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UNIVERSITY OF MEMPHIS / History / HIST 1110 / When did agriculture start?

When did agriculture start?

When did agriculture start?

Description

School: University of Memphis
Department: History
Course: World Civilization I Honors
Professor: Ramsey
Term: Spring 2016
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: World Civil I SG
Description: These notes cover what's going to be on our midterm
Uploaded: 03/17/2017
6 Pages 160 Views 6 Unlocks
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World Civilization I


When did agriculture start?



Spring Semester 2017

INSTRUCTOR: Dr. Dennis Laumann

Mid-Term STUDY GUIDE===Terms!!! 

Agriculture 

∙ Began around 9000 B.C.E

∙ Early Holocene Era begins

∙ 1st thing domesticated is staple of their country

o 1st thing domesticated was wheat in West Asia  


What is cahokia?



(Fertile Crescent)  

o Coffee domesticated in Ethiopia, Northeast Africa ∙ Rivers important; farming concentrated around equator ∙ Lead to new tools & tech leading to Stone Age If you want to learn more check out What is the theory of island biography?

∙ Created settled communities, bigger population, & trade ∙ Lead to 1st leadership role in history (chief)

Cahokia 

∙ Located in North America in Illinois

∙ Has man-made mounds—places where the elite would be  buried

o Some mounds were temples; bigger than pyramids of Egypt

∙ One of the biggest settlements in North America at the  time  

(5-25,000 people)


What is ethnoarchaeology?



Code of Hammurabi 

∙ Marked the evolution to a more complex society ∙ Post-Sumerian code made by Babylonian King,  Don't forget about the age old question of What is social exchange theory?

Hammurabi formed in 1750 B.C.E

∙ Seemed to be based on earlier concepts—earlier laws are  also laws

∙ Code provides insight of property rights, urban life/crime,  and social & gender divisions at that time (ex: if the house has collapsed on the son of the owner, killing him, then  the son of the builder shall be put to death

∙ The code is a list of 282 laws

Creation and Origin myths 

∙ Creation myth—stories about the universe

∙ Origin myths—stories about the creation of man  Ethnoarchaeology 

∙ Methodology of studying living people to understand past  cultures

∙ Known only thru archeology Don't forget about the age old question of What is the function of the vestibulospinal tract?

∙ Possible way to learn about hunter gatherers

Gender 

∙ Describes the socially constructed roles and meaning  ascribed to being male/female Don't forget about the age old question of Living standards are determined by what?

∙ Man behavior is usually powerful and protective while a  woman’s behavior tends to be emotional and submissive ∙ Society makes up these roles  

∙ Among the San people, women were responsible for  gathering which was regarded as the most important part We also discuss several other topics like What is lactose intolerance?

Gregorian Calendar 

∙ Made by Pope Gregory III in the 16th century

∙ Cultural and historical aspects influenced by Christian  beliefs

∙ Based on linear concept of time (a.k.a. Roman Calendar) ∙ Calendar reflects the way we think about time and  reinforces it

∙ Still is used today; time is socially constructed

Harrapan Civilization 

∙ Indus valley civilization

∙ First excavations in 1920s

∙ Over 70 cities

o Were planned cities (thought about & designed) o Streets had grid like pattern

o Public buildings (cemetaries, baths, wells)

o Sanitation

o Had granar (stored extra crops)

∙ Had regional trade networks

o Cotton textiles, importance of beads (form of  currency), lapiz lazuli (pretty stone)

∙ Jewelry  

o Social stratification (richer people would buy it) o Had jobs (economic specialization)

o Kid toys (showed kids had some childhood)

∙ Well off complex society

∙ Harrapan Writing

∙ Invaded by the Aryans immigrants Don't forget about the age old question of What is cultural ascendency?

Hieroglyphs 

∙ Hiero=sacred; glyph=carving

∙ Began about 3500- 3000 B.C.E

∙ Egyptian writing system based on use of  

pictograms/ideograms

∙ Largely used for monumental inscriptions

∙ Symbols depicting people animals, or objects represent  words, syllables or sounds

∙ 2 kinds: formal—hieratic; shorthand—demotic  Homo Erectus (upright man) 

∙ About 1.8 mya (same time period as homo egaster) ∙ Pyrotechnology= make, control, and put out a fire o Fire very important—kills bacteria, makes food  healthier, hygienic)

∙ Can move to colder areas (can preserve meat in cold) ∙ 1st Hominid to move out of Africa 1mya

Jenne-Jenno

∙ Inland Niger Delta in Nigeria (empties into Atlantic) ∙ Around 3rd century BCE Mali (in West Africa)

∙ 1st known city in sub-Sharan Africa

∙ Surrounded by wall (most likely to control trade) ∙ Lived in neighboring clusters that were functionally  interdependent

∙ Agriculture

o Yams, okra, wild palm, rice, watermelon, fish  

resources

∙ Trade

o Trans-shipment point—different transportations meet at 1 point)

o Manufacturing center—made cotton textiles & metal  work

o Trans-Saharan trade network

∙ Evidence

o No written language; has archeological evidence o The spindle whirl (which turns cotton into thread) &  fish hooks proved they had technology & knew how  to make it & the importance of thread & fishing  

Metallurgy 

∙ Removal of metal from rock

∙ Importance of pyro-technology (a.k.a complex technology) o Must know what metal it is & mine it

o Must build a furnace

o Make & use fuel (charcoal)

o Know technology of doing the process = smelting o Blacksmiths take the metal & turn it into something ∙ Earliest evidence 6000 B.C.E

o North America (copper)

o Later evidence found in areas that had agriculture  first (Central America, West Africa, West & East Asia)

Necropolis

∙ City of death—cemetery

∙ Elites originally buried like other people (buried with  food/jewelry)  

∙ Importance of death is just as important as living ∙ Old Kingdom starts building pyramids (built for ideological  reasons); where pharaohs were buried--some had steps to ‘heaven’

Oracle Bones 

∙ Found in ancient China during Shang Dynasty

∙ Bones of animals or shells of turtles that were inscribed  with symbolic notation, then placed in the fire, and tapped with a rod until they began to crack

∙ Specialists read the cracks to predict the future ∙ Some oracle bone inscriptions confirmed Sima Qian’s  accounts of early Shang rulers  

Patricians 

∙ Class that had full citizenship under the Republic of Rome ∙ Also called “free men” (only 7-10% of population) ∙ Had legal skills & codified Rome’s existing customary  practices into the Law of the Twelve Tablets

∙ Were Aristocrats; part of noble families & had property ∙ Monopolized membership in Senate & religious offices of  the state

Polis 

∙ Greek form of political organization (Greek city-state) ∙ Small, organized government based on 1 central city but  enough land around it to support its agricultural needs;  few thousand people in 1 polis

∙ Independent politically but united culturally by Greek  language, myth-history & Olympic games

∙ Each polis developed its own government

Teotihuacan 

∙ From 100-750 CE

∙ Located in Mexico; major city

∙ Marked beginning of an urban revolution; one of the  earliest areas of urbanization; developed independently  from rest of world

∙ Contemporary with Rome (at the same time)

∙ No written language—evidence from archaeology ∙ Whole city is an archeological site

∙ Many religious sites – named “City Of The Gods” ∙ Pyramid of the Sun & pyramid of the Moon—major sites of  Teotihuacan; biggest pyramids outside Egypt

∙ Trade & Manufacturing (obsidian—made arrowheads) ∙ Agriculture was basis for society

o Maize, beans, squash, avocado, chili peppers, turkey ∙ Drainage systems—had canals that would bring water to  the city (water was far away)

Hunter/Gatherers 

∙ Food collecting (water, fruit, nuts, insects, seeds, roots,  grains)

∙ Hunting

o Hunted small animals because they were easier to  kill

o Larger animals would have wasted time & effort ∙ Technology

o Sticks to collect honey/ants

o People hunted & gathered in groups

o No permanent settlements; seasonal migration

o Knew their environment

∙ Art: cave paintings depict hunters; proved they had leisure time

o Could be form of communication or depict their lives  in the real world

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