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UMB / Education / EDHD 411 / What types of information could children use to parse words out of con

What types of information could children use to parse words out of con

What types of information could children use to parse words out of con

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How do children being learning language?




What counts as language?




Why is language important?



3-6-2017 Foundations of Language and Word Learning Why is language important? - Human languages appears to be a unique phenomenon without  significant analogues in the animal world o Unique to human  Language allows us to be human—inventing everything  and community  - Human vocalization for flexibles in purpose, unlike other primates o You can use a vocalization to squIf you want to learn more check out What is a process of motivating someone, through communication, to change a particular belief, attitude or behavior?
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eal and cry—positive, negative  and neutral o Noises that we make with our mouths from step one is diff than  primates What counts as language? - Every newborn communicates from birth to 3 months using 5 distinct  sounds Language: - Shared system of arbitrary symbols that refer to things, even in the  absence of those things - Arbitrary symbols- no relationship between sound and meaning - Intentionally communicative  o Idea that you want to get across by saying these words - Follows rules of structure (grammar) How do children being learning language? - Recognizing speech o What is speech and all other noise - Categorizing sounds - Finding words - Finding meaning and understand communication Recognizing Speech - Babies come into world prepared to recognized speech - As soon as they are born, infants prefer to listen to  o Their mom, their native language, things they heard a lot in the  womb, and infant directed speech - Infant Directed Speech (IDS) o The speaking style asuldes use when talking to children o Pitch is highly variable o Shorter utterances o More pauses o Experiment and graph—everything is not so variable in adult  speech, but it is while talking to children  There are more pauses, exaggerated For both mothers and fathers—there is higher pitch and  more variability ∙ Fathers are still lower because they have lower  voices o Why might parents use IDS?  Gets infants’ attention—stimulating  It conveys emotion—gets them into what they do it ∙ This is why infants prefer to listen to it over adult  directed speech  Might hilghy words in the speech stream ∙ That word that is high pitched—focuses that word— baby pays attention to it and keep it in them Categorizing Sounds - Caterogrial perception - Do infants perceive speech sounds categorically? o Not just seeing speech as continuous variable but cateogricaizing sounds into different cateogires - Infants are born able to discriminate between all languages, but lose  the ability by 12 months—they lose the ability to distibguish bwtween  sounds thye haven’t experiences o English speeking babies—6-8 months are good at it, 8-10 months not as good, and by 12 months—lose the ability Finding Words - Why might it be a problem for infants? o There is no silence between words and speech—sounds might  just flow o The silences in the sentences don’t line up with the words—can  be within words - What types of information could children use to parse words out of  continueous speech stream? o Stress information  Many languages have consistent stress patten for  multisyllabic words ∙ 90% of words stress the beg (MOmmy, Doggy,) ∙ 10% at the end—guitar  7.5 months old can make use of this information ∙ since the strong weak—stress pattern does not cover 100% of English words, this strategy can lead to  mistakes as well o guiTAR is= can be segmented into gui taris o Statistical Regularities  Sounds or syllables that are part of the same word  reliability follow another—high transitional probability ∙ Pretty—ty follow re Sounds or syllables that are not part of same   GET FROM SLIDES  Results—intants listened longer to nonwords and part  words ∙ 2 minutes were suffiencent for tehm to parse the  wors out of the speech stream by using transitional  probabliies ∙ this kind of information can be used by young kids to  figure out where the words are o Phonotactic Concerns  Phonotactic constraints—the sound combinations allowed  by a language ∙ Nt- can occur within a words in the English language,  but mt cannot be found, but it is allowed in German  ∙ Use this info to segment words o If you run into mt, you have a word boundary  between the m and the t—com(e) to class YOUNG CHILDREN COME INTO THE WORLD PREPARED TO RECONGINZE  SPEECH, CATEGORIZE SOUNDS, FIND WORDS—capacities that kids come into the world with - Start to figure it out and isolate words, but still need the meaning Finding meaning- - 8 months to 18 months— o 10-15 words at 8 months to understand, but at 16 months— median is around 150 words—much variality though o to talk—crazy variability—takes long—by 14 months can only say a handful of words o predicatable vocabulatry - the compostion of early vocabulary o size of vocab on x axis, and y axis—proportion of   learn social terms quckly and aren’t that many of them, so  goes down, but nouns start high and continue high  because there are so many ∙ nouns are overrepresented because they can see  them and people talk about them o once you know nouns, you can move on - the problem of mapping words to meaning (quine) o parent says “gavagai!”—what can it mean  gavagai can mean dog, but is also can mean fur, eye,  brown, nose, pebbele. Dog’s name, big thing- infinite  possibilities of meaning ∙ no way of knowing really  but how can children overcome this then?? Possibilbel solutions to the induction problem: ∙ Word learning constraints/assumptions o Either built in or learned very early—can  constrain it o Sensitivity to social cues (eye gaze, pointing) o Cross situational statistics  What is there when you hear the word in  specific environments ∙ Word Learning constraint o Children coe ot the word leanring situation with some innate or very early developing best first  guesses reared word meaning, which constrain  the space of possible things a word could refer  to  Whole object assumption ∙ Children assume that new words  they hear refer to whole object— gavagai—is whole object—can’t be  paw, but can be dog, pebble or  collar ∙ Is this enough though? What else  do you need?  Taxonomic assumption—categories of  individuals ∙ Children assume that new words  that they hear refer to whole  objects in taxonomic categories  o Naming the category o Gavagai can mean dog ∙ Also very useful for word extension —figuring out what other objects  can be named by this word o How this word should be  used later ∙ At first, this assumption seemed  unlikely because young children  seemed unable to sort objects into  taxonomic categories o Prefer thematic relations— prefer to sort objects by  things together o Hats with people- because  people wear hats, not two  people or two hatso Came up with task where you showed the child an object  with either no word or word— so hand them a toy dog and  say—can you give me  another one? Half the time  they give a dog and half time they give bones (thematic),  but with word, they go with  the category and show dog ∙ When they learn a new word— assume that it is representing a  whole object  Mutual exclusivity assumption— everything has a name ∙ Many words don’t refer to whole  objects—want to teach nose or tail, so this comes to the rescue ∙ Mutual exclustivity= words are  mutally exclusive= each object has only one label o Its not a bird, it’s a parrot o Child already knows the word dog, so kids infers that  gavagai must mean  something else ∙ Evidence—If they know word for  something, then think that it must  mean a part—they know fish, so  when asked, which is the fin, they  are able to say part ∙ Hand child an interesting toy— o Within 1 sec, the chld activiely checks the  speaker—when they hear a novel word, they  see what the speaker is looking at o Show child both toyds, and ask can you hand  them the new word, and see if they can hand  you the right thing  16-17 months—chose at chance—they  aren’t sure  18-19 months- 66% correctly choose the  object that they were not playing with ∙ they were actively playing before,  so have to grasp their attention∙ right hear is where you see the  inflection point—when learn new  words, have to pay attention to  intentions of speaker  Cross Situational Word Learning ∙ It takes a long time ∙ Show them a target and distractor—14 months look  at the target—they are pretty sure they know which  one it is  o Smth and Yu How do children begin learning language? - Recgonziging speech from birth—prepared for it - Categorize speech sounds—learn to hear souns that their language  uses - Finding words—use diff strategies—pay attention to stress, natural  stats - Finding meaning and understanding communatiocnation—map words  onto correct graphs3-8-2017 Grammar and communication Language is Hierarchal Organized - Literally perceptual stimulus—sound waves - Phonological level—individual phonemes and different sounds - Morphological/lexical level—words - Syntactical level—sentence diagram and understanding how a  sentence worked Children need to process all of these simultaneously - How do they understand the order in which sentences need to go? Acquisition of Syntax - Understanding words have to be innate - Words are independent from syntax—universal grammar has to be  there - Words grammatically can be put in a sentence and still not make sense —have the right parts to it but not make sense—but you can’t fudge  around with the sentence order because it doesn’t adhere to properties and language - Rules of syntax in language that governs word order independently  from what makes the sentence make sense o Colorless green ideas sleep furiously—correct grammarly, but  doesn’t make sense Hierarchal Structure - 2 sisters reunited after 18 year at check-out counter—what does this  mean - Drunk gets nine months in violin case - Depends how you parse the sentence—can make sense - Acquisition of vocabulary and words are independent from how words  go together Grammatical Development Through Youtube - Babbling o Language o It has to do with practicing sounds of language  Even deaf children—babble with hands - Words- learn one words - Telegraphic- snippets of sentences—not full blown grammar but have  meaning still - Speech but sometimes it doesn’t come out just right - Pretty rapid development—from age 1 (speech sounds) to age 3  (making sentences) Four Hypotheses-- Innate o Aquiting structure without input o Young deaf children who are unable to acquire an oral language  naturally and have not been exposed to a convential manual  language were found to use spontaneously a gesture system that has some if the structural characteristic of early child language o Point to look at—moms try to sign with kids, and then the child’s  use  Mom’s use of the construction and child’s are very different ∙ Mom’s vary quite a bit and try to come up with  different constructions, but child does the same thing every time and generate the same kind of structure o Non Standard Language Input  Nicaraguan Sign Language developed into a full-fledged  language through their interactions of generation of  children ∙ They started making up their own language and  signs—and then developed into a full fledge  language with rules—they constructed the  grammatical rules - Correct/direction teaching o No evidence the parents correct grammar  When the children make an error, parents don’t correct the  children ∙ Says that’s right… ∙ When there is disapproval—it is more about the  content, not the grammar o Children don’t pick up on the corrections when people correct  them  They are focused on communicating—not focused on  grammar, as long as they get their meaning across o Reformulation as Negative Evidence  Parents aren’t explicitly correcting, but continuing the  conversation and providing more evidence  Reformulation of children’s utterances can serve as  negative evidence ∙ What did you do? Can I go to school? You went to  school with your brother? o They reformaulte it in the grammatically  correct form and elaborate it, but not actually  correct o Some level they are correcting it, but they are  not actively correcting it - Imitation o Wug Test Know how to make it plural ∙ Either add s or es to the end ∙ Almost entirely regulars: book books o Very few irregular forms (about 10 forms)   Know how to make it past tense ∙ Mostly regular and occasional 100 different irregular  forms  Implicit understanding of how to do this and can generalize it  If children say “goed” then they learned the past tense  rule, and not just imitating because that is not how we say  it o - rule learning  o mind as generalizer  similarity, analogy-- new behavior is created by analogy to  old behavior  probabilistic rules—mental representation as probabilistic  rules o Eat ate  Learning error—should really be eated normally—not  regular ∙ If innate, then should always be ate because no one  says eated ∙ Rule Learning—first it will start off at ate because of  innate, but then learn the past tense rule and start  saying ate (the incorrect form), but then levels off  with ate (correct form) ∙ This happens actually o This only makes sense with learning and  generalizing grammatical rules  Overregulatization ∙ Some irregulars learned by rote o Tense to be very high  frequency o Then over-generalizing the  predominant pattern o Finally, correct performance  on regualrs o Syntactic Bootstrapping—slideeee  Nouns you don’t have to do much to figure it out  But mass nouns and verbs you have to learn grammar  Because of the structure of the sentence, you know that  duck is the actor and bunny is being acted upoin, and by  age 2, children look or point at the correct thing ∙ With girl and boy- they can do it under age two ∙ With syntax—they can figure it out Four Hypothesis - Innate- but, depends on input - Corrective/direct teaching—but parents don’t correct and kids don’t  care when they do - Imitation—but kids generalize beyond their evidence - Rule learning—generalize based on input o Innateness, teaching, or imitation are not enough to learn  grammar—need to learn rules from input Learning to Communicate - How we use language to communicate Turn-taking - Baby smiles and then mom response and then baby burps and mother  responds and then baby sounds and mom repsonds—beginnings of  turn taking o Baby might not be communicative but mom is implicitly showing  talk and response - Begins in earliest interactions Gaze Following - Babies can follow gaze by around 9 months - Helps establish joint attention—proablay talking about whats over  there - Recognize speaker intention from gaze by about 16 months—talking  about what youre looking at, not what the baby was looking at Poin Communicataly by about 1 year - To get something they want - To share attention - To inform location o They understand that pointing gesture has meaning and  meaning can be interpreted by adults From beginning, language use is driven by desire to communicate and share  intention - At its root that is what language is about Pragmatic Failure - Preschoolares have difficultey taking prospective o Egocentric - Pragmatic and communiation o When you say one thing and then another thing, they are  supposed to be connected to each other o Quantity: give only as much information as is necessaryo Quality: be truthful o Relation: be relevant o Manner: be clear in what you are saying  Don’t want to be too vague or give too many details, stay  on topic to context, don’t be ambiguous and just be clear— so we can read into what people mean - Scaler Implicature o Some of the students came to class  Implies not all came to class  Children make errors in implicature until surprisingly late  (around 5)— ∙ Some of the horses jumped over the fence (when all  did) o Children go with literal meaning, but until age  5- wouldn’t say all of them  They understand some means at least 1 Understanin Pragmaticis - Childrenhave the chalgnefge of not only learning individual  - SLIDESSS Languae Learning - Learning words o Convergen strategies o Importance of input - Learning grammar o Inferring rules from varied input - Learning to communicate o Early turn taking o Learning to make pragmatic inferences

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