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FAU / Psychology / PSYCH 1012 / What is Encoding?

What is Encoding?

What is Encoding?


School: Florida Atlantic University
Department: Psychology
Course: General Psychology
Professor: James jakubow
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Human, development, child development, memory, and intelligence
Cost: 50
Uploaded: 03/21/2017
19 Pages 3 Views 4 Unlocks

CH. 3, 7, 9 study guide FULL

What is Encoding?


Encoding – hippocampus damage  

Storage – storing information

Retrieval – taking out information from long term memory  

Encoding (input) then Storage then Retrieval (output)

Sensory memory lasts less than a second, of all the info surrounding you at  this moment like a television and a parent talking on the phone and cooking  and the sound of the pan cooking food and making sizzling sounds. All that  information is going in to your brain even without paying attention to all that  will disappear in a second.

What cognitive activity does not need memory?  

Persistence of vision - is when an image on our retina for around 1/25th of a  second Don't forget about the age old question of what is Marketing Concept?

Primed -Facilitating the retrieval of an implicit memory by using cues to  activate hidden memories. 

Recognition- An ability to correctly identify previously learned information. 

What is Storage?

Disuse-Theory that memory traces weaken when memories are not  periodically used or retrieved. 

Semantic memory- A subpart of declarative memory that records impersonal  knowledge about the world. If you want to learn more check out Why is it important to study paleoclimate?

Repression- Unconsciously pushing unwanted memories out of awareness. 

Flashbulb memories-Especially vivid memory created at a time of high  emotion. 

Suppression- A conscious effort to put something out of mind or to keep it  from awareness. 

Echoic memory- A brief continuation of sensory activity in the auditory  system after a sound is heard. 

Negative transfer- Mastery of one task conflicts with learning or performing  another.

CH. 3, 7, 9 study guide FULL

Implicit memory- A memory that a person does not know exists; a memory  that is retrieved unconsciously. 

Recall- To supply or reproduce memorized information with a minimum of  external cues. 

What is Retrieval?

Declarative memory- That part of long-term memory containing specific  factual information. 

Memory decay- The fading or weakening of memories assumed to occur  when memory traces become weaker. 

Encoded- Converting information into a form in which it will be retained in  memory. 

Procedural memory - Long-term memories of conditioned responses and  learned skills. Don't forget about the age old question of what is The Scientific Method of Economics?

Explicit Memory - A memory that a person is aware of having; a memory that is consciously retrieved. 

Short term memory (STM) -The memory system used to hold small amounts  of information in our conscious awareness for about a dozen seconds. 15 –  30 seconds 

Sensory memory - The first, normally unconscious, stage of memory, which  holds an exact record of incoming information for a few seconds or less.  Holds large amounts of incoming information for a very short time. 1 second  duration  

Working memory- Another name for short-term memory, especially as it is  used for thinking and problem solving. 

Mnemonic- any kind of memory system or aid, or way to improve memory

Long term potentiation- Brain mechanism used to form lasting memories by  strengthening the connection between neurons that become more active at  the same time. 

Anything over 30 seconds is long term memory  

Anterograde amnesia-Loss of the ability to form or retrieve memories for  events that occur after an injury or trauma.We also discuss several other topics like ∙ what is conformity?

CH. 3, 7, 9 study guide FULL

Retroactive interference- The tendency for new memories to interfere with  the retrieval of old memories. 

Proactive Interference—Learning right now makes it harder to remember  information that you will learn in the future. 

Redintegration- Process by which memories are reconstructed or expanded  by starting with one memory and then following chains of association to  other, related memories. If you want to learn more check out what is Phaneritic?

Retrograde amnesia - Loss of memory for events that preceded a head injury or other amnesia-causing event. Don't forget about the age old question of Mashing is a process of what?

Hippocampus – the part of the brain that is associated with memory,  emotional transfer of information from short term memory to long term

5 to 9 on average items can be remembered in short term memory chunking is grouping small units into more meaningful units

The question on the test is duration of short term memory is 7 chunks not 7  digits  

Modal model -

At kinson and Shiffrin

Working memory consists of:

Visual sketch pad

Phonological loop

Central executive

CH. 3, 7, 9 study guide FULL

The visual sketch pad is when a person draws a picture of an action in their  head for example driving and your friend tells you to turn left so you draw a  map in your head and draw yourself turning left.

The phonological loop is you repeating what you should do so you would be  repeating to yourself “turn left, turn left, turn left”

The central executive suppresses the irrelevant information EXAMPLE: your friend was on the phone and he or she is talking on the  phone and then tells you the direction you would ignore whatever they are  speaking about besides the direction.

In the working memory the frontal, parietal, and cerebellum are involved. Its  not a single memory system.

Long term memory Duration is from 30 seconds to 90 years or more Long vs. Short

Short-term memory:

 Physical characteristics of the input.

 Often encoded based on the sound of stimuli.  

 e.g. particular words, visual characteristics

Long term memory:  

Meaning of the input

Specific words or sentences are not remembered.  

The semantic‘gist’ is remembered.  

Some what similar to visual memory.

How info is stored in Long term;

Encoding--- Storage-- retrieval

What determines what is encoded and what is not?

Attention is needed to get through the gate to stay memorized


PRIMACY- Words at beginning of list are better remembered. RECENCY- Words at end of list are better remembered.  

Basically like eating a cereal – you remember serving it and finishing it but  not the middle.

Regency- Still in STM.

CH. 3, 7, 9 study guide FULL

Primacy- Rehearsal allows information into LTM.

 - Primacy effect is attributed to LTM.

Feature integration theory -is what causes the memory ….suggest attention  is needed to remember the things but not the combination

contextual cueing is that you remember better what you learned in the same environment


Intelligence reflects the innate ability that is genetically determined and  fixed at conception or when sperm and egg meet

Psychometric approach - intelligence is a trait or set of traits that  characterize some people to greater extent than others

Goal us to identify the traits precisely and to measure them so the  differences

General mental ability (g) - contributes to performance on a variety of  tasks

Special abilities (s) - are specific to particular tasks

Catell and Horn (1963)

Fluid intelligence- the ability to use the mind actively to solve novel  problems

Crystallized intelligence - the use of knowledge acquired through  school and life experiences

• An IQ of 100 indicates average intelligence

What makes a good intelligence test:

Reliability- How reliable a test can be, or the stability of test scores  overtime

Validity: the degree to which a test measures the trait that it was  designed to measure 

Sternberg proposed a Triarchic theory of intelligence – three components that jointly contribute to intelligent behavior

1) Practical or contextual component

Varies according to the sociocultural context in which it is displayed

CH. 3, 7, 9 study guide FULL

2) Creative component includes

Response to novelty, which requires active and conscious information  processing

Automization, or increased efficiency of information processing with practice 3) Analytic component

Information-processing skills that are assessed by traditional IQ tests

Bayley Scales of Infant Development – the most widely used infant test • Motor scale  

• Mental scale  

• Behavior rating scale  

Research reveals strong relationships between IQ and factors that represent  occupational success such as

• Income

• Occupational prestige

• Complexity of work

• Job performance ratings  

Genetic and environmental factors interact to influence IQ • Flynn effect – during the 20th century, in all countries studied,  average IQ scores increased by 3 to 4 points per decade

• Researchers find that about half of the variation in IQ scores within a  group of individuals is associated with genetic differences among them • But a genetic influence upon intelligence does not mean that IQ is  unresponsive to the environment

• Sameroff and colleagues (1993) identified risk factors that affect IQ,  and the greater the number of these risk factors affecting a child, the  lower the IQ

Causes of intellectual disability

• “Organic” conditions  

• Biological causes associated with hereditary factors,  

diseases, or injuries

• Prenatal risk factors such as maternal alcohol use

• No identifiable organic cause

• Combination of genetic and environmental factors

CH. 3, 7, 9 study guide FULL

GARDNERS THEORY 8 distinct abilities

– Interpersonal – social intelligence and skill, sensitivity to the motivations  and moods of others

– Intrapersonal – understanding of one’s own feelings and inner life – Naturalist – expertise in the natural world of plants and animals – Linguistic – language skills

– Logical-mathematical – abstract thinking and problem-solving – Musical – acute sensitivity to sound patterns

– Spatial – accurate perception

– Bodily-kinesthetic – skillful use of the body to create, perform, etc.  

Teratogens – any disease, drug, or environmental agent that can harm a  developing organism prenatally  

Generalizations about the effects of teratogens

-critical period

-dosage and duration

-genetic makeup


example: mother smokes while pregnant –affects not just child but  grand children

Nicotine- increased heart rate, low birth weight

Thalidomide – critical periods for different deformities

Missing or deformed

Limbs; deformed eyes, eyes, nose, missing ears

Video: Kennedy says to be aware of thalidomide. Corporate greed at its  worse. Wonder drug of sedative to fix many illnesses. No prescription needed in Germany. Company gave out samples all over. First victim in Germany was born with no ears. Dr. Frances Kelsey found out of poor research behind the  drug. It was believed that no matter how much of the drug was given to a rat it would not die.  


CH. 3, 7, 9 study guide FULL

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is caused by the humans HIV. HIV can be transmitted  

∙ Prenatally, if the virus passes through the placenta

∙ By exposure to blood during birth

∙ Postnatally, by breast feeding

If not tested 15% -35% chance babies might get it.

Development is a continuing process throughout the lifespan Physical – cognitive – psychosocial  

Nature: influences of heredity 

Nurture: influences of environment 

3 main mechanisms of inheritance 

∙ single gene pair inheritance

∙ sex-linked inheritance

∙ polygenic gene pair (or multiple gene pair)

Single gene pair:

Humans characteristics influenced by one pair of genes ( one from mom and  one from dad)

Incomplete dominance or codominance; two different color eyes  

Sex-linked inheritance :

These are influenced by single genes located on sex chromosomes  Example: eye color blindness.

Polygenic inheritance:

Multiple genes pairs interact with environmental factors

Example: intelligence  

Most people fall in the middle  


A change in gene structure or arrangement that produce a new phenotype

CH. 3, 7, 9 study guide FULL

∙ May be harmful or beneficial depending on their nature and the  environment

∙ Example: sickle cell disease  

∙ Example: super powers

Chromosomal abnormalities:

-Occur when there are errors in chromosomes division during meiosis  --The ovum or sperm will have too many or too few chromosomes --Are main source of pregnancy loss and increases with age of  parents

--Medium lifespan is 15 days so doctors will encourage abortion

Selective breeding: 

Attempt to breed or experimental breeding–

∙ For particular trait purposes to determine whether the trait  is heritable

∙ Example: French bulldogs  

3 principles of growth:

1. cephalocaudal principle: head to tail -head growth and  


2. proximodistal principle: inside out – torso grows and limbs are  stubby and don’t grow yet

3. orthogenic principle: globally and undifferentiated or everything  develops at once

∙ Newborns are typically 7 to 7-1/2 pounds and about 20 inches long ∙ Brain changes to environment when developing  

Infant: reflexes are unlearned, involuntary responses to stimuli ∙ Survival reflexes are clearly adaptive

∙ Examples : breathing, eyeblink, sucking

CH. 3, 7, 9 study guide FULL

Primitive reflexes are less adaptive and typically disappear after 5 months Examples: Babinski reflex: (a reflex action in which the big toe remains extended  or extends itself when the sole of the foot is stimulated, abnormal except in young  infants.). Grasping reflex, moro reflex or sudden loss of support like if it feels like its  falling

Motor skills as dynamic action systems

∙ Arithmetic stereotypies are performed before a new motor skill  emerges  

∙ Dynamic theory explains developments  

∙ Self-organizing process in which children uses the sensory  feedback they receive when they try different movements to  modify their motor behavior in adaptive ways.

The infant - Emerging Self  

Around 18 months, infants recognize themselves visually as distinct  individuals

• Self-recognition- the ability to recognize oneself in a mirror or  photograph

• Lewis and Brooks-Gunn (1979) demonstrated the development of self-recognition by putting a dot of rouge on a baby’s nose and  placing the infant in front of a mirror

Chromosomes are strands of DNA made up of sequences of adenine,  cytosine, guanine, and thymine (A, C, G, and T)

• Some of these sequences are units called genes.

• There are 3.12 billion base pairs in human DNA

• The DNA in each normal human being is about 99.9% the same as every other normal human being.

Human Development

Easy to study Notes

Conception- moment when an egg or (ovum) fertilized by the sperm 1.Once the egg is fertilized it is called a Zygote

CH. 3, 7, 9 study guide FULL

A. The egg has 46 chromosomes so 23 from dad and 23 from  mom. The egg has 23 and the sperm 23 and combine.

2.Ovary is where the egg ripens and heads to the fallopian tube  A. 300 million sperm cells in semen  

∙ It takes the sperm 6 hours to get to the egg

B. Hoping that the egg is in the fallopian tube

3.Flows into the Uterus

Video of the baby developing

Everything Is made of collagen in the body. In the eye collagen is  transparent..25 days heart chamber develops. Main idea is that it is  very complex of how millions of cells know how to work together and  build structures so well organized in seconds. 

Meiosis- How reproductive cells(ova and sperm) are produced  Results in gametes- cells that contain only 23 chromosomes  

Meiosis makes in the end result 4 daughter cells and mitosis makes 2  daughter cells. ( another way to remember it)

(Key way to remember the differences is meiosis has an ‘e’ so its  egg

(1).Parent cell- (2).DNA replicates- (3).2 daughter cells- (4). 4 daughter  cells

Mitosis- each cell divides and duplicates itself exactly

Mitosis there is a place where the genes crossover  

Parent cell- DNA replicates crossover- 2 daughter cells

Genotype is translated into phenotype:

CH. 3, 7, 9 study guide FULL

Genotype, is the information in the genes that tell the body to develop  whatever

Phenotype, is what you see like the hair color, eye color

Gene expression: activation and environmental factors, A girl has a genotype for breast cancer, she lives in a clean environment, healthy living, but it  might not be expressed and if she lived by a nuclear plant then that can  cause it to give her the cancer.

On average you share half the genes with your siblings.

Identical twins have the exact same monozygotic twins, Fraternal – dizygotic  twins…50% similar genes  

Twin studies – both had same wife linda and second wife betty and love the  same beer and did the same jobs. Same heavy drinkers and smokers. Iq and  personality was extremely similar.

Both bit their nails. The same amount of body fat and almost perfect bone  density and both equally religious.  

Temperament- tendencies to respond in predictable ways that serve as the  building blocks of personality.

• Typical mood

• Regularity or predictability of biological functions

feeding and sleeping habits

• Tendency to approach or withdraw from new stimuli

• Intensity of emotional reactions

• Adaptability to new experiences and changes in  


Easy temperament

• Infants are even tempered, typically content or happy,  

open and adaptable to new experiences, have regular  

feeding and sleeping habits, and are tolerant of frustrations and discomforts  

Difficult temperament 

• Infants are active, irritable, and irregular in their habits,  often react negatively (and vigorously) to changes in

CH. 3, 7, 9 study guide FULL

routine, are slow to adapt to new people or situations, cry  frequently and loudly, and often have tantrums

Slow-to-warm-up temperament 

• Infants are relatively inactive, somewhat moody, only  

moderately regular in their daily schedules, slow to adapt  

to new people and situations, but they typically respond in  mildly, rather than intensely, negative ways.  

Jerome Kagan (1994, 2010) identified another aspect of early temperament – behavioral inhibition 

• The tendency to be shy, restrained, and distressed in response to unfamiliar people and situations

• Behavioral inhibition is biologically rooted

• Individuals with inhibited temperaments display strong  brain responses and high heart rates in reaction to  

unfamiliar stimuli

What are emotions?

Emotions are a complex phenomenon that involves a subjective feeling (“I’m mad”), physiological changes (a pounding heart), behavior (a  door slammed), and often a cognitive appraisal as well (“No wonder  I’m mad—He embarrassed me in front of everyone.”)

Attachment- a strong affectional tie that binds a person to an intimate  companion

• a behavioral system through which humans regulate their  emotional distress when under threat and achieve security by  seeking proximity to another person

The formation of an attachment to a caregiver

facilitates exploratory behavior

• The attachment figure serves as a secure base for exploration Researchers have traced the development of primary emotions

CH. 3, 7, 9 study guide FULL

• At birth, babies show contentment (by smiling), interest (by  staring intently at objects), and distress (by grimacing in  

response to pain or discomfort)

• By approximately 3 months of age, contentment becomes joy or  excitement at the sight of something familiar such as a big smile  in response to Mom’s face

• As early as 4 months, angry expressions appear  

• As early as 5 months, fear is displayed

Ainsworth and associates developed the Strange Situation as a procedure for measuring the quality of an attachment

•Infants are subjected to eight episodes of gradually escalating  stress as adult strangers approach and as a caregiver departs  and returns 

On the basis of an infant’s pattern of behavior during the Strange Situation, the quality of attachment to a parent can be  

characterized as one of four types 

• Secure, Resistant, Avoidant, Disorganized-disoriented 

Secure attachment 

• About 60-65% of 1-year-olds in our society are securely attached  to their mothers or primary caregivers

• The securely attached infant actively explores the room when  alone with his mother because she serves as a secure base • The infant may be upset by separation but greets his mother  warmly and is comforted by her presence when she returns

• When his mother is present, the securely attached child is  outgoing with a stranger

Resistant attachment (also called anxious/ambivalent attachment) • About 10% of 1-year-olds show a resistant attachment, an  insecure attachment characterized by anxious, ambivalent  reactions

• The resistant infant does not venture off to play even when his  mother is present, probably because she is not a secure base for  exploration 

• Yet this infant becomes distressed when his mother departs,  perhaps because he is uncertain whether she will return

Avoidant attachment 

• Up to 15% of 1-year-olds have avoidant attachments

CH. 3, 7, 9 study guide FULL

• They seem uninterested in exploring, show little apparent  distress when separated from their mothers, and avoid contact or seem indifferent when their mothers return

• Insecurely attached infants are not particularly wary of strangers but sometimes avoid or ignore them, much as they avoid or  ignore their mothers

Disorganized-disoriented attachment

• When infants with disorganized-disoriented attachment are  reunited with their mothers after a separation, they may act  dazed and freeze or lie immobilized on the floor

• Infants with a disorganized-disoriented attachment appear to  have been unable to devise a consistent strategy for regulating  negative emotions such as separation anxiety

Early learning theorists believed that an infant learns positive  emotional responses  

to her mother by associating  

her with food

Two dimensions of parenting contribute to the concept  of parenting style

1. Acceptance-responsiveness refers to the extent to which  parents are supportive, sensitive to their children’s needs, and  willing to provide affection and praise when their children meet  their expectations  

2.Demandingness-control (sometimes called permissiveness restrictiveness) refers to how much control over decisions lies  with the parent rather than with the child

• Controlling and demanding parents set rules, expect their  children to follow them, and monitor their children closely  to ensure that the rules are followed

CH. 3, 7, 9 study guide FULL

4 Patterns of both dimensions of  


1.Authoritarian parenting

• This restrictive parenting style combines high demandingness control and low acceptance-responsiveness

2.Authoritative parenting

• Authoritative parents are more flexible; they are demanding and  exert control, but they are also accepting and responsive

3.Permissive parenting

• This style is high in acceptance-responsiveness but low in  demandingness-control, They encourage children to express  their feelings and impulses and rarely exert control over their  behavior

4.Neglectful parenting

• Parents who combine low demandingness-control and low  acceptance-responsiveness are relatively uninvolved in their  children’s upbringing. Careless about the children and may reject them.

Traits that are strongly heritable  

Physical and physiological  

1.Least heritable is personality 

2.Moderate heritable is general intelligence 

3.Autism is the most likely to be heritable 

What determines females and males breakdown by their chromosomes

CH. 3, 7, 9 study guide FULL

22pairs – autosomes

23rd pair – sex chromosomes

the males 23rd long (x) and short chromosomes with fewer genes (Y) Father determines the child’s sex 

Prenatal Stages 


Study early growth and development  

Germinal Period 

Lasts 2 weeks

Fertilized egg is not yet implanted in the uterus then the  

Zygote divides through mitosis and forms a blastocyst that implants into the  blood vessels of the uterine wall.

If the embryo or fetus does not implant it is not viable.

Embryonic period 

3rd week to 8th week after conception

organogenesis- formation of every major organ  

sexual differentiation

umbilical cord is created for nutrients and waste

Anencephaly is when the cortex does not form when the top does not close  in the development  

And spina bifida is when there is when the placental fluids expose to the  spinal cord kills the baby.

In a genetic male, a gene on the Y chromosomes directs construction of  testes.

In a genetic female, ovaries form.

Fetal period 

Organogenesis is complete Sex organs appear in 3rd month of pregnancy. At  4 months, movements can be felt by the mother. At 7 months, the fetus may  be viable. Critical period of the three processes brain development;  proliferation, migration, differentiation.  

Post prenatal there will be another proliferation stage.

Prenatal Enviroment

CH. 3, 7, 9 study guide FULL

Reciprocal influences- Transactions between the developing organism  and its physical and social environments begin at conception – Events of the prenatal period have lifelong effects on physical  health and mental development


 The growth spurt is triggered by an increase in the level of  growth hormones

• Girls’ peak rates of growth

• For height – not quite 12 years of age  

• For weight – 12.5 years

• Boys’ peak rates of growth

• For height – 13.4 years of age

• For weight – 13.9 years

The Adult 

Female -

The ending of menstrual periods is menopause 

The average age is 51 and the usual age range is 45-54

Male –

Andropause is characterized by decreasing levels of testosterone and  symptoms such as

• Low libido

• Fatigue and lack of energy

• Erection problems

• Memory problems

• Loss of pubic hair

Men experience fewer psychological effects with andropause than  women do with menopause

Romantic relationships 

-3 types of theory of love

• Passion – sexual attraction, romantic feelings, and excitement

CH. 3, 7, 9 study guide FULL

• Intimacy – feelings of warmth, caring, closeness, trust, and  respect in the relationship

• Decision/commitment – involves first deciding that one loves the  other person and then committing to a long-term relationship

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