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hist 2112 uga

Description

School: University of Georgia
Department: History
Course: American History Since 1865
Professor: Rohrer
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: hist, history, and american
Cost: 50
Name: HIST 2112 study guide exam 2
Description: These notes cover the material that will be on the second exam in HIST 2112. I have highlighted the important documents, names, and vocabulary.
Uploaded: 03/17/2017
10 Pages 6 Views 12 Unlocks
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Key: People Terms Documents 


What is the Anti-war movement in WW1?



HIST 2112: American History Since 1865 Exam 2 Study Guide

The Red Scare and Nativism 

1. The end of Progressive reform

a. Optimism and progressivism dies down with the hopelessness of  WWII

2. Warfare and the application of social conflict

a. Social conflict- the struggle for agency or power in society b. Wartime was used as an excuse for people to those they had  grudges against (such as immigrants)

3. Anti-war movement in WW1

a. WW1 was a war of political rivalries between Germany, Ottoman  Empire, and Austria-Hungary Empire; and Britain, France, Russia,  and (much later) the US. The introduction of industrialism  warfare increased the number of deaths significantly (roughly  15,000 per day). This led to hopelessness and anti-war  Don't forget about the age old question of psyc 266

movements.

b. Isolationists and anti-imperialists  

i. Anti-imperialists- believed the policy of extending the rule  of another nation was against what America stood for.


What is Anti-imperialists?



Don't forget about the age old question of andar rasal

ii. Isolationists- people who favored a policy of remaining  

apart from the affairs or interests of other groups,  

especially the political affairs of other countries.

iii. They felt that WW1 defied their core beliefs. William  

Jennings Brian was a supporter.

c. Labor protestors  

i. While pay was raised during times of war (to increase  

production), many labor protestors were anti-war,  

especially the Industrial Workers of the World. 

ii. They believed that lower class workers across the globe  should be united against capitalists. Workers shouldn’t  

have to die for the capitalist’s cause. “Rich man’s war,  

poor man’s battle”

iii. Eugene V. Debbs supported this movement

4. The reaction to anti-war activities We also discuss several other topics like the journal entry to close out a debit balance in rent expense of $200 for the period would be:

a. Nativism increased, and people grew suspicious of immigrants,  since they sided with their homelands. Many people were anti German.


What is Isolationists?



b. American Protection League- Their purpose was to ensure loyally  to the US. They raided men for draft papers, questioned people’s loyalty, and advised spying on one’s neighbors.

Key: People Terms Documents 

c. Committee for Public Information- They are famous for giving  speeches and creating propaganda posters (EX: ‘I WANT YOU’  poster).

d. Post offices refused to carry anti-war documents and newspapers e. Espionage Act- It allowed people to be arrested for “interfering”  with the military and speaking out against war efforts.  

i. The Sedition Act added on to this, allowing that people  

could be penalized for “disloyal, profane, and abusing  Don't forget about the age old question of bsc it notes

language” about the government.

5. Supreme court reactions

a. They ruled that the government could lawfully imprison anti-war  supporters. (Shnek v the States, Abrams v the States, Pierce v  the States)

6. The “Red Scare”

a. Someone sent bombs to pro-war individuals. After one was sent  to Mitchell Palmer, he decided that a movement was afoot and  worked with the Department of Justice and Edgar Hoover to  launch the Palmer Raid.

i. 10,000 people were thrown into jail under suspicion. Many  weren’t arrested (which is illegal) and many were the  

wrong people. We also discuss several other topics like biol 1002

Modernism in the 1920s 

1. The twenties and the return to “normalcy”  

a. America has become urbanized, however, there are still battles  between rural vs urban, new vs old, and modernists vs  

traditionalists.

b. While many embrace the changes and progress, others feel that  something is being lost.

2. An economic snapshot of the twenties

a. Manufacturing increased exponentially and income per capita  increased. (it increased far more for the very wealthy)

b. The government promoted business

c. Farmers increased production for the war, but they experienced  overproduction after, causing prices to plummet. Many farmers  had to mover North to pursue industrial jobs.

3. Calvin Coolidge  

a. He embodied both the “old” and the “new” schools of thought.  He was a champion of industry, yet a conservative with old fashioned values

4. The rise of consumerism  

a. Consumerism dominated the economy Don't forget about the age old question of comm 287 exam 1

b. The automobile- The Ford Model T was created and became  extremely popular

Key: People Terms Documents 

c. Mail order catalogues- People could easily order consumer goods, from furniture, to technology.  

d. Advertising- It became very sophisticated and targeted. It  encouraged people to buy products that they didn’t need.

e. Celebrity culture- People begin to become famous for being  associated with the consumer economy (athletes, actors, etc.) 5. A culture of conformity

a. Some believed that consumerism was equivalent to freedom and an “assimilating force” (the belief that it pulls society together). b. Others viewed it as shallow materialism

c. Babbit- Sinclair Lewis criticized consumerism. The book ironically became a consumer item.

6. Women and the consumer lifestyle

a. With most women working, they began to feel a growing sense of freedom and independence.

b. Flapper- a woman who embraced urban progress

7. The “new negro”

a. Many African Americans moved north for industrial work (many  were released from sharecropping due to lack of profit).

b. African Americans begin expressing pride for their “blackness”  through art and music.  

8. Backlash against modernism

a. Fundamentalism- a form of a religion, especially Islam or  Protestant Christianity, that upholds belief in the strict, literal  interpretation of scripture. It is the religious reaction to  

consumerism/modernism.

b. The KKK reforms, this time in protest of immigrants and blacks.  Women join to protest flappers.

Progressivism  

1. Franklin D. Roosevelt: American savior or Satan?

a. The economy collapsed in 1929, causing the Great Depression b. Hoover ran for re-election in 1932 and FDR won in a landslide  and went on to become the most important president of the 20th century.

c. He and his people were dubbed as the “New Dealers”. They  increased the role of the federal government in people’s lives. i. Liberalism- The belief that the federal government is a  

useful tool and has the obligation to “flex its muscles” and  fix social problems.

d. The New Deal is essentially progressivism reborn  

2. Herbert Hoover and the laissez -faire approach

Key: People Terms Documents 

a. He was a very intelligent progressive republican who believed in  philanthropy. He also believed that the government shouldn’t be so hands on.

b. He reacted very poorly to the depression  

i. Economic orthodoxy- he believed it would work itself out  and he did nothing at first.

ii. Voluntary cooperation- He believed that anything done  should be by private people. This didn’t work because  

eventually businesses had to fire employees and cut  

wages.  

iii. Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC)- Authorized large loans (“bailouts”) to large businesses and banks. Several  

billion dollars were set aside for public service projects.

c. Bonus Army- Veterans of WWI were promised a financial payment after their service in the war. During the economic collapse, they demanded the bonus earlier. They would camp in DC and  Hoover hired McArthur to chase them off at gunpoint. They  never received their bonuses.  

d. Hooverville- This refers to the settlements built by the homeless  in the Great Depression. Many blamed their situation of Hoover. 3. The New Deal 

a. The five agendas

i. Relieve immediate suffering- People were literally starving  to death and could become revolutionary if nothing was  

done to prevent it.

ii. Save the banks- Banks were going bankrupt

iii. Jumpstart industry- increase the money in the economy iv. Address the agricultural crisis- Farmers were overproducing and were losing money.

v. Make work- Programs would restore morale since many felt bad taking handouts.

b. Federal Emergency Relief Act (FERA)- Authorized cash payments  to people who could prove how poor they were. They were given a chunk of money for necessities.  

c. The Banking Act- Banks closed for 8 days. They were  

investigated and only allowed to open when deemed “healthy”.  This restored faith in the banks and people began to put their  money back in.

i. FDIC- insurance for a bank account

ii. Glass-Stegall Act- Banks were no longer allowed to put  people’s money on the market.

d. National Recovery Administration (NRA)- The goal was to  eliminate "cut-throat competition" by bringing industry, labor,

Key: People Terms Documents 

and government together to create codes of "fair practices" and  set prices.

e. Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)- Farmers experienced  overproduction after WWI so the government paid them not to  farm. This increased scarcity/demand and put more money into  the economy, however sharecroppers were fired and suffered  from the AAA.

f. Make work programs- The government paid the unemployed to  do work

i. Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)- They did environmental  remediation work.

ii. Public Works Administration (PWA)- They were responsible  for building many dams.

iii. Workers Progressive Administration (WPA)- They dug  

ditches, built skyscrapers, and sidewalks. They also hired  artists to “beautify” the country.

World War II 

1. Depression and the rise of fascism and liberalism

a. Germany was bitter after losing the war (and being required to  pay for the damages) and experiencing a depression and were  looking for someone to blame

b. Hitler led the campaign against Jews. The Nazis then gained  control over most of Europe.  

c. The Japanese empire conquered much of China, Indonesia,  Mulan, etc. to take their resources. The attack on Pearl Harbor  began the war between the US and Japan.

2. The New Deal and the origins of liberalism

a. The economic collapse affected many countries and was without  parallel.  

b. The US government felt that it was their duty to fix it (with the  New Deal).

c. WWII ended the depression and it reinforced and solidified the  idea of a powerful government.

3. Preparing for the war

a. Isolationism redux- America experienced a revival of  

isolationism.  

b. The attractions of consumerism

c. The New Deal began the organizational effort, aiding in  mobilization.

4. The New Deal goes to war

a. A large part of the New Deal was comprised of voluntary  cooperation and this was used to help with the war.

Key: People Terms Documents 

b. Production was incentivized with promises to pay well. The  government also made access to loans much easier and paid to  retool factories to produce machinery and other objects for the  war. Labor unions were also guaranteed higher wages.

c. The War Production Board (WPB) helped organize the war effort.  It was based on the NRA.

d. War Manpower Commission- Promote working women while the  men were fighting in the war.  

e. Office of Price Administration- They handled rations, fuel tokens,  oversaw prices, etc.

5. Women at War

a. Rosie the Riveter- A form of propaganda that challenged female  gender roles and encouraged women to join the workforce; “We  can do it!”

b. This opened employment opportunities for black women. 6. Revival of nativism

a. Wars intensify social conflicts and WWII was no exception.  b. The Japanese had already experienced discrimination for  decades. Teens and children living in America were born there. c. All people of Japanese ancestry were placed in internment camps for the duration of the war.  

i. This was a financial failure. Many people were forced to  leave their businesses and homes before leaving. Since  

they were unable to pay taxes the bank foreclosed their  

properties.

The Cold War Begins 

1. The eagle vs the bear: anti-communism and the cold war a. America defeated the Nazis and the Japanese surrendered. The  Russians slowly pushed the Germans back while other countries  pushed them back from other sides (D-Day).

b. Afterward, the Soviet Union replaced Germany as America’s #1  enemy. General George S. Patton even suggested that America  immediately begin WWIII by attacking the Russians for being  communists.

c. The Cold War- The Cold War was a state of political and military  tension after World War II between America and the Soviet Union. d. The Iron Curtain- Coined by Winston Churchill, the name for the  boundary dividing Europe into two separate areas from the end  of World War II in 1945 until the end of the Cold War in 1991. A  term symbolizes the efforts by the Soviet Union to block itself  and its satellite states from open contact with the West and non Soviet-controlled areas. 

2. The rise of containment

Key: People Terms Documents 

a. Containment- the prevention of the spread of communism  abroad. 

i. Articulated by George Kennan in Foreign Affairs, Americans must be “vigilant and firm” in containing communism. And  much like a chess game, if they make a move, then we  

make a move. 

3. Fascist Greece in 1947 

a. The British gave them money (so that they wouldn’t have to turn  to communism) by did not have money after the war. 

b. Truman, the current US president, asked congress for $400  million to aid Greece in the fight against communism.  

i. Truman Doctrine- established that the United States would  provide political, military, and economic assistance to all  

democratic nations under threat from communism.

c. Monolithic communism- the (false) belief that all communist  countries are united in purposes and directed by the Kremlin. 4. Non-violen

t containment

a. The Marshall Plan (1947)- Money was given to European  governments so that they could rebuild after the war. This would allow them to employ people and stimulate the economy (this  was essentially the New Deal applied to foreign policy).

i. When people are fed, clothed, housed, and employed, they are less likely to turn to communism.

b. The CIA sponsored art, music, and films that promoted American  values and anti-communism.

5. Potentially-violent containment

a. West Berlin was one of the few areas in Europe that was not  under communist control.  

b. Berlin Airlift (1948)- Supplies were flown into Berlin since they  were cut off from supplies. This is because they cut off their  railroad to cut off Russia.  

i. Eventually Russia surrendered because retaliating could  initiate WWIII.  

6. China goes communist and soviets get the bomb

a. This scares political figures and members of the Truman  administration pointed fingers, asking, “who lost China?”

b. Russians also figured out how to make atomic bombs

7. NCS-68- a famous document that summarized Russian military  capabilities and how to deal with them.  

8. Korean War

a. North Korea is communist and South Korea isn’t. In 1950, North  invades South with the help of Russia. US troupes aided South in pushing back the North and catching them by surprised. They

Key: People Terms Documents 

pushed too far, scaring China, so China helped push back South.  In the end, not much changes, so both sides signed a peace  treaty.

The Affluent Fifties 

9. Welcome to Levittown

a. The 50’s gave way to the rise of suburbs, nearly 2/3 of  

Americans live in suburbs.

b. Levittown- the model for all suburbs where modern methods for  construction were created.

c. The legacy of the New Deal and liberalism continued. In the  1950s and 1960s both major political parties included liberal and  conservative factions

10. Economic growth in the 1950s and beyond

a. Cold War spending- the US continued spending money on  defense and military

b. Government policy

c. The liberal consensus- The bipartisan popularity of moderate,  corporate-friendly liberalism in the 50s and 60d.  

i. Critics of liberalism didn’t dominate until the 80s

11. Corporate liberalism in action

a. Corporate liberalism- The idea is that both owners of  

corporations as well as high up government officials came  together to become the class of elites. The elite class then  conspires to keep power away from the low or middle class. b. Highway construction and housing

i. Federal Highway Act (1956)- authorized the construction of highways

ii. They stimulated economic growth because it creates jobs  and farmland was turned into housing (which stimulated  

the furniture and appliance industries).

12. Racism in the suburbs

a. Redlining- maps of neighborhoods were outlined either green,  red, blue, or yellow. Red ones couldn’t take out FHA loans, most  of which were black neighborhoods.  

b. Blockbusting- Real-estate workers created panic in  

neighborhoods that black families were moving in. Families  would sell their homes and the real-estate workers would resell  them at a higher price.

13. Hypercommunism- the consumption of goods for non-functional  purposes and the associated significant pressure to consume those  goods exerted by the modern, capitalist society, as those goods shape  one's identity.

a. The freedom to buy becomes an individual freedom.

Key: People Terms Documents 

b. Others believed that suburbanism was producing a generation of  conformists.

c. The creation of the teenager

i. They were separated by school, and industries catered to  them.

d. Feminism emerged from suburbia  

i. Many middle-class women felt suppressed in their  

lifestyles, and the second wave of feminism began.

ii. The Feminine Mystique- a book that launched the second  wave of feminism.  

The Civil Rights Movement 

1. The Second Reconstruction 

a. The 1960s saw the dismantling of Jim Crow segregation in the  Southern United States, whereas the "First Reconstruction" saw  the surrender of the Southern Confederacy and the dismantling  of the plantation slave system it upheld.

2. Why no civil rights movement until the 1960s?

a. There have always been ongoing civil rights movements. b. Blacks fought in the war, proving their patriotism, and returned  to discrimination (after living life in the military without it). This  was a major catalyst for the movement. Americans were  

hypocrites during the war, proclaiming freedom while practicing  segregation.

3. The legal approach (early 1950s)

a. Brown v. Board of Education- The NAACP schooled the school  system in the name of the Brown family. the Court declared  state laws establishing separate public schools for black and  white students to be unconstitutional.

b. It was thought that if the legal keystone of segregation could be  removed, then segregation could fall apart.

c. “massive resistance”- Any action used to attempt to stop  integration. Participants were often well educated and  

intelligent.

i. George Wallace and Lester Madison were advocates

ii. “school choice”- Children could choose which school they  would attend, but any blacks who chose to go to a white  

school risked their lives.

iii. “segregation academies”- private school could legally  

enforce segregation.

d. Little Rock High School was the first school to be desegregated 4. The civil disobedience approach (1955-65)

a. When the legal approach didn’t make much of a difference,  blacks practiced civil disobedience

Key: People Terms Documents 

b. Blacks boycotted Montgomery buses after Rosa Parks was  arrested. This depleted their money and they eventually settled. c. SCLC- an African-American civil rights organization.

d. Sit ins- Blacks sat in the white sections of restaurants and  refused to move

e. Non-violence as an official strategy- more powerful than fighting  back

i. Images of well-dressed African Americans being assaulted  and not fighting back were powerful and put pressure on  

the government.

f. SNCC- It grew out of the SCLC and their goal of increasing  student participation in the civil rights movement

g. Birmingham march- a movement organized by the SCLC to draw  attention to desegregation efforts.

h. Freedom rides- Riding a bus from North to South, remaining in  the white section.  

5. A successful legacy?

a. Civil rights act of 1964- determined that segregation was  unconstitutional  

b. Voting right act of 1965- made it possible for blacks to vote

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