HORT 102 Final Exam Study Guide
HORT 102 Final Exam Study Guide 4616 - HORT 102
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This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Irene A. on Friday April 24, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 4616 - HORT 102 at Washington State University taught by Michael Pumphrey in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 186 views. For similar materials see Intro to Cultivated Plants in Agricultural & Resource Econ at Washington State University.
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HORT 102 Final Exam Study Guide Lesson 1 Discuss at least 10 reasons plants are important to humans Food pharmaceuticals wood fiber renewable resources for energy oxygen reducing soil erosion climate regulation livestock feed ecosystem balance Defend the statement 39without plants nothing would survive39 Plants are a key source of oxygen without them the vast majority of organisms on Earth would not be able to survive Explain the difference between annual biennial and perennial plants 0 Annual Life cycle in a year or less always reproduce by seed 0 Biennial Require 2 growing seasons to complete life cycle 0 Perennial Indefinite life span Understand the term vernalization Vernalization period of low winterlike temperatures to initiate or accelerate the owering process Describe the distinguishing characteristic of each of the seven major agronomic feed and ber crops described in class Cereal grain any member of the grass family whose seed is harvested for food or feed Grain legumes called pulse crops because they form pods grown for edible seeds Oil crop oil extracted from seeds for humai animal consumption amp industrial use Sugar crops source of table sugar fiber crops grown for fiber produced in fruits or stems forage legumes grown for vegetative stems amp leaves to feed livestock forage grasses grown for vegetation or seed used for hay pasture or silage Explain the difference between a forage legume and a forage grass Legumes utilize nitrogen fixing grasses do not Explain the process of biological nitrogen fixation A method used by legumes to obtain gaseous nitrogen from the atmosphere and convert it into a form usable by the plant Requires Rhizobium or Bradyrhizobium bacteria Bacteria infect plant gt enter roots amp form nodules gt plant provides energy for bacteria gt bacteria convert atmospheric nitrogen into nitrate for plant Describe the distinguishing characteristics of the three types of fruit crops five types of vegetable crops and five types of ornamentals described in class 0 Fruit 0 small fruits propagated by vegetative methods 0 temperature tree fruits amp nuts grown in temperate regions 0 subtropical amp tropical fruits 0 Vegetable 0 cucurbit separate male amp female owers roottuber grown for eshy underground storage organs solanaceae nightshade risk in alkaloids can be toxic brassica amp leafy crops grown for edible leaves amp stems cool season crops large seeded vegetables grown for edible seeds 0 Ornamentals O potted or container plants grown for owers amp sold in containers 0 cut owers harvested for owers stems amp leaves to be used in arrangements 0 bulbs grown from underground storage organs 0 foliage plants used as houseinterior plants 0 O O O O nurserylandscape plants chosen for landscape characteristics or to serve function windbreak shade buffer Explain why potatoes are not a root crop per se Potatoes are tubers made from the plant39s modified stem tissue List at least one example of a plant in each of the major crop categories 0 Cereal grains wheat 0 grain legumes lentil 0 oil crop soybean 0 sugar crops sugar cane 0 fiber crops cotton 0 forage legumes alfalfa 0 forage grasses timothy Explain the difference between cropagronomic plants and horticulture plants 0 Agronomy study of fieldgrown crops that are relatively low input during life cycle includes wheat soybeans corn forages and industrial crops 0 Horticulture Study of crops that require more intense and constant care from plant to consumer delivery Divided into pomology fruits olericulture vegetables and ornamentals grown for aesthetics Lesson 2 Explain Carl Linnaeus contribution to plant science Considered 39father of classification39 organized and standardized worldwide Latin system for naming plants Correctly write a three part scienti c name genus speci c epithet and authority Solanum tuberosum L Understand the difference between a cultivar and species and know how to correctly write each of these 0 Cultivar cultivated variety of a species Triticum aestivum cv Diva 0 Species Type of plant Triticum aestivum Describe some common characteristics of family names and provide two examples of a family name Always capitalized end in the letters 39aceae39 eX Rosaceae rose strawberry apple Asteraceae sun owers List the scienti c classi cation system from Kingdom to Species Kingdom Division or Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Lesson 3 Describe how and why seed size impacts planting depth in crop species Large seeds have more food reserves than smaller seeds therefore seedlings from large seeds can emerge from deeper planting depths than seedlings from small seeds Describe the differences between monocot and dicot seeds 0 Monocot contain one seed leaf 0 Single cotyledon is modified into two specialized structures 0 Scutellum absorbs food from the endosperm and transfers it to other parts of the embryo O Coleoptile Protective cap over the embryonic shoot bud 0 Dicot contain two seed leaves 0 Two cotyledons serve as the food supply for the embryo and young seedling until its photosynthetic activity can maintain the plant De ne and describe the stages of seed germination Be able to diagram the water uptake response during each stage in a gure 0 Stage 1 Activation 0 seed rapidly imbibes water soil water moves into dry seed until equilibrium is reached seeds take in 4060 of their weight in water 0 seedcoat softens swells amp ruptures makes it easier for oxygen to enter amp shoot amp radicle to emerge O activates protein synthesis 0 respiration rate increases 0 Stage 2 Digestion and translocation 0 food reserves broken down amp translocated to growth points energy transferred to radicle amp shoot 0 Stage 3 Cell division and elongation 0 new materials synthesized cell walls expand begins at growing points 0 radicle emerges water uptake increases embryonic shoot emerges L Stage ll Stage i Stage Illl Seed Water Content Time De ne the difference between a quiescent and dormant seed 0 Quiescent occurs when a seed fails to germinate because the external environmental conditions are too dry or warm or cold for germination 0 Dormant a survival mechanism some perennial species use to protect their seeds from germinating under unfavorable conditions Describe three types of seed dormancy 0 Seed coat dormancy seed coats impermeable to water and oxygen 0 Embryo dormancy embryo requires special treatment to induce growth 0 Double dormancy both seed coat amp embryo dormancy Explain ways to break each type of seed dormancy 0 Seed coat dormancy seed coat broken by passing through animal39s digestion weathering or microorganisms scarification heat treatment acid scarification 0 Embryo dormancy Stratificatior chilling simulating winter conditions 0 Double dormancy combining above techniques ex acid scarification stratification Describe the process of hypogeal emergence and state which types of plants typically emerge in this manner Cotyledons remain below soil surface all grasses amp some dicots like peas In grasses the mesocotyl subcrown internode elongates and pushes the coleoptile towards the soil surface Describe the process of epigeal emergence and state which types of plants typically emerge in this manner Hypocotyl elongates and pulls the cotyledons above the soil surface common in many dicots radicle emerges develops into taproot hypocotl elongates amp pulls cotyledons toward soil surface List the differences between hypogeal and epigeal emergence then state how each difference impacts planting depth and frost tolerance in each type of crop 0 Hypogeal emergence takes less energy than epigeal emergence 0 Crops with hypogeal emergence can be seeded deeper than similar sized seeds that have epigeal emergence 0 Growing point of crops with hypogeal emergence remains below the soil surface which makes it less susceptible to late spring freezes crops with hypogeal emergence can be planted earlier Describe the 5 major functions of roots Absorb water amp nutrients from soil anchors amp supports plant in soil transports water amp nutrients to above ground plant parts stores food reserves vegetative propagation Describe the two primary types of root systems 0 Taproot primary root develops to become central part of root system grows deep in soil 0 Fibrous root system many roots of similar size no main central root less deep but more thoroughly distributed Describe the process of root growth and development Root growth originates at root tip roots grow downward toward pull of gravity grow away from light grow more rapidly at optimum temperatures Describe the role of root hairs in plant growth and development Lateral extensions of the epidermal cells that increase the surface area of the root for absorption List the factors that affect root growth Gravity light temperature moisture Describe the process of mineral uptake by roots passive vs active 0 Passive Nutrient ions move with water into roots 0 Active Nutrient ions are pumped into the root requires energy Lesson 4 List the 6 major functions of a plant stem Support amp display leaves support owers contain vascular system store food propagation photosynthesis Describe the components and function of the vascular system in plants 0 Xylem cells that conduct water amp minerals through plant 0 Phloem cells that translocate photosynthate sugars throughout the plant Describe the differences between nodes and internodes in terms of the role of each in plant growth 0 Nodes areas of compressed tissue that generate leaves branches or owers 0 Internodes areas between nodes that contain elongated cells 0 Nodes internodes plant height List and describe the different types of aboveground and belowground modified stems 0 Above ground 0 Crown composed of compressed stem tissue area w many nodes no internodes found near soil surface 0 Stolons horizontal stems that may function in asexual reproduction each node can produce new a new plant 0 Below ground 0 Rhizomes underground version of stolons O Tubers enlarged underground stems that store food 0 Bulbs eshy leaves attached to compressed stem acts as storage organ Describe apical vs intercalary meristematic growth 0 Apical growing point in most dicots located at tip of stem 0 Intercalary growing point located at the top of each node Describes factors that affect stem growth 0 Light low intensity causes cell elongation makes stem walls weaker 0 Drought reduces stem growth slows photosynthesis 0 Lodging plants fail to stand straight caused by shading excessive nitrogen excessive water disease List and describe the 5 major functions of leaves Photosynthesis photosynthate storage photosynthate translocation water translocation gaseous exchange Describe the distinguishing characteristics of a leaf from a monocot vs a dicot plant 0 Monocot parallel venation veins run length of leaf and are not branched 0 Dicot Netted venation veins are highly branched Explain the difference among leaves that are palmately veined palmately compound pinnately veined and pinnately compound 0 Palmately veined pattern of fingers branching off from hand 0 Palmately compound veins begin from common point at base of lea ets 0 Pinnately veined veins attached in featherlike fashion 0 Pinnately compound lea ets attached in featherlike arrangement Describe the distinguishing structural characteristics of a grass leaf 0 Sheath base of the leaf blade that surrounds the stem 0 Ligule collarlike extension at the top of the sheath 0 Auricles surround the stem at the junction of the blade and sheaths 0 Collar thin band of tissue at the union of the leaf blade and the sheath Describe the role of guard cells in gas exchange and transpiration 0 Function in exchange of gases in amp out of leaf plant controls opening amp closing through water pressure regulation 0 Controls the movement of C02 into the leaf for photosynthesis Also allows oxygen to exit the leaf 0 Transpiration regulates the loss of water vapor from the leaf List the 3 factors that impact the rate of transpiration 0 Temperature low humidity increases TR 0 Wind air movement disperses water vapor increases TR 0 Soil water affects amount of water transported through plant Describe the growth process of a leaf leaves originate in embryo gt subsequent leaves originate in growing point of stem gt growing point produces leaf primordium at each node gt leaf begins to photosynthesize amp manufactures energy needed to build itself Lesson 5 De ne photosynthesis in terms of inputs and outputs CO2 H2O energy C6H1206 02 H2O List the distinguishing features between the light reactions and dark reaction of photosynthesis 0 Light reactions require input of light energy to produce chemical energy light energy chlorophyll and water enter the photosynthetic reaction energy carriers produced for use in dark reactions depends on amount of lightlight intensity independent of temperature 0 Dark reactions Use metabolic energy captured by light reactions to fix atmospheric carbon in the form of carbohydrates temperature dependent temperature decrease gt dark reactions increase Explain the logistics of photosynthesis C02 enters leaf through stomata dissolves in water diffuses through leaf gt water from root hairs moves to leaves through xylem gt light energy absorbed by chlorophyll amp converted to energy gt oxygen diffused out through stomata List the six major factors that affect photosynthesis C02 concentration water availability light intensity amp duration light quality temperature sourcesink relationships Explain how and why the rate of photosynthesis changes with C02 concentration C02 T Ps rate T C02 i Ps rate i Largely controlled by the water status of the plant because it affects the degree to which stomata are open Explain why C3 and C4 have different photosynthetic rates 0 C4 Leaf anatomy concentrates C02 in areas of the leaf that allows C02 to be fixed more efficiently 0 C3 reach their maximum photosynthetic capacity at a much lower light intensity than C4 plants Define the terms source and sink then describe how they affect the photosynthetic rate of a plant 0 Source supplier of photosynthetic products sugars primarily leaves 0 Sink demands sugars roots growing points developing seeds or fruit large sink increases Ps Ps declines when sink is removed Define respiration in terms of inputs and outputs of the reaction C6H1206 02 gt C02 H20 energy List the five factors that affect the respiration rate Metabolic rate of tissue temperature oxygen sucrose plant injury Describe how plants grow based on the net assimilation rate and the light compensation point Be able to present this in graphical form NAR Ps Rp if Ps gt Rp the plant grows if Ps Rp no growth if Ps lt Rp no growth decline death HIG39H a lt35 3 LIGHT 9 COMPENSATION POINT I 39 ft 1 NET 3 PHO39rosmTHESI a g FIESPIFLATION E a N 7 50 100 suwuem llN39FENSITY my Lesson 6 Describe the structural parts the stamen is composed of O Anther structure that dispenses pollen O Filament structure that supports the anther Describe the structural parts the pistil is composed of Stigma structure that receives pollen Style structure that connects stigma to ovary Ovary contains female reproductive cells Carpels sections of the pistil OOOO Identify the parts of a complete ower and their purpose and describe how these differ in an incomplete ower 0 Parts of a complete ower I sepals protect ower bud I petals attract pollinators I pistils female reproductive structure I stamens male reproductive structure 0 Incomplete ower one or more of the four above parts is missing Explain the differences between perfect and imperfect owers 0 Perfect contain male amp female reproductive parts stamens amp pistil 0 Imperfect only has one reproductive part Describe the differences between monocot and dicot owers 0 Monocot sepals petals amp stamens develop in groups of 3 or 6 O Dicot Sepals petals amp stamens develop in groups of 4 or 5 Recognize how grass owers differ from other owers 0 Grass ower type of monocot structures I Bracts are the equivalent of the calyx and corolla that are found in dicots I Spikelet is an individual grass ower called the in orescence I Glumes are two leaflike bracts at the base of each spikelet I Florets contain the stamens amp pistil together with other bracts located above the glumes Explain monoecious and dioecious plants 0 Monoecious meaning quotone housequot pistillate amp staminate owers reside on the same plant I example corn ears are pistillate tassel is staminate owers are imperfect O Dioecious meaning quottwo housesquot has only staminate or pistillate owers on a plant I male amp female owers are imperfect and found on separate plants I must outcross introduce unrelated genetic material to produce seed De ne a fruit botanically speaking O develops from ovary of a ower 0 fruit is a mature ovary with its associated parts 0 function protects amp disperses seeds Explain the differences among simple aggregate and multiple fruits Provide an example of each 0 Simple single ovary from single ower I example strawberry 0 Aggregate develop from many ovaries on a single ower I example grapes 0 Multiple develop from individual owers on a cluster in orescence amp fuse together as fruit grows I example pineapple Explain the differences among eshy dehiscent and indehiscent fruits Provide an example of each 0 Fleshy fruits with thick esh surrounding the seeds I examples bananas berries peaches O Dehiscent fruits split open at maturity to expose seeds I examples beans peas milkweed pods O Indehiscent Fruits do not split open when mature I examples nuts grains Define asexual propagation and its advantages over sexual propagation O Asexual Reproduction that does not involve the union of male amp female gametes accomplished through mitosis cell division I Advantages Maintain genetic purity maintain disease free plants viruses transmitted through embryos are not passed on more economically viable for plants that produce few seeds or take a long time to make seeds Describe commercial methods of asexual propagation O Cuttings removing a piece of vegetative tissue that will regenerate into a new plant 0 Grafting joining plant parts together so they fuse amp continue to grow as one Explain the stages of mitosis Interphase chromosomes are uncoiled chromosomes are duplicated Prophase Chromatin condenses into chromosomes amp sister chromatids are visible Prometaphase nuclear envelope breaks down mitotic spindle forms Metaphase Chromosomes align amp spindle fibers attach to centromeres Anaphase Centromeres divide sister chromatids separate amp move to opposite poles Telophase chromosomes sit at opposite ends of the cell cytoplasm divides amp membrane comes apart in the middle OOOOOO Lesson 7 List the advantages and disadvantages of sexual and asexual reproduction 0 Sexual Reproduction Advantages Iincreases genetic diversity 0Asexual Reproduction Advantages Imaintains genetic purity less reliance on finding a partner more reliable Define and describe mitosis and meiosis with regard to where and when each type of cellular reproduction occurs what types of tissues are involved and what the resulting products from each event consist of genetically O Mitosis Iwhere nucleus Iwhen growthbuilding new cellstissues Itissues vegetative Iresult 2 diploid cells 0 Meiosis Iwhere nucleus Iwhen sexual reproduction Itissues sex cells Iresult 4 haploid cells Describe the processes of megasporogenesis and microsporogenesis 0Megasporogenesis female sex cell formation I4 haploid megaspores produced via meiosis gt one megaspore continues to develop gt mitotic divisions produce 8 nuclei 1 egg 2 polar nuclei 5 other nuclei gt 2 nuclei are synergious 3 become antipodal cells gt end result megagametophyte 0Microsporogenesis male sex cell formation I mother cell divides via meiosis gt produces 4 haploid microspores gt each microspore continues developing gt microspores divide gt structural change results in pollen grains gt pollen released by anthers De ne the term sexual fertilization then list the steps involved in the process 0 Sexual Fertilization union of male amp female gametes I pollen grain lands on stigma gt produces pollen tube gt tube grows down to ovary gt pollen grain nuclei are deposited into female gametophyte gt 1 nucleus divides amp produces sperm nuclei gt 1 nucleus becomes tube cell gt sperm nucleus fuses w egg to create seed embryo gt other sperm nucleus fuses w pollen nuclei to create endosperm De ne triple fusion 0 Triple Fusion formation of endosperm energy source for embryo to grow De ne double fertilization 0 Double Fertilization sexual fertilization triple fusion Describe the role of segregation and recombination in sexual reproduction O Segregation separation of allelic pairs traits amp distribution of single alleles via meiosis O Recombination formation of new combinations of alleles traits as a result of fertilization amp combined gametes carrying different alleles I segregation recombination new genetic combinations Describe the factors that in uence the phenotype of a plant 0 phenotype physical or biochemical characteristics of an organism based on genotype interacting with environment I phenotype genotype environment List the 4 primary objectives of plant breeding increase yield under optimal conditions improve performance stability adaptation to harvesting improved product quality OOOO Describe the three traditional breeding methods 0 Introduction bring in new genetic variatior diversity by collecting plants from different parts of the world example crops brought from Europe to US 0 General Selection increasing desirable individual in population removing undesirable individuals harvesting only the best plants amp planting their seeds 0 Hybridization mating genetically different individuals to obtain new genetic combinations Explain the purpose of hybridization 0 creates genetic variability among offspring via controlled crosses I quot generate variability among offspring from which individuals with new gene combinations can be identifiedquot Define the term selection 0 Selection identifying superior individuals among groups of plants to advance in the next generation Describe the differences between self and crosspollinated plants based on breeding habit and requirements for cross hybridization 0 Self Pollinated pollen amp egg come from same ower 0 Cross Pollinated pollen amp egg are from separate plants Define what a hybrid is then explain the advantage and disadvantage of using hybrid seeds in commercial production 0 Hybrid offspring of two genetically distinct individuals 0 advantage high yield consistent uniform field 0 disadvantage seeds from those plants will be segregated not nearly as productive Lesson 8 Define the term genetic engineering 0 Genetic Engineering genetic modification incorporating genes from bacteria weeds amp animals into plants removing sexual incompatibility barriers asexual gene manipulation Describe the major GMO crops currently in production 0 corn soybeans alfalfa cotton List the potential benefits of genetic engineering 0 herbicide resistance insect resistance disease resistance pharmaceuticals increased nutrient content Discuss the concerns of genetic engineering Issues with accepting GMOs as a safe food source escape of cloned genes into the environment ex superweeds resistant to pesticides second hand transgene escape allergic responses to GM food Ethics right to know what you39re eating religious beliefs quotplaying godquot fear of violating civil rights genetic prescreening OOOOO selective abortion Lesson 9 List and describe the five soilforming factors 0 Parent Material Unconsolidated mineral matter lying underneath the upper soil layers material from which the soil is formed 0 Climate Affects rate of soil formation amp type of soil formed moisture humidity frost heat wind erosion and sunlight 0 Organisms in uenced by climate which in uences the type and amount of vegetation produced Microorganisms amp earthworms break down organic matter amp mix it with soil 0 Topography Determines the erosion rate and thus the depth of soil Modifies the climate Determines patterns and rates of drainage 0 Time Rate is affected by the nature of the parent material and the intensity of the weathering List the four major components of soil 0 Mineral matter 40 organic matter 10 air 25 water 25 De ne soil texture 0 The percentage by weight of sand silt and claysized particles in a soil De ne soil structure 0 The combination of sand silt and clay with organic matter into secondary particles called aggregates Discuss how texture and structure impact the water holding capacity and water infiltration rates of a soil 0 Size of soil pores water is lost from the largest pores sand first 0 The total amount of surface area per unit mass associated with the particles clay has more surface area per gram List and describe the three forms of soil water 0 Gravitational free water remains in the soil only temporarily and moves down through the soil due to the force of gravity 0 Available capillary water Water held in small pores between soil particles and present as films around the soil particles 0 Hygroscopic bound unavailable water is held so tightly by the soil particles plant roots cannot extract it Describe how particle size affects water movement in soils 0 The more sand present in the soil the more easily water can pass through it 0 The higher the clay percentage the smaller the particles and pore spaces Define the terms 0 Field capacity all the gravitational water has moved through the soil and the pore space is filled with only the water the soil can hold against the force of gravity 0 Wilting point Plant can no longer extract water from the soil and it begins to wilt 0 Saturation capacity All pores are completely filled with water 0 Available water AW Field Capacity Permanent Wilting Point Explain potential sources of soil salinity and the detrimental problems it can cause to plants Mineral weathering 0 Inorganic fertilizers and manures 0 Irrigation waters Other sources 0 Salts cause chemical drought which is similar to water stress State the difference between macro and micronutrients 0 Macronutrients are required in large quantities micronutrients are required in small quantities List the primary and secondary macronutrients 0 Primary Nitrogen Phosphorus Potassium 0 Secondary Calcium Magnesium Sulfur List the micronutrients 0 Molybdenum Boron Copper Iron Manganese Zinc Chorine List the different nutrient sources and the different types of fertilizers 0 Nutrient Sources 0 Inorganic fertilizers O Manures composts and other organic materialsfertilizers 0 Green manures legumes and others I Peas vetch rye oats wheat barley 0 Types of Fertilizers 0 Chemical fertilizers 0 Organic fertilizers bone meal compost manure etc 0 Green manures Lesson 10 List the goals andor purposes of tillage 0 Preparing the soil to be in ideal condition for nurturing growing plants 0 seedbed preparation increasing soil temperature incorporating plant residues controlling weeds conserving water Describe the impacts of tillage on soil erosion soil temperature and soil moisture levels 0 Excessive tillage destroys soil structure affects water movement amp oxygen exchange Why is seed to soil contact important 0 Allows seeds to imbibe water from the soil Describe the factors involved in notill crop production speci cally addressing issue concerning soil erosion soil temperature and soil moisture levels 0 Erosion good control 0 Soil temp amp moisture poorly drained soils dry up quickly List the factors that affect depth of seeding 0 sandy soil plant deeper to ensure contact with moisture 0 heavy soil seeding more shallow 0 seeds of plants with hypogeal emergence can be planted deeper than seeds of plants with epigeal emergence List the factors that affect seeding rates 0 percent germination seed purity plant size species variation competitive ability environment temperature range List the factors that determine planting date and discuss the impact of delayed planting on variety choice crop choice and yield potential 0 soil amp air temperature weather 0 early seeding may result in more seed and seedling diseases due to the cool moist conditions 0 With fallseeded crops soil temperature is usually optimum seeding date is determined by factors such as adequate soil moisture levels for germination Describe the differences between climate and weather 0 Climate long term 0 Weather short term immediate Describe how the distribution of precipitation throughout the year affects the growth and development of a crop 0 Cropping regions are classified on the basis of average annual precipitation determines what plants can be grown where 0 Precipitation that occurs during peak water use of the crop is the most beneficial Describe the process of summerfallowing a crop eld Discuss how it is maintained and describe the ef ciency of this system as a moisture conservation method 0 Keeping field vegetation free to store moisture 0 remove weeds so they don t deplete the water supply 0 Efficiency of water utilization is largely determined by the rate of transpiration from the plants plus the rate of evaporation from the soil Name five features that can modify climate 0 Sunlight latitude time of year topography human activity Discuss microclimate and how it impacts plant growth 0 The environmental conditions immediately surrounding the plant 0 affected by human activity irrigation tillage drainage ponds other plants etc 0 affected by urban development Describe a Plant Hardiness Zone Map and how it can be used to choose plants for a specific part of the country 0 Categorizes plants based on the average annual minimum temperatures throughout the country Describe several methods used in agriculture to modify temperatures for maximum crop production 0 Good site selection 0 Plant cold or heat tolerant crops 0 Heaters amp wind machines 0 Wind blocks forest vegetation water 0 Protective structurescoverings De ne growing degree day and explain how these are calculated for cool season and warm season crops 0 Used to determine the crop harvest date based on heat units that accumulate over the growing season Less 01111 Explain the three terms used to describe the plant s light environment 0 Intensity quantity strength of the light 0 Quality color wavelength of light 0 Duration photoperiod time span of the light exposure Explain how plants absorb light energy 0 Photosynthesis 6C02 6H20 gt C6H1206 602 Describe how light intensities that are too low or too high can impact plants 0 Damage to plant parts such as fruit owers or bark due to over exposure to sunlight or light intensity results in sunburn or sunscald How are sun leaves different from shade leaves 0 Sun leaves adapted to high light intensities thick but small in area 0 Shade leaves efficient at harvesting low levels of light thin but large in area Provide an example of how a change in the light quality environment can in uence plant growth and development 0 Plants growing under the filtered light low RFR would have increased stem elongation increased internode length and strong apical dominance compared to plants grown in the nonfiltered light high RFR Explain the difference between short day long day and day neutral plants 0 Short day ower in response to shortening photoperiod or lengthening night period 0 Long Day ower in response to lengthening photoperiod or shortening night period 0 Day Neutral no response to changes in photoperiod Describe several methods used in agriculture to modify the light environment of the plant to improve crop production and efficiency 0 Night interruption lighting 0 using lights to extend photoperiod 0 black cloths to eliminate light exposure amp extend night period 0 pruning amp training 0 positioning plants in shade 0 re ective plastic mulches 0 using populatior spacing genetics to optimize light interception Less 01112 Describe what makes a weed species 39weedy39 and the processes by which weeds compete with crop plants 0 a plant that is competitive invasive persistent pernicious interferes with intended land use 0 take up space amp nutrients Describe the different weed origins and the competitive characteristics of weeds 0 native introduced escapedinvasive 0 widely adapted rapid emergence amp growth quick to reproduce produces lots of seeds seeds disperse widely many seeds are dormant Describe how the life cycle of a weed impacts timing of control 0 annuals biennials perennials kill them when they39re youngsmall List some examples of vegetative structures that perennial weeds use to propagate reproduce themselves 0 roots stolons rhizomes 0 tubers bulbs rooting at nodes List the five methods of weed control and provide examples of each 0 Prevention 0 avoid establishment O regulation 0 quarantine O sanitation 0 preventing seed production 0 Mechanical Control 0 hand pullinghoeing O tillage O mowing O mulches 0 fire 0 ood 0 Cultural control 0 rotation 0 cover crops I nutrient scavenging during winter weed suppression 0 planting dates 0 water amp fertilizer management O allelopathy 0 Biological control 0 animals 0 insects O diseases 0 Chemical control 0 selectivity O placement 0 timing 0 mode of action 0 spectrum of activity Describe the difference between a selective and nonselective herbicide and provide examples 0 selective 24D only kills certain species or type of plant ex kills broadleaf plants doesn39t injure monocots 0 nonselective RoundUp will kill anything Describe some factors to consider when deciding what weed management strategies to use 0 climate 0 soil factors 0 surrounding vegetation 0 weed biology Lesson 13 List the bene cial effects of insects 0 many insects act as pollinators for both crops amp weeds I ex alfalfa clover tree fruits vegetable crops 0 nutrient cycling breaking down amp recycling animalplant tissues which releases nutrients for other organisms to use 0 natural predators some insects feed on weeds others feed on crop pests I preying mantis amp ladybugs feed on aphids I klamath beetle feeds on klamath weed 0 wild diversity food source for fish birds etc vital part of food chain Explain how insects can reduce the quality and quantity of harvested product 0 loss of leaf tissue reduces ability to photosynthesize 0 stem damage decreases translocation ability in phloem and xylem 0 seed damage lowers viability reduces quality of seed products 0 fruit foliage ower damage reduces product quality amp value 0 root damage reduces ability to intake nutrients amp water 0 premature plant death reduces yield amp quality 0 insect excrement amp body parts contaminate grain lots List the other detrimental effects of insects on crops 0 Transmit diseases to plants I disease spread insects act as vectors from plant to plant 0 aphids mites leafhoppers can transmit viruses I disease entry insect wounds on tissue allow disease to enter plants 0 indirect damage fields produce less dry matter reduces erosion protection I ex grasshoppers can leave a field bare Describe the difference between chewing and sucking insects and explain how each can be involved in spreading diseases among plants 0 chewing insects biteteareat parts of plant create wounds that pathogens can enter 0 piercingsucking insects or mites pierce plant phloem amp suck out sap can inject pathogens into the plant Describe the principals involved in establishing an effective pest control program 0 accurately identifying pest 0 accurately estimate population size to determine potential crop damage 0 use economicallyenvironmentally effective method Define IPM then list the objectives of the program 0 Integrated Pest Management uses complete system of pest control to address problems reduce population below economic damage levels minimize environmental damage Define the term action threshold 0 pest level at which control measures are warranted List the four types of insect control methods and provide examples of each 0 genetics plant breeders develop varieties resistanttolerant of pest feeding I advantages no chemicals genetic resistances tend to last longer I host plant does not suffer economic damage if infected O cultural control changing cropping sequence tillage cultivation weed control etc to reduce infestation levels I crop rotations reduce pest population levels I changing seed date plant earlier or later I plowing disking or burning I controlling weeds 0 biological control using other living organisms to reduce pests I parasitic insects ladybugs feed on aphids I pestspecific diseases I hormones or pheromones pheromones attract males to traps to prevent breeding 0 chemical control using pesticides insecticides miticides amp nematicides I most expensive type of control I greatest environmental effect I classified by mode of action 0 chemical may accumulate in plant parts harvested for food Distinguish among the different types of chemical control agents for insects 0 contact poisons kill by direct body penetration or through inhalation controls piercing insects amp mites 0 stomach poisons kill when ingested in stomach controls chewing insects 0 systematic poisons absorbed by plant then ingested by insect control any time of pest Lesson 14 Explain the detrimental effects of plant pathogens on crop yields in terms of photosynthesis and photosynthate translocation 0 chlorosis destroys chlorophyll reduces rate of photosynthesis 0 necrosis death of plant tissue 0 block vascular system disrupt translocation 0 interfere w photosynthesis amp respiration decrease plant growth 0 affects water use efficiency decrease plant growth Explain how plant diseases reduce crop quality 0 causes premature ripening of grainfruit grain doesn39t fill completely 0 disease evidence on leaves owersfruit reduces attractiveness amp quality 0 replace graii fruit with fungal bodies has toxic effect 0 seedbome diseases transmitted to next crop List and describe the four different types of plant pathogens I responsible for greatest number of crop losses I rusts smuts stalk rots down mildews I reproduce via spores carried by wind crop residue seeds I can reproduce sexually adaptovercome genetic resistance 0 bacteria I enter plant through openings like stomata or wounds I single celled organism reproduces via binary fission I colonize amp parasitize host I symptoms include soft rots leaf spots bacterial galls vascular disease 0 viruses I not considered living organisms I obligate parasites can only grow amp multiply within a host I invade cells amp disrupt functions I most common symptom is alteration of leaf chlorophyll pattern 0 nematodes I microscopic worms roundworms that attach to roots stems leaves owers I most feed on roots I reproduce via eggs I parasitize plant tissue I cause galls lesions stuntedinjured roots I cause plants to wilt stunts growth List the three requirements for disease occurrence 0 pathogen susceptible host proper environment for disease development List and describe each of the ve stages of disease development 0 inoculation inoculum some form of pathogen is transferred to plant I host amp pathogen must come into contact 0 penetration of inoculum through natural openings or wounds I insects may inject pathogen when feeding I fungal pathogens may enter via root tissue 0 infection occurs when pathogen becomes established in host I pathogen begins to multiply within host 0 invasion pathogen spreads throughout plant disease symptoms appear I tissues rupture transport system plugged chlorosis amp necrosis occur I major economic crop losses 0 reproduction dissemination spread by wind insects water people animals birds amp survival of pathogen List describe and provide examples of each disease control measure 0 Genetics I avoidance morphological structures that hinder pathogen penetration 0 sunken stomata thick cuticles I tolerance plant can withstand invasion ifwhen it occurs I true resistance infection does not occur despite inoculation 0 Cultural Control I altering life cycle of host plant or pathogen I crop rotation to change host I changing planting date I best management practices to promote vigorous crop growth 0 healthy plants are less susceptible to disease I controlling weeds to eliminate alternate hosts 0 Chemical Control I effective but eXpensive I used with high value crops I applied before inoculation I often reapplied 39 seed treatments protect seedlings from root disease andor insects
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