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GSU / Biology / BIOL 1104 / How does energy create electric imbalance?

How does energy create electric imbalance?

How does energy create electric imbalance?

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BIO II // LECTURE // NERVOUS SYSTEMWe also discuss several other topics like What does androgynous denote?

  • Neural Control Mechanisms
  • Excitability -> action potentials
  • The ability to develop and propagate action potential (nerve/muscle)
  • Unlike charge attraction / Energy requirement to separate
  • Like charges repel / Energy required to bring together
  • Electrically neutral -> Low Energy System
  • Energy used to create an electric imbalance
  • Stored in system as potential energy
  • Voltage -> potential energy due to electrical imbalance
  • Allows potassium to move across the membrane
  • Lose positive charge of ions
  • As ions move across membrane they leave behind a charge difference
  • Voltage measured between two points = Potential Energy difference between those two points // this is called potential, measured in mV (millivolts)

  • Current- movement of electrical charges
  • Electrical imbalance -> potential difference -> electrical force causing charges to move
  • Resistance -> membrane (hindrance of movement of electrical charges)
  • Pores and channels
  • Insulators (increase Resistance)
  • Conductors (decrease Resistance)
  • Water and ions are good conductors
  • Lips and nonpolar molecules are good insulators (bad conductors)
  • Moving potassium in and sodium out requires Active Transport (ATP)
  • Resistance of Membrane
  • ECF and ICF is a good conductor
  • Cell membrane is an insulator -> little current flow
  • Resting Membrane Potential (R.M.P.)
  • Characteristic of all mammalian cells
  • Inside (I.C.F.) is regulated with respect to ECF, so RMP is negative
  • Ranges from -5 to -100 mV
  • Mainly due to potassium diffusion (creates RMP)
  • Action Potential
  • Characteristics of nerve and muscle cells
  • Controlled by sodium diffusion
  • Sodium/Potassium
  • Potassium is high [top left]
  • Sodium is high [top right]
  • ADP (uses energy to exchange ions against the concentration gradient) [bottom left]
  • Active Transport Pump [bottom right]
  • R.M.P: Due to K+ / Na+ pump
  • [K+] ECF << [K+] ICF
  • [Na+] ECF >> [Na+] ICF

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Don't forget about the age old question of What is orogenies?

We also discuss several other topics like Spanich missions took place in what central location?

  • Only potassium traverses the membrane
  • Sodium does not move

  • RMP
  • Diffusion potential - K+
  • Electrical Potential
  • Almost no balancing movement of Na+
  • K+ movement -> (-) ICF with respect to ECF, results in negative R.M.P.
  • Equilibrium Potential
  • The potential difference across the membrane when an electrical potential is equal and opposite different potential
  • Magnitude depends on:
  • Release of Ions in the ECF and ICF, esp. K+
  • Release membrane permeability to ions
  • Only permeable ions -> diffusion potential

  • Action Potential -> rapid change in membrane potential from original to reverse and back; time = muscles
  • Depolarize
  • Repolarize
  • Hyperpolarize
  • Reversal Potential

  • When the negative charge reaches the positive threshold the volt gates fly open allowing sodium to rush in (reversal closes the gate)
  • Potassium leaks out
  • Potassium repolarizes and repolarizes by bringing in a negative charge

  • Brings charge from negative to positive
  • Action potential results from the transient charge in membrane potential
  • Managed by voltage regulating gates

  • SUMMARY
  • RMP due to K+ diffusion
  • Active Potential due to Na+ diffusion
  • Active Potential does not require metabolism of energy uses potential energy in RMP
  • Na+ / K+ pump requires metabolism of energy

  • Functional unit of the Nervous System = Neuron
  • 10% of cells, 50% in vol >> do not divide
  • Glial cells comprise 90% of total cells
  • Provide physiological or metabolic support for neurons >> divided
  • Types:
  • Afferent neurons (stimulus)
  • Efferent neurons (response)
  • Interneurons (integrate signals)
  • CNS; 99% neurons
  • Dendrites [L]
  • Cell Body
  • Axon
  • Axon Terminal [R]

  • Afferent (input)
  • Efferent (output)

  • Velocity of Active Potential Transformation

  • Diameter of cell (increase diameter -> faster propagation) (bigger axons)
  • Myelination
  • Myelin = mostly lipid
  • Myelin - insulation of information of conduction
  • Nodes of Ranvier - ion flow across membranes occurs here
  • Action potential occurs in Axon.

  • Saltatory Conduction
  • Action potential propagated node to node, it is faster (250 mph)

  • Multiple Sclerosis
  • Loss of myelin insulation -> loss of conduction -> loss of motor control
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