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IU / Psychology / PSY 101 / What are the advantages of concept mapping?

What are the advantages of concept mapping?

What are the advantages of concept mapping?

Description

School: Indiana University
Department: Psychology
Course: Introductory Psychology
Professor: Thomassen
Term: Summer 2015
Tags: psy-p101 and Psychology
Cost: 50
Name: PSY-P101 Exam 3 Study Guide
Description: Exam will be over chapters 6 and 7.
Uploaded: 03/21/2017
3 Pages 142 Views 5 Unlocks
Reviews


P101 Exam 3 Review 3-21-17 ∙ Experimental credits (4) due by Wed April 26


What are the advantages of concept mapping?



o Up to 2 online

o 2 more opportunities to do brief reports instead

o See FAQs on Canvas

∙ REVIEW SESSION Wed at 9:00 pm on Canvas (chat log is saved for later)

o Short answer questions posted on Canvas

o Read assigned blog post on autistic children

o Read assigned article

∙ Concept Mapping

o Similar to brainstorming; can be organized/labeled in way that makes most sense to  you

o 3 things required:

▪ Central node in box

▪ Surrounding nodes in boxes

▪ Links/lines to connect ideas (possibly with labels)


What is reinforcing successive approximations of a target behavior?



o Ex. Mapping sleep cycles

▪ S = state of being; W = type of waves observed on EEG

▪ Colored arrows represent what happens with sleep stages during night- red → green → blue

▪ Sleep paralysis can occur somewhere in range of non-REM 2 to REM

(corresponds most closely to green arrows)


How does observational learning affect behavior?



If you want to learn more check out Do gas particles collide with one another and transfer energy?

▪ Sleep walking occurs during non-REM 3

o Ex. Substitute teacher wants to reduce students’ talking while she takes attendance.  She says, “We are not going to move on to our lesson for today until everyone stops  talking”

▪ Seems annoyed students become louder

▪ Wants to introduce aversive thing (work); does not work (negative  

reinforcement)

▪ Removing aversive stimulus by saying they won’t work until quiet

▪ Map of operant conditioning:

∙ Summary:

o Positive imposes (means “presence of”)

o Negative removes (means “absence of”)

o Reinforcement: behavior increases

o Punishment: behavior decreases

∙ Layers of Operant Conditioning

o Ex. Child says bad word (voluntary behavior)

▪ Mother washes mouth out with soap (consequence) We also discuss several other topics like What did the treaty of versailles in 1919 do?

▪ Asks “who taught you that word?”

▪ Child answers with soap in mouth (voluntary behavior), mom removes soap (consequence)

▪ Wants to decrease behavior of saying bad word and increase likelihood of child  telling truth

o For exam: will not be given layered situation

▪ Will be clear about behavior in question

▪ Look for “reduce,” “increase,” etc.- from there, can find consequence

∙ Shaping- reinforce successive closer and closer approximations to targeted behavior o we with complex behaviors

o Can be time-consuming to wait for someone to start behavior so consequence can  occur

▪ Can’t wait for specific behavior you want

o Ex. Being positive about some dishes being put in correctly instead of waiting for all  to be done right- won’t happen

∙ Observational learning- done by watching other people’s actions If you want to learn more check out What theory suggests that we seek out and maintain relationships in which the rewards exceed the costs?

o Exp. Bobo doll study: Dr. Bandura

▪ Studying social modeling of aggression

▪ Preschool children watched adult beat up inflatable doll

▪ Children left in play room with toys

▪ Those who watched aggressive modeling adopted it

∙ Showed increased attraction to guns, though model never used them ▪ Those who didn’t never hit doll

▪ We copy what other people do

o Cultural differences learned

▪ Rituals, food, clothing, musical tastes

o Apprenticeships

▪ Plumber, surgeon

o Non-human species

▪ Rats smell other rat’s breath before searching for food to see if it’s safe ▪ Japanese monkeys teach one another to wash potatoes in water

o Exp. Operant conditioning can be layered; Child watched video of adult being  aggressive toward doll and: getting reward, getting punishment, having no  consequence

▪ Adult having operant conditioning

▪ Does watching adult have operant conditioning change child’s behavior? ▪ Resulting aggression in children:

∙ Reward > no consequence > punishment We also discuss several other topics like What are phytochemicals and how do they benefit plants and humans?

▪ We form associations between behavior and consequences by observation ∙ Read assigned blog post: Don't forget about the age old question of What makes democracies less likely to fight?
We also discuss several other topics like Communication disorders refer to what?

o Takes advantage of operant conditioning until autistic children can do more complex  behaviors

o Children benefit from therapy- do not normally engage in observational learning and  pick up things from environment

o Can be taught by instruction

o Ex. Boy eventually able to sit in chair at table

▪ Started small by bringing chair to him, asked to sit

▪ Positive reinforcement when something new (progress) happened ▪ Uses shaping by reinforcing closer approximations to ideal behavior

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