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UGA / Science / ADSC 2300 / What is a no-kill shelter?

What is a no-kill shelter?

What is a no-kill shelter?


School: University of Georgia
Department: Science
Course: Companion Animal Care
Professor: Turner
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: dog, cat, breeds, puppy, Mills, house, and bills
Cost: 50
Name: ADSC 2300 - Test 2 Study Guide
Description: This study guide covers all material that will be on Test 2 including dog breeds, the beginning of cat breeds, and all our Hot Friday topics.
Uploaded: 03/18/2017
17 Pages 78 Views 5 Unlocks

Anti-Kill Shelter

What is a no-kill shelter?

What is a No-Kill shelter?

• Open admission shelters

• Don’t turn away any animal based on age, breed, health, behavior, etc.


• Treatable illnesses can be detrimental to these

• Even sick animals must be taken in and diseases can spread

• Adoptable and healthy animals can get sick and cost them the chance of being adopted • Force to euthanize animals


• Animals that can recover are given chance to

• Attract and retain more volunteers

• Generate more community shelter

• Must have save rate of 90%

What is a kill shelter?

• No animal is a lost cause

Moving towards “No Kill”

• CASA (Chicago Animal Shelter Alliance): group of shelters working to make Chicago a no kill  city

o Made changes to practices in their shelters in order to make being a “no kill” city  possible and overall a better alternative to “kill” shelters

o Some of the changes include

▪ Long hours

▪ Own adoption facilities

▪ Free spay and neuter program for low-income neighborhoods If you want to learn more check out What is the right to privacy?

▪ Welcome volunteers

▪ Allow private shelters to transfer animals that need help being adopted

Pro-Kill Shelter

What is a kill shelter?

Why is kill shelter needed?

• Open admission shelters

• Half of the admitted animals are euthanized because

Why are they needed?

• Animal shelters appeared in colonial times

• Huge problem of uncontrolled breeding

• Due to funding, space, and labor limitations, shelters turned to the necessary evil of  euthanizing


• Allowing cats and dogs to reproduce with little chance to find homes for offspring • Pets being relinquished

• 7-20% of pets entering home are no longer in that home 6 months

Animal Control Centers

• Protecting animals from dangers of wild and on street

• Protecting people and their property from possible dangers of uncontrolled animals • Help return animals to owners, adopt them out, held as evidence for criminal investigation,  to be euthanized We also discuss several other topics like What refers to the detection of information in the environment and transmission of it to the brain?

o Humane euthanasia due demand not meeting supply

Who gets euthanized If you want to learn more check out Define reinforcing successive approximations of a target behavior.

• Aggressive, suffering, or not adoptable

• Strays with no ID after 5 days

• Identifiable animals help for a min of 10 days and max of 14 days (for specific shelters)

• Pet surrendered by owners are immediate property of shelter and are held there for as long  as possible If you want to learn more check out Do gas particles collide with one another and transfer energy?

• Animals are up for adoption for about 2-3 months

Athens Clarke County (ACC) Animal Control

• Adoption or reclaiming of impounded and surrendered dogs, cats and other domestic  animals

• Enforcement of ACC animal control ordinances

• Information regarding lost or found pets

• Investigations of allegations of animal cruelty If you want to learn more check out What did the treaty of versailles in 1919 do?

• Public education on a variety of topics related to animals

• Public safety from dangerous or injured animals and at-large dogs

• Take volunteers

Controlling Populations

• Educating the public

• Governmental animal control

• Animal shelters and horse sanctuaries

• Animal adoption programs

• Animal rescue organizations

• Sterilization procedures

• Euthanasia

Sterilization of Females

• Ovariohysterectomy: removal of ovaries & uterus

o Prevents or lowers chance of:

▪ Mammary cancer

▪ Uterine cancer

▪ Unwanted pregnancies Don't forget about the age old question of How many babies go unadopted in the us?

▪ Mess, odor, attention of males

▪ Diabetes

o Risks:

▪ Complications with surgery

▪ Slight tendency to gain weight

o Performed at 8 weeks of age

▪ Used to be done at 6 months at the earliest

▪ Advantages: easier to get adopted out, more animals spayed, easier to  

recover when younger, don’t have to deal with heat

▪ No max age unless animal can’t go under anesthesia  

Sterilization of Males

• Orchidectomy (castration; gelding)

o Prevents:

▪ Testicular and epididymal disorders

o Decreases

▪ Perineal hernias

▪ Objectionable behaviors

o Traditionally 6-9 months (dogs/cats)

▪ Now 8 weeks

• There are implants that can be put in neutered dogs

• EsteriSol/Zeuterin: chemical sterilization; was banned for a while but now it’s been FDA  approved

o Injection of zinc into testicles; dog is sedated but not under general anesthesia

o Collapses anything that creates sperm; creates scar tissue within testicle o Advantages: no general anesthesia, non-invasive, cheaper

Dog Breeds


• Widely varied species

• Basic structure and conformation reflect land dwelling predator

o Efficient locomotion

o Eyes adapted to detect motion; larger field of vision than humans

o Tapetum lucidum: reflective layer in back of eye that helps them see at dawn and  dusk better than us

o Dogs can see some color but mostly yellows, blues, whites, and grey

o Keen olfaction: Jacobson’s Organ – fear, joy, stress, etc.

▪ Smell: primary sense

▪ Able to smell with each nostril; helps detect direction

▪ Larger olfactory bulb in brain

▪ 300 million olfactory cells vs. human’s 5 million

▪ Dogs breathe in through each nostril then breathe out through side slit ▪ Dog can breathe for air passage or straight to vomeronasal organ

o Keen hearing

o Teeth designed to grip, kill and consume prey


• Established in 1884

• Recognizes 175 breeds

o 7 groups, miscellaneous

Sporting Group

• Dogs used in hunting game birds and waterfowl

• Naturally active and alert; make likeable, well-rounded companions

• Most have easy-care coats and thrive on regular, invigorating activity and exercise • Three main types: pointers/setters, retrievers, spaniels

• Health issues associated with them due to overbreeding due to high demand • Labrador Retriever:  

o Come from Newfoundland; bred as smaller version of Newfoundland dog ▪ Named after Labrador Sea that they worked in

o Strong hunches to leap dramatically into water

o Webbed paws & otter-like tail: one of the strongest canine swimmers

o Slightly oiled layer under fur: keeps them warm & helps them dry

o Black is most common color; then yellow; chocolate is most rare

o Soft-mouth: can carry egg in its mouth without cracking it

▪ From holding birds

o High ability to learn

o High risk of hip dysplasia & retinal dysplasia; problems with knees and elbows too o Life expectancy: 12-15 years

o Grooming is minimal but shed in Spring & Fall

o Adapt well in families and pose low risk for bites

o Easy to train and eager to please

• German Shorthaired Pointer:

o Most versatile working dog

▪ From mayor to detecting bombs to pulling sleds, etc.

o Developed in 19th century in Germany

▪ Bred to be versatile game hunters

▪ Came from lots of different breeds

o Nose pigmentation matches coat color

o Head down, steady gaze, paw lifted, tail up (shape of an arrow)

o Short, flat, water-resistant coat: helps maintain even temperature

o Spoon-shaped webbed feet: to move through water without getting stuff stuck  between toes

o Heavy nails to walk on terrain well too

o Lean (less stress on joints); strong haunches ???? bred to leap

o Lifespan: even up to 16 years

▪ Not many health issues

o Easy to groom but sheds a lot

Hound Group

• Greatest variance in size

• Used for hunting (sight, scent)

• Coats easy to keep groomed

• Bay: unique vocalization to alert  

• May be difficult to train and will run off if they want to chase after something  • Rhodesian Ridgeback:

o Amazingly courageous

o Immune to insect bites

o Bred in Southern Africa to hunt lions

o Mix of Mastiff, Great Dane, Greyhound, Bloodhounds, Terriers, etc.

o Ridged back: hair going in opposite direction

o Thick, padded feet: vital to protect from miles of wear on rough terrain o Durability: adapted to harsh environments

o Strong framework: strong back, powerful muscles, strong forelegs

o Country or city living but destructive if under-exercised

o Healthy and robust breed but susceptible to dermoid sinus

o Usually odorless, easy to groom, and little shedding

o Do best with experience dog owners  

o Best with athletes or active families

Pro Docking Tails, Cropping Ears

Why did tail docking emerge?

• Romans believe it would prevent rabies and that it could strengthen dogs back and make  them faster

• Current Reasons

o To prevent dog from getting injuries

o Dock guard dog’s tail to avoid someone from grabbing their tail during attack o To limit it from getting dirty if they have long hair

o Not just for appearance sake

Why did ear cropping emerge?

• Moisture trapped easier

Consequences of Bans

• Break bond between breeders, vets, and politicians as rift apart people who once stood on  common ground

• Property should be respected and protected under constitution

• Uniformity of appearance, breed standard and tradition are altered

Tail Docking

• Method 1: rubber band-type ligature to cut off blood supply

• Method 2: simple amputation

Cropping Ears

• Typically done when puppy is 8-10 weeks old

• Performed under anesthesia

• Surgical removal of around 2/3 of ear then lightly taping remainder of ear tissue into  upright position

• From weeks to months, altered ears will be taped and re-taped to maintain shape Anti Docking Tails, Cropping Ears, Removing Dewclaws

Removing Dewclaws

• Appendage on many mammals that is similar to human thumb

• Attaching by several ligaments

• Importance

o Gives extra traction while running and prevents leg from twisting

o More prone to foot injuries and arthritis without front dewclaw (Study by John  Hopkins University)

• Typically done between 2-5 days of age, under anesthetics

• Unused muscles lead to chronic carpal arthritis

• Usually removed to prevent injury later on

• Vets urge remove only when injury has been sustained


• Bobbing: removal of portions or all of tail

• Two ways: cut off blood supply or surgically remove

• 10-14 days of age without anesthetics; usually done for cosmetic purposes • Unnecessary pain and illegal in many places in world

• Can lead to infection  

• Can lead to dog becoming more aggressive later as they grow older

• Dogs use tail for communication with people and animals

• Sporting dogs use them as rudders when swimming or balancing when running Cropping Ears

• Removing loose sections of dog’s ears and taping them to a hard surface during healing • 6-12 weeks of age, under anesthetics

• 80% of all dogs will not contract an ear infection

• All dogs prone to infection don’t get ears cropped (ex: cocker spaniel)

• Battle crop, short crop, show crop, long crop

• Many vets refuse to crop ears

• AKC has made recent statement that dogs without docked tails and cropped ears are more  likely to win shows

Animal Control

What does animal control do for you?

• Protect the public safety, health and quality of life

o Dangerous animals

o At large pets and livestock

o Local ordinance enforcement

• Protect animals from inhumane treatment

o Neglect and cruelty investigations

o Enforcement of Animal Protection Act

o Euthanasia of seriously sick or injured animals

• Human education

o Outreach events

o Schools, nursing homes, civic groups

o Shelter tours, brochures, other resources

• Kennel services

o Adoptions

o Reclaims, lost and found

o Licensed rescue groups

What we do

• Types of calls

o Dogs running at large (49.32%)

o Cruelty or neglect complaint  

o Injured or hit by car animal

o Barking dog complaints

o Animal bite

o Trapped animal

o Vicious animal

o Livestock running at large

o Sick or rabid animal

o Request for cat transportation service

o Other

o Neighborhood dispute involving animal

• What happened to the animals?

o Adopted (25%)

o Turned over to other agencies (34.19%)

o Reclaimed (13.39%)

o Euthanized that were never available for adoption (23.04%)

o Euthanized that were available for adoption (0.42%)

o Dead on arrival or died at kennel (1.91%)

o Released to the wild (1.31%)

o Escaped or stolen from kennel (0.09%)

• Wild animals: large get euthanized; small get sent to UGA wildlife department and possibly  released after rehab

o Venomous snakes get released because they are necessary part of ecosystem • Farm life: chickens, goats, horses, some chickens

Neglect and Cruelty

• Dealt with everyday

• Calls may be of true concern or just complaining about neighbor

• Inhumane housing, chained up, no clean water if any

Local Laws

• Tethering or chaining your dog is illegal

• All domestic animals must have sanitary shelter

• All domestic animals must have clean water at all times

• All domestic animals must have a safe confinement area

• Cats and dogs must have a current rabies vaccination and must wear the tag State Cruelty Laws

• Unlawful to abandon domestic animal

o Knowingly or not

• Cruelty to animals

o Death or unjustifiable pain or suffer by an act, an omission, or willful neglect o Ex: heat stroke & exposure, embedded collars, starvation, hoarders, matting, mental  illness

Medical Alert

• Medical issues we see:

o Injuries: trauma, neglect, abuse

o Parasites: fleas, ticks, mites, intestinal worms, heartworms

o Disease: viral, bacterial, fungal

o Congenital  

How you can help

• Volunteers give animals a chance to get out of their kennels, be social, and have some fun  while they wait for a forever home

• Come down, walk dogs around the grounds and play with them  

• Some dogs and cats just need someone to sit with them so they can see people aren’t going  to hurt them

• Stinky dogs can always use a bath

• Giving out treats

• Grooming is necessary to they look pretty when they go to their new home • Clean, happy dogs and cats have a better chance of being adopted or rescued Rules to Remember  

• Wear old clothes and closed toe shoes

• Keep dogs separate – aggression or carrying diseases

• If dogs are in same kennel, they can go out together

• Leashes double as collars and are available in different sizes

• Staff is always available to help

• Cats and kittens need play time too

• Use hand sanitizer in between interactions

• Secure gate latches for dogs with carabiners


• If we can see illegal activity from legal vantage point, they can save dog from situation • Up to officer to issue a citation or not

Hound Group (continued)

• Bloodhound

o Monastery dogs with pure blood

o Scent is admissible in court

o Can catch a scent over 300 hours old (12 days)

o Unique howl that can be heard for miles

o Must be kept on leash or will run away

o Larger olfactory bulb than humans; size of a handkerchief  

o Pendulum-like ears sweep smells into nose

o Loose, baggy skin (dewlap) on neck

o When nose is down to ground, skin around eyes falls forward to make blinders to  focus

o Very active so must be bathed regularly; long ears get dirty too

o Training can be a big deal

o Loveable, snuggly family dog but very strong

Working Group

• Breeds selected to pull sleds, guard property and serve as draft workers and in water  rescues ???? large, big-boned dogs

• Intelligent, quick to learn, high capable animal that make devoted companions • May be too large and strong for children

• World’s most expensive dog breed: Tibetan Mastiff

o Symbol of wealth in China

• Rottweiler

o Needs a lot of work to train but very smart

o Need to be sensitized to kids & strangers when young

o Versatile: cuddly to violent  

o Bred to work for you, protect you and please you

▪ Ancient Rome: herding and guard dogs

o Iron jaw: 328 PSI (larger skull ???? stronger bite)

o No variation of color; black lips & coat

▪ Brown highlights around eyes, mouth, and paws

o Docked tail: widely practiced in US

▪ Started due to history of drafting & herding

o Weak hips & bones due to overbreeding

o Easy to overfeed but don’t ???? leads to weaker bones

o Needs to be active but can live in any climate

o Shed a lot and need to be groomed regularly

• Saint Bernhard  

o Named after Monk Bernhard

o Bred with Newfoundland to add more hair for warmth

▪ Led to snow clumping in fur and weighing them down

o Large but very gentle; great with kids

o Avalanche rescue dog in Swiss Alps

▪ Can detect person buried under 20 feet of snow

o Strong feet and paws  

o Loose skin around face & shape of jaws/jowl ???? drool

o Can weigh 100 to 200 lbs

o Moderate amount of grooming; shed heavily twice a year

o Fair better in cold environment

o More health issues than most; joint & heart problems

o Train at early age; eager to please but tire easily

Terrier Group

• Traditionally hunt and dig for vermin

• Feisty and energetic  

• May need considerable grooming

• Short- and long-legged terriers

• Engaging pets with a high energy level and lively character

Puppy Mills – Group 1

What is a Puppy Mill?

• Commercial dog breeding facility

• Dogs bred on intensive basis in inhumane conditions

• Profit usually given priority over well-being of dog


• Most states have no regulations

• There are states with lots of licensing, inspections and at least some standard of care • Roughly 10,000 in country

• Depending on state, regulated by USDA

• Under Animal Welfare Act of 1966, puppy mill is operation with 3+ female breeding dogs  that sell puppies to pet store or pet broker; must be licensed and inspected by USDA • State laws differ and are more specific than federal laws


• Kennels must be licensed; fee of 25 – 250

• Mandatory inspection by Commissioner of Agriculture

• If 30+ raised and sold in one year, required to have license and be inspected • No standards of care listed in current legislation


• Purebred puppies at affordable price

• Able to buy a wide variety of breeds

• Able to get puppies out of pet stores which makes it easier for families to get dog they want • If there weren’t puppy mills, search for specific breeds would take longer and be much more  expensive

• Pet stores make large amount of revenue from selling puppies from puppy mills • If they stopped selling them w/o replacement for that lost revenue they would lose a large  amount of their business

AKC Influence

• AKC supports puppy mills b/c they’re supposed to preserve breed characteristics • AKC inspects about 4,000 kennels/year and they can lose AKC registration privileges • Believes USDA should work and be given resources to make sure healthy requirements are  met

• Puppy mills pay AKC a large amount to register their animals

Puppy Mills – Group 2

Current Regulations

• AWA requires breeders who have more than three breeding female dogs and sell puppies to  pet stores or puppy brokers to be licensed and inspected by USDA

o Standards extremely minimal

• Amendment to 208 Farm Bill prohibits importation of puppies less than 6 months of age for  the purpose of resale

• 21 states have NO laws regulating commercial dog breeders past what AWA requires • USDA understaffed: 110 inspectors for 8,782 facilities in 2010

Common Misconceptions

• Pet stores will say their puppies come from breeders

o Breeder: technically anyone who puts two dogs together to produce puppies • Solution: in order to ensure that you’re getting your puppy from an official breeder, ask pet  store for official documentation of their supplier

• Just because pet store says their puppies come from USDA inspected facilities doesn’t mean  they are not puppy mills

o Under USDA regulations, the small, wired cages and other uncomfortable living  conditions in puppy mills are still legal as long as minimum food, water, and shelter  rules are implemented in the facility

• Many people believe they are “rescuing” a puppy mill dog by buying one o Actually supports them (money back in)

o Makes room for another puppy in puppy mill

o Ensures continued breeding and inhumane treatment


• Wright’s coefficient of inbreeding

o When you breed same with same, you get more of the same but health problems  increase

• Monetary focused breeding/inbreeding leads to lots of health problems

o Hip dysplasia, heart disease, luxating patella, parrot mouth, epilepsy, kidney disease,  deafness, eye problems, blood disorders, hydrocephalus, diabetes, hypothyroidism  (which can lead to aggressive behavior), urine burns

• Ultimately the dog’s lifespan is drastically cut short

• Why do puppy mills and backyard breeders not try to prevent these diseases? $$$ Environmental Health

• Sloppy genetics + unsanitary conditions = recipe for illness

• Common illnesses in puppy mills

o Pneumonia, upper respiratory infections, giardia, parvo, distemper, kennel cough,  canine adenovirus, intestinal parasites, mange, fleas, ticks

• Potential behavior problems:

o Separation form mother too early, no early socialization, weak immune systems,  inappropriate understanding of dog language

Puppy Mill Conditions

• Dogs and puppies placed in wire hutches inside of sheds w/o temp control and inadequate  protection against possible inclement weather

o Wire cage floors

o Exposure to ammonia due to buildup of urine  

o Increased risk of disease

• Dogs live with insufficient supply of food and clean water and little to no access to vet care o Undernourished and malnourished

o More susceptible to disease due to dirty water and unsanitary conditions • Wire cages overcrowded and often stacked on top of one another

o Waste and feces

o Fighting (injuries left untreated)

o Behavioral issues: anxiety or aggression

• It is rare for dogs to be let out for play and exercise

o Overgrown nails

o Health issues  

Terrier Group (continued)

• Airedale Terrier

o Reluctance to show pain

o Largest of the terriers (possibly >60 lbs) = “The King”

o Bred to chase ground animals (terr- = earth)

o Used in WWI as messengers to transport mail

o Non-shedding double layer coat

▪ Need to have wiry coat hand-stripped twice a year

o Largest teeth of all the terriers but not aggressive in nature

o Extreme intelligence

o Need 20 minutes of brisk exercise at least twice a day

o Training: do better with praise than punishment

o Adaptable to most environments

o Suffer from bone and joint issues

o Time-consuming grooming

o Loves to be part of a family

o John Wayne: family dog was an Airedale Terrier named Lil Duke

• West Highland White Terrier

o Bred in Scotland to clear land of vermin

o Double-layer; coarse overcoat; soft undercoat to keep them warm o White so they’re not confused with foxes when hunting

o Bullet shape: allows dogs to wiggle out of tight spaces

▪ Very loud bark so they can be found and saved

o Super strong tail: can be used to pull dog out of holes without hurting them o Hearty breed; lifespan of 14 years

▪ Problems with hips and joints

o Can be susceptible to sunburn on ears

o Challenge to train and groom

o Great family pet but monitor small children

Toy Group

• Primarily lap dogs and pampered pets

• Many favored by royalty

• Many Toys are tough and tenacious

• Excellent companions for older people and city dwellers

o Less exercise, ideal apartment dwellers

• Maybe too fragile for children

• Less hair, less mess, less food

• Only weigh about 10 pounds – easier to control

o Often quick, and difficult to grab!

• Yorkshire Terrier

o Hypoallergenic: human-like hair, not fur (holds less dander)

o Pharyngeal gag reflex: similar to reverse sneezing but sounds like a snort o Napoleon complex: big dog in a little body

o Bred to chase and catch rats for working class in England

o Ancestors: Clydesdale, Paisley, Skye, and Airedale terriers

o Came to US in late 1800s

▪ Was one of first 25 breeds registered with AKC

o Black and tan coat that turns to tan and blue

o Puppy cut: easier to keep groomed and clean

o Show coat: a lot more attention required

o Super-fast, love to work, joy to train  

o Always wants to be with you

o Fragile bones, tooth decay, gum disease, and collapsible trachea

o Not recommended with kids because can be snappy

• Chinese Crested

o Have sweat glands so don’t pant

o Many are allergic to wool

o Have won more “ugly dog contests” than any other breed

o Gypsy Rose Lee: breeder that helped make them possible

o Chasing vermin on boats of Chinese merchants

o Powder puff: has recessive gene for full hair and good teeth

o Pointed muzzle, crest of hair on head, long tapered tail

o Constant companion and center of attention

o Good with family, elderly, and disabled

o Susceptible to elements: require sunscreen in sun and sweaters in cold o Get blackheads on their skin similar to humans

Non-Sporting Group

• Substantial differences in size, coat, personality, and appearance

• May require very intense grooming

• When breeds no longer serve their original purpose or don’t fit anywhere else • Dalmatian

o Spots everywhere, even in mouths; born white and spots develop as they mature o George Washington: first breeder that we know of in US

o Known for riding around in firetruck, protecting beer with Clydesdales  o Issues with temperament and aggression but not all bad

o May go all the way to Egypt

o Bred as war and guide dogs

▪ Coaching: clear crowds around coaches of the rich

o Stocky body and strong muscles: can run for miles; very active

o Can be independent and stubborn but are very intelligent; have selective hearing o Start early and consistently with training

o Require little grooming

o Can suffer from bladder stones; usually need special diet

• English Bulldog

o 100% man-made

o Heavy bodies and short legs not build for water

o Banned on streets of Rome because they were “terrifying”

o England: used to bring down bulls; still their national dog

o Nearly went extinct; breeders saved the breed  

o Undershot jaw, loose skin, face wrinkles, wide shoulders, large head

▪ Jaw shape: can hold onto stuff and still breathe  

▪ Loose skin: maneuverability if grabbed/bit in fight

▪ Face wrinkles: draw blood away from eyes

o Brachycephalic: “short-headed”; flat and wide skull

▪ Almost impossible to have successful natural birth; need vet assistance o Can get skin infections in folds of face

o One of the least healthy dogs; short lifespan

o Love being family dogs, even with children

o Better in cooler climates

o Tough to train

Herding Group

• Created in 1983, newest AKC classification

o Formerly part of working group

• All breeds have ability to control movement of other animals

o Instinct makes them want to herd people and chase cars

• Active, intelligent, courageous and determined

• Australian Cattle Dog

o Devoted, dedicated, loving, very loyal

o Matthew McConaughey, Mel Gibson, and George Strait

o Great at driving cattle (and sheep)

o Developed in 1800s in Australia

▪ Needed dog to drive cattle across hard terrain

▪ Blue Merle crossed with Australian Dingo

o Aka Blue Heeler or Red Heeler

o Dense, straight, flat outercoat; rain will roll off of them

o Plain-faced, single mask, or double mask

o Long, undocked tail; slightly curved

o Can adapt but need multiple hours of activity a day

o Deafness and blindness affect breed but generally healthy (~15 years)

o Low grooming requirements; may need baths for dirtiness after playing o Need to train them correctly the first time; “one-time learners”

o Could nip at children’s heels

• Border Collie

o Highly intelligent and trainable

▪ Bred to complete complex tasks with humans and independently  

o Not good at being house/apartment pets if they don’t get enough exercise/activity o Border region of England and Scotland

▪ Bred to be a very good herding breed

o Muscular, athletic body: speed and stamina

o The Eye: fiercely intense stare; used to intimidate livestock

o Space between tops of shoulder blades: can move quickly in crouching position o Hip dysplasia and eye issues but generally healthy and live long

o Easy to groom but brushing/combing is essential for double coat

o May nip at heels of children

Miscellaneous Class

• Rare breeds having active enthusiasts but whose dogs are not yet established sufficiently to  be admitted to the Official Stud Book as an AKC-recognized breed

Top 10 Dog Breeds in US

• Labrador Retriever (sporting)

• German Shepherd (herding)

• Golden Retriever (sporting)

• Beagle (hound)

• Bulldogs (non-sporting)

• Yorkshire Terrier (toy)

• Boxer (working)

• Poodle (toy, non-sporting)

• Rottweiler (working)

• Dachshund (hound)

Top 5 Dog Breeds in Atlanta

• Labrador Retriever

• Golden Retriever

• German Shepherd

• Boxer  

• Cavalier King Charles Spaniel

Dog Sports & Activities: Building the Bond with your Dog

Conformation: The Dog Beauty Pageant

• Purpose: promote quality and preservation of breeds through non-biased judging • Held by National Kennel Clubs: AKC, UKC, IKC, etc.

• Needed to participate: a registered intact dog with no known standard faults • What you gain: knowledge of dog structure, form, gait, breeding, history, health testing and  lineage records (and ribbons and prizes)

• Classes offered at: Pawtropolis

Weight Pull, Sled Racing, Bikejoring, Drafting

• Purpose: to build confidence and muscle by using dogs’ natural ability to pull

• Needed to participate: dog willing to work, and appropriately sized harness, and something  to pull

• What you gain: a tired happy fit dog, a portable tow truck, and enthusiastic non-judgmental  workout partner

• Classes offered: no places in Athens but events are often held in Atlanta. Sport can be done  individually  

Extreme Walking: Pack Hiking, Barkour, Canicross

• Purpose: create an outdoor fitness adventure for you and your dog

• Needed to participate: for packing hiking, a pack is needed (carry 20% of dog’s weight); Canicross, a comfortable running harness; Barkour, a harness is recommended but not  required; shoes may be necessary for rough terrain

• What you gain: a close working relationship with your dog, excellent fitness, adventure • Classes offered: Lucky Dog Agility offers Barkour. Pack Hiking & Canicross are done on an  individual basis or set up by an organizer; no classes offered in Athens

Agility, Rally, Obedience, Trick Dog

• Purpose: to mentally exercise your dog while having fun and winning ribbons • Needed to participate: basic training, a sport trainer, lots of treats, a clicker, a variety of  obstacles/items to work with

• What you gain: a working relationship with your dog, lots of tricks & conceptual training  methods, social connections, a happy dog, ribbons

• Classes offered: Lucky Dog Agility, Canine Country Academy, Pawtropolis Dock Diving, Disc Dog, Fly Ball

• Purpose: to seek out and retrieve a set toy

• Needed to participate: toy drive, solid obedience; for Dock Diving, a pool; for disc, a disc; for  fly ball, a set of jumps

• What you gain: an outlet for your toy driven dog, social connections, ribbons, a working  relationship with your dog

• Classes offered: Lucky Dog Agility

Lure Coursing, Fast Cat, Barn Hunt, Nose Work, Earthdog, Sheep/Stock Trials, Field Dog Trial • Purpose: utilize your dog’s natural instincts in a useful form

• Needed to participate: instinctual drive, the prey/pseudoprey your dog is working, basic  obedience, the setting to allow your pup to work

• What you gain: being impressed with your dog’s skills, a better understanding of your dog’s  instincts & drives, knowledge of the function of your dog’s different muscle/sensory  structures

• Classes offered: Lucky Dog Agility, The Canine Ranch, Northeast Georgia Herding,  Pawtropolis, Canine Country Academy


• More things needed for sport/activity, cost goes up

• Depends on if you want to do it for fun or want to win ribbons/prizes

• Cheapest: pack hiking, disc dog

Cat Breeds

Video: Cat’s Senses

• Slit pupils: to focus light more

• Sensitize, high-pitch hearing (prey); flexible ears that can swivel around • Use tongue to combine sense of smell & taste

• Tongue covered with spiny hooks; used as comb for coat

• If whiskers can fit through, head & body can go through

• Very quick sprinter; very flexible spine

• Able to fall and land on all fours because they hunt in the trees

Characteristics of Cats

• Eyes

o Breed standards specify particular colors

o Odd-eyed: two eyes of different colors

▪ Genetic condition: white cats have tendency to be deaf

• Blue eye(s) may mean deafness

o Can see 6 times better in dark; tapetum lucidum

• Balance and orientation

o Can land on feet

▪ Especially flexible spine, balancing organ in ear

▪ Rights itself head first then twists spine then rear quarters line up then relax  and arch back to brace themselves for landing

o Tail

▪ Adjusts direction of jump down into confined space

▪ Balance when pursuing prey with speed

▪ Will flick tail when getting angry; puff up tail when trying to act dominant o Cannot go head first down tree; less grip on the way down

o Can jump 5-6 times their height

• Vocal cords

o Two sets of vocal cords (unlike other species)

▪ One set above the other

▪ Each produce different sound

• Lower: meow

• Upper: purr and growl

▪ Purr either means surrender or as healing (same wavelength as ultrasound) • Foot pads

o Tread softly and quietly

• Life expectancy

o 10 – 14 years

▪ 10 cat years = 50 human years (1:5 ratio)

o Road traffic gets most outdoor cats

o Diseases get indoor cats

• Whiskers

o Long whiskers that grow in rows from side of mouth to above eye

o Navigation

▪ Cats with lost or damaged whiskers move with less assurance

o Feel immediate environment

▪ Provide info in dark

o Communication

• Habits and change

o Enjoy stability and status quo

o Interpret change as leading to disaster or danger

House Bill 144: Pet Purchase Protection Act

• GA Animal Protection Act (2000)

o Discusses: licenses, inspections, situation regarding impounded animals, reports of  animal diseases/syndromes, unlawful acts, Cooperation with US Secretary of  Agriculture, rules and regulations, penalties for violation, local ordinances

o Doesn’t address vaccination of animals for sale or define retail pet store owner o Defines pet dealer or pet dealership

o First step in right direction

▪ Attempts to protect animals from cruelty

▪ Establishes basics of pet distribution and care

▪ Encompasses licensing provisions for kennels and pounds

• House Bill 144

o Bill to amend GA Animal Protection Act

o GA Retail Pet Sore Purchase Protection Act

o Retailers obtaining a dog or cat

▪ Licensed under pet dealer regulations and free of direct violations over  previous two years

o Definition of retail pet store owner – pet dealer that operates commercial  establishment engaging in for profit business of selling at retail rate dogs or cats o Dogs and cats must be vaccinated by certified vet before selling

o Quarantine and no interference in selling from local government

• Pros

o Reduces companion animal homelessness, overpopulation, suffering due to puppy  mills

o Convert large pet stores to more humane business

o Pets can receive up to 9 different vaccinations

o Only licensed breeders free of violations can sell to retail to pet stores

o Prevention of unlicensed breeders

o Retail pet store can sell specific legal products to meet consumer demand and  provide purchase information upon purchase

• Cons

o Prohibits GA’s cities and towns from passing their own laws to keep puppies that  are cruelly bred out of pet stores

o Supported by Petland and not supported by ASPCA

o Allows licensed puppy mills to continue to sell animals to retail stores

o Prevent buyers of sick puppies from recovering high vet costs

o Regulations in this bill have no real world impact on regulating pet retail stores House Bill 313: Logan’s Law

• Has been withdrawn

• “Dog spelled backwards is God… Let me find out the Lord is my shepherd” • What is Logan’s Law?

o Anyone trying to sell a dog (from the list below) is required to provide statistics of  any injuries its breed may have caused to humans

▪ American Pit Bull Terrier, American Stafford Terrier, American Bully,  Staffordshire Bull Terrier, Doberman Pinscher, Rottweiler, German  

Shepherd, Chow Chow, Husky, Great Dane, Akita, Boxer, Wolf Hybrid breed o Purpose: to inform public of risks related to the breed for safety of the owner • Why Logan’s Law?

o Named after boy killed in Atlanta while waiting for bus

o The three breeds of dogs in the attack made the list of “dangerous dogs” o Wants to make sure public understand that responsibility lies with the owner, not  the dog

• Pros

o Informed customers

o Only affects those buying or selling “historically dangerous” dogs

o GA’s state department would release statistic annually

▪ Updated frequently

o Anyone would be able to obtain these statistics for free

▪ Easily found on website

o Owners would have full legal control and responsibility over animal

• Cons

o Discourages pet adoptions

▪ People don’t want potentially dangerous dog

▪ More animals in shelters

• Causes shelters to spend more money for their care

o Puts unnecessary burden on rescue organizations

▪ Have to prepare documents and info for each person wanting to adopt one of  the listed breed

o Complicates rescue efforts

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