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UA - PSYCH 101 - American Civilization to 1865 Exam 2 Study Guide -

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UA - PSYCH 101 - American Civilization to 1865 Exam 2 Study Guide -

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background image History 103 Exam 2 Study Guide      Why Independence?  I. Combat Continues  1. Lexington & Concord  ​ -   a. British military pushes Americans out of way  
b. marched to concord to find guns  
c.  didn’t find any weapons so turned around to march back to Boston 
d.  followed them & shot them from everywhere  
e.  British suffered 20% casualties 
2. Word spreads  ​ -   a. Story that gets spread through the colonies is that the British were trying to take away  their right to bear arms  3. Arrival of aid to Boston ​ -  a. After the troops got back to Boston Americans gathered outside of town to trap British 
b. Southern colonies sent food and supplies & their support 
c. King George finds out that the other colonists are supporting and celebrating it 
d. Makes him angry 
4. Fort Ticonderoga ​  -  a. British send troops to capture fort ticonderoga 
b. Whoever has the fort can control the river 
c. green mountain boys- lead by ethan allen-sent to capture the fort from British 
d. Fort was lightly guarded - everyone was asleep - we captured it 
e. Importance- king george finds out that americans captured fort that was guarded by 
sick wounded soldiers he was pissed  5. Bunker Hill ​ -  a. Biggest battle of all 
b. Americans on top of Breeds hill were not professional soldiers 
c. commander told them to not fire until they see the whites of their eyes - not because of 
bravery-actually because guns were very inaccurate   d. Americans held their fire & forced the British back 
e. British continued to reform their ranks until Americans were out of ammunition  
f. Americans ran away & British captured Bunker Hill 
6. The Impact ​ -  a. Americans lost but inflicted 50% casualties 
b. Makes King George mad 
 
II. 2nd Continental Congress 
 
1. The Mood- 
a. The Americans were very proud that they stopped British from taking away their rights 
b. But were very concerned about breaking up w British Empire 
2. The Extremes- 
background image a. Dickinson- far right, argued that boycotts are one thing but war with Britain is too far-  arguing that we need to figure out to get back into King George’s good graces  b. Franklin & Adams- far left, argued that the British will never see colonists as equals, so  they will never protect their rights, need to create their own government  c. John Adams agreed with Franklin, he was the lawyer that defended the British soldiers  after the Boston massacre- good speaker.   3. Acting like a Government-   a. Sent out diplomats to everyone to try to get help to rebel 
b. We were borrowing and issuing paper money 
c. Said mob outside of Boston was their army  
d. John Adams chose George Washington to lead their military force 
e. Said that it had to be a southerner and a Virginian, and someone the British had heard of 
f. Them acting like a government is not going to make King George willing to deal with 
them  4. Petition to Parliament-  a. They decided to reach the declaration of the necessity of taking up arms  -it listed all of the things that the british had done that took away their rights 
-it said that they wanted to talk and work things out 
5. Petition to King  a. Olive Branch Petition- petition to king telling them they love him  -said they won’t shoot at troops unless they shoot at us, olive branch = peace  6. Franklin & Adams Reactions-  a. They support it 
b. Because they think that the reactions the petitions are going to get from the government 
will help prove their point that the British will never see them as equals    
III. The Responses to Congress 
 
1. Parliament- 
a.  they refused to even read it, because the continental congress isn’t constitutional   2. King-   a. refused to read the olive branch petition for the exact same reason 
-said the Americans are outlaws  
-he is going to send more troops to America to punish outlaws  
3. Activity within the Colonies-  a. The Americans feel betrayed and they actually meant that they loved the King  
b. They confronted Royal Governors because they had an emotional reaction  
c. This divided American families  
4. Dunmore’s Proclamation-   a. Royal Governor of Virginia = Lord Dunmore 
b. People scared him so bad he decided he had to get on a boat on the river 
c. He issued a proclamation that said that any slaves in Virginia who would run away and 
defend the British Government they would be reward their freedom  d. After the governor does this it becomes very real for the Virginians  
e. Virginians fear slave rebellion 
background image 5. Impact-   a. Now the vast majority of the Continental Congress are listening way more to Franklin  and adams and not Dickinson   b. Continental Congress doesn’t want to do something dramatic unless this is what the  people want   c. They want to hire someone to see how the Americans feel about this- leads to common  sense   
IV. 
Common Sense   
1. The Author = Thomas Paine, born in England the son of a corset maker- wanted to be a writer 
-came to America to be a writer had love and devotion for colonies 
- he was hired to write common sense 
2. Style & Tone-   a. Used a lot of sarcastic humor, analogies & metaphors to make it easier to understand  
b. A lot of simplistic arguments 
c. Mad a lot of complex arguments very simple 
3. The flaws of monarchy and aristocracy  a. He acknowledged that monarchy and aristocracy are the 2 best forms of government  
b. Monarchy- quicker decisions  
c. British is combined w monarchy and aristocracy - has to acknowledge argument 
d. Says they are effective but flaws 
-inherited, says sometimes this works out, but it doesn’t ensure it  
-calls the King an ass  
e. Power Corrupts- king makes decisions based on what’s best for himself, tend to step on 
the rights of the people they rule  f. Parliament has been stepping on our rights 
G. he gave very specific solutions 
4. The Solutions-  a. Said that the Chief Executive shouldn’t be in office, all offices should be elective offices 
b. Diffusion of Power- don’t give one group all of the power, spread it out (checks & 
balances)  c. Said that americans have already began process of creating better gov  -colonial legislatures (elected power is diffused)  d. There is nothing hard to understand about this it is just common sense to declare our 
independence  
5. The Impact-  
a. Within just 3 months it had gone through so many publications 1 in 4 Americans had a  copt  b. This became #1 topic of conversation in colonies   6. Adam’s Resolutions  a. Adams recommended that they sent resolution to legislatures recommending that they  began to create a gov separate from british gov   7. Conclusions:  - This turned into a fight for independence bc combat continued beyond lexington 
background image - The British government  rejected petitions & declared us outlaws  - Lord dunmore threatened property in the form of slaves  -  Thomas Paine made it common sense    The Revolution on the Battlefield; How do the Patriots Win?    I. British Strategy #1 (1775-1776)  ● -not very complex  1. Military outlook-  ●  was overwhelmingly in the British’s favor 
● British had best army & navy  
● Because they don’t think they have a  
2. The plan-   ● Wanted to isolate the problem in Boston 
● Wanted to punish the rebels & then everyone else will fall into line 
● Bc it is too simplistic it was a failure from the start 
3. The problems:  ● Bunker Hill- no one was punished at Breeds hill 
● Support- the rebels got support from all of the other colonies 
● Washington- realizes this isn’t a real army  
● War spreads to Canada- washington decides to dispatch a portion of his army to Canada, 
lead by Benedict Arnold to get Canadians to revolt 
-by the time they got there, they were in no condition  
Dorchester Heights- South of Boston  ● -Washington instructed Henry Knox to get the cannons from Fort Ticonderoga 
● -They put them on top of Dorchester Heights 
● -This made it impossible for British to stay in Boston 
● -The thing that demonstrates how much of a failure srat 1 was, was what was going on in 
Philadelphia at the same time  ●   4. Declaring Independance-  ○ -why? When the war started ⅓ were patriots, ⅓ were loyalists, and ⅓ were  indifferent - it’s an attempt to win the war  ○ What is it? Thomas Jefferson is the author of the declaration of independance   ● -it is a long list of things that British did that took away our rights over the years  
● -in the conclusion he argues that man creates government to protect our right, and 
therefore we have the right to take that power away from you  ● -Its a powerful statement of Whigg political ideology  Slavery- 
background image ● -In his original draft he said that one of the bad things the British did was allow the  institution of slavery  ● -Jefferson knew this document was going to be read for a long time, he put the slavery  part in to make it ideologically consistent   ● -South said they would back out if they left the part about slavery 
● -They took that part wrong 
 
  
Right from the very beginning of our country the slavery issue is already dividing us 
 
● -They agree on the document on July 2nd 1776 
● -Didn’t become official until July 4th 
The stakes:  ●  -their lives for at stake 
●  -they knew that they were losing and if it didn’t work they were screwed but they signed 
it anyways    
II. British Strategy #2 (1776-1778)  
1. The Plan: 
● British send the biggest troop they have ever sent to New York 
● Destroy the army and march north up the hudson & link up with another British force 
coming down from Canada   2. Success:  ● Washington’s army ran  
● British drove his army out of new york, new jersey, Pennsylvania 
● Hundreds of Americans went to swear loyalty to the British 
3. The problems  ● Howe blows it- decided to settle into New York for the winter because it’s cold. He  almost had wash defeated but then took winter off.     ● Washington’s strategy- George Washington decides he can’t bring on big battle. He is  going to avoid big destructive battles. He wants to drag the war out to make to British 
government sick of it. Problem- also makes americans tired. Have to fight small battles 
that we have a good chance of winning. Winning boosts american morale. 
  ● Trenton & Princeton- Best examples of Washington’s strategy Trenton- they defeated the  Heshan soldiers. Howe begins to maneuver to get Washington. Wash wants to avoid 
battle so he retreats back across Delaware River. Boosts morale. Crossed River again 

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School: University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa
Department: Psychology
Course: Intro to Psychology
Professor: Tba
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: history
Name: American Civilization to 1865 Exam 2 Study Guide
Description: History 103 University of Alabama Prof: Glenn Brasher
Uploaded: 03/20/2017
22 Pages 95 Views 76 Unlocks
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