino acids can make proteins or glucose, or  amino acid pool  

• in small intestine  

• enzymes secreted by pancreas break them into smaller units

• enzymes from wall of small intestine act on peptides (break off one amino  acid at a time, then they travel in blood to liver)  

• Water  

• most absorbed in small intestine  

• small amount absorbed in large intestine  

• rest secreted in feces  

• absorbed by following sodium and other nutrients, like glucose, across wall of  intestine

11. BMI and its effect on health

• Body Mass Index  

• height/weight relationship to assess obesity  

• (weight x 704.5) / height (in^2)  

• 18.5: underweight  

• 25 or greater: overweight  

• 30 or greater: obese  

• cannot distinguish between between fat and muscle mass

12. Obesity and factors linked to the obesity

• The #1 US pubic health nutrition problem  

• linked with heart disease, diabetes, stroke, and cancer  

• caused by positive energy balance (eating more than burning)  

• BMI 30 or greater  

• caused by genetics and behavior and environment  

13. Exercise and fuel for physical activity

• Fats, carbohydrates, and a small amount of protein can be used for fuel during aerobic  exercise

• Physical fitness incorporates cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, muscular  endurance, and flexibility

• benefits  

• increases HDL, lowers resting heart rate, lowers blood pressure, manage stress,  improves sleep, decreases depression and anxiety, self-esteem, maintain muscle,  overall feeling of well-being

• helps prevent  

• heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, cancer, osteoporosis  

• types  

• strength training to build muscle and raise metabolism  

• aerobic to burn calories  

14. Nutrient requirements of a professional athlete and physically active person  

• Professional Athlete  

• Carbs: 6-12 grams/kg/day (depends on duration)  

• Protein: 1.2-1.7 grams/kg/day (depends on sport)  

• Fat: remainder of kcal needs  

• eat meal including carbs 1-4 hours before workout  

• consume easy digestible carb during workout (sports drink)  

• eat meal within hour of workout  

• 0.5 grams/pound of carb  

• 15-25 grams of whey protein or 2 cups of milk  

• Physically Active  

• Carbs: 5-7 grams/kg/day (2.5-3 grams/lbs/day)  

• Protein: 0.8-1.0 grams/kg/day (0.4-0.5 grams/lbs/day)  

• Fat: remainder of kcal needs  

• eat meal of carbs no more than 4 hours before workout  

• eat meal within hour of workout of carbs and protein  

• workouts longer than 45 min, consume easily-digestible carb during it (sports  drink)  

15. Body glucose needs and production during physical activity • carbs benefit performance and maintain levels  

16. Fluid requirements during physical activity

• during workout drink 4-6 cups an hour  

• water if <1 hour, sports drink if >1 hour

17. Characteristics of fad diets

• 95% fail  

• doesn't involve permanent lifestyle changes  

• doesn’t allow for real-life situations  

• low calorie  

• doesn’t mention the need for increased physical activity  

• water loss not permanent or desirable  

• muscle loss not desirable  

• fasting/skipping meals  

• metabolism drops  

• leads to overeating  

18. Vitamin A and beta-carotene

• contributes to disease resistance, skin health, gene regulation, digestive tract, and bone  growth  

• occurs in retinol, retinal, and retinoic acid  

• Beta-carotene is an antioxidant found in plants. This plant pigment is converted into  vitamin A if needed in the small intestine, and thus it is referred to as a precursor to  vitamin A. The units in which beta-caro- tene and other precursors such as carotenoids  are measured are called retinol activity equivalents or RAE. About 12 µg of beta carotene will produce 1 µg of retinol; thus, you need 12 times as much beta-carotene to  get the same benefit as retinol.  

• Found in animal tissue, dairy, fortification, carotenoids, and supplements  • Retinol is the most active form, stored in liver  

• crucial to vision (Bitot's spot)

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