∙ Name and briefly describe the 4 Characteristics of Consciousness?
Subjective & Private Noone else can know your experiences
SelfReflective, Central to Sense of SelfWe are aware of our own consciousness Can reflect on what we are feeling, thinking, seeing
Dynamic (Everchanging) Drift in and out of various states
Related to Selective Attention Can focus on some things, exclude others ∙ Measuring Consciousness
o What are the three broad types of methods of measuring consciousness? Examples? Selfreport thoughts and feelings (most common)
(pro)direct insight into experiences, (con) cannot be verified
Physiological relates body state and mental processes
(pro) objective, (con) have to infer mental state
(pro)objective, (con) must infer mental state
∙ Levels of Consciousness
o Name and briefly describe Freud’s 3 Levels of Consciousness. Give examples. Modern psychodynamicists suggest that motivation/emotion act at what level? Conscious Thoughts, perceptions, and other mental events of which we are currently aware
Preconscious Mental events not currently in awareness, but can be easily recalled (or focused on) “think about your best friend when you were a child”
Unconscious Cannot be brought into the conscious mind under ordinary circumstances Unacceptable urges, repressed memories, etc…
We also discuss several other topics like What is the definition of ethnicity?
o Name and briefly describe the Levels of Consciousness from the Cognitive viewpoint. Give examples of each.
Controlled conscious thought
Automatic unconscious, effortless (free’s ypou up to think about other thins, and sometimes make better decisions)
In very basic terms, how did Freud view the interaction between conscious and unconscious? How does the cognitive viewpoint differ? They work
together, you need them for different types of things
∙ Vegetative State
o Adrian Owen asked people in a vegetative state to think about two different activities that were known to activate different regions of the brain.
What were these activities, and (very generally) what were the brain areas? Imagine themselves playing tennis (premotor cortex), walking around the house (parietal lobe and parahippocampal gyrus)
What proportion of vegetative patients were able to follow these directions, indicating conscious awareness? 1in 5 indicated conscious awareness
∙ Circadian Rhythms We also discuss several other topics like What are the processes of vitamin e reactivation, and how would you identify the water-soluble vitamin that is involved?
o What are circadian rhythms?
24hour cycles in physiological functions, Includes blood pressure, temperature, urine production, and levels of certain hormones, Biological “clock” Don't forget about the age old question of What are the major energy resources found in rock and sediment?
o Causes of circadian rhythms
Describe the relationship between daylight, the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), melatonin, and feeling sleepy/awake (**a chart would work well**)
Found in hypothalamus, “Brain’s clock, Lesions to SCN à weird sleep/wake cycles, “Replace” SCN neurons à restore circadian rhythms
Connects to pineal gland, Basically, SCN tells it to stop producing melatonin, Melatonin = “sleepy hormone”
What is a freerunning circadian rhythm? Is it shorter or longer than 24 hours? A free running circadian rhythm would be longer in an isolated environment. Its when your body takes control since it isn’t getting outside stimulus saying what time it is. o Disruptions to Circadian Rhythms:
What is Jet Lag?
Insomnia that is caused by long travel. Less effect when traveling W than E because your essentially going back in time.
∙ Hypnosis & Meditation
o What are the 3 characteristics that influence how susceptible to hypnosis a person is? Suggestibility à uncritically accept direction, information We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of holistic perspective?
Absorption à can focus attention, block out extraneous
Dissociation à can separate from conscious awareness
o Can you really make someone behave against their will using hypnosis? Explain No, it is ultimately the decision of the person being. The person has to be open to suggestion. o Can hypnosis affect physiological functioning (e.g. allergies, pain tolerance)? Explain Nothing’s been said of allergies and as far as pain tolerance from hypnosis it is seen as being ineffective.
o Do we remember more when we are under hypnosis? Explain.
You do remember more details under hypnosis but that is because of suggestion and leading questions. Now these people believe that the events actually occurred.
o Briefly describe the basic idea behind the two main theories of hypnosis (i.e. Dissociation Theories, and Social Cognitive Theories) If you want to learn more check out What is the meaning of clavicle?
Dissociation consciousness divided into two streams; one aware of the hypnotist and other aware of surroundings. (hidden observer, normal waking patient, hypnotized subject) Social Cognitive the same except there is a physical response even though the subject isn’t aware of it.
o What are the different stages of sleep?
Stage 1: theta (waves slow with high amplitude) (lightest)
Stage 2: theta (sleep spindles; bursts of rapid brain activity)
Stage 3: still theta (some delta) (SlowWave Sleep)
Stage 4: some theta (mostly delta; slowest wave) (deepest)
REM: some theta and beta waves (narrative dreams)
When we cycle between the stages of sleep, how many cycles occur in a given night, and how long for a total cycle? How do the proportions of time spent in slowwave sleep and REM sleep change over the course of the night?
4 cycles that are 6090 in total for each. Then everything starts all over again. With each cycle we get more REM sleep. Also there is less sleep. As we age we get less REM and more non REM. We also discuss several other topics like In primate adaptive trends kingdom means what?
Which brain areas are particularly important to our sleep cycles?
Remember, reticular formation & pons. Mostly involved in initiating REM sleep.Also, Basal Forebrain (near brain stem) Involved in falling asleep
o Sleep Deprivation
Briefly describe the idea of Sleep Debt: If you don’t get a certain amount of sleep then you eventually have to pay it off the next day.
One study discussed in class looked at three different types of sleep
deprivation, and examined cognitive performance, physical performance, and mood. Briefly describe the results of this study
Pilcher and Walters had students “pull an allnighter”. What were the effects? Students performed worse but they thought they did well since they concentrated really hard. What is Sleep Deprivation Psychosis?
Confusion, disorientation, delusions, and hallucinations associated with extreme sleep deprivation.
What is the main idea of the Restoration Model of why we sleep?
We sleep to recharge.
o Sleep Disorders
What types of difficulties all fall under the umbrella term of “insomnia”? Frequent, persistent difficulty falling asleep
OR frequent, persistent difficulty staying asleep
OR frequent, persistent difficulty getting a restful sleep
∙ What is the basic idea of stimulus control to treat insomnia?
It is to treat environmental and biological stress
What are the symptoms of narcolepsy? Define cataplexy.
Extreme daytime sleepiness & sudden, uncontrollable sleep. Can last minutes to hours! Cataplexy; Sudden loss of muscle tone triggered by laughter, excitement, or other strong emotions. Essentially REM’s sleep paralysis
Describe the symptoms of REM Sleep Behavior Disorder. Lack paralysis during REM.
During which stage(s) of sleep is sleepwalking most common? What is the most common “treatment” for sleepwalking? 3 or 4 sleep stage, most people use drugs or wake the person
What are the differences between nightmares and night terrors?
Most nightmares also occur during REM sleep. High quality to these dreams. Night Terrors happen in a deep sleep. It is brief often a single image, vision or feeling.
When do we dream the most? (i.e. stage of sleep; early vs late in night…) REM sleep is when we dream the most.
Briefly describe the basic idea behind each of the three major theories of dreaming (Wish Fulfillment, ProblemSolving, and ActivationSynthesis) WF: Our unconscious urges, needs, and desires are too unacceptable to be met in real life… … so our dreams fulfill these wishes
PS: Dreams help us find creative solutions to our problems
AS: During sleep, random neural activity in lower areas of the brain (Activation) ∙ What is “latent content”? Example? Repressed desires (sexual urges) Briefly outline some of the findings that suggest that REM sleep is
involved in learning. During sleep, random neural activity in lower areas of the brain (Activation) Memory performance is better following a night of sleep, compared to the same amount of time awake
Is this due to sleep, or a distractionfree environment? After learning a new task or skill, people show more eye movements during REM sleep. People with biggest incr. in eye movements did best next
o What is the difference between an agonist and an antagonist? Increases activity of the neurotransmitter and antagonist decreases.
o Briefly describe drug tolerance. Try to use the terms “homeostasis” and “compensatory response”. How do these terms also relate to withdrawal symptoms? Decreasing responsiveness to taking a drug. Body is always trying to maintain homeostasis. Optimal balance (e.g. blood pressure)Drugs often cause an imbalance à brain produces a compensatory response i.e. a reaction that is opposite to the drug
o Briefly explain why overdoses often occur in “new” environments, where the individual has not taken drugs before. New setting doesn’t provide compensatory response but the person thinks they need the same amount.
o What are the basic effects of Stimulants, Depressants, Opiates, and Hallucinogens? S Increases nervous system activity
D Decreases nervous system activity
O euphoric feeling and pain relief
What neurotransmitters are affected by Alcohol? Increased or decreased? Increases GABA and decreases Glutamate
What about Amphetamines? Increased activity of dopamine and
oWhat is “alcohol myopia”? “shortsighted” thinking – due to an inability to concentrate on anything that isn’t superobvious
o What is the supposed “beer goggles” effect? Has research confirmed or denied the idea that alcohol is involved? If denied, what actually causes the effect? When a person feels like they have to choose a mate and the time is passing they choose the best of the bunch. Alcohol doesn’t have much to do with it.
o What is “amphetamine psychosis”? What neurotransmitter is involved? Why is there such a big “crash” after heavy use of amphetamines? Recall schizophrenia is due to excess dopamine. Heavy, repeated use of amphetamines can actually cause schizophrenialike symptoms: Hallucinations, Paranoid delusions
o What are three misconceptions about marijuana?
Causes people to become unmotivated bums
“Amotivational Syndrome” does not exist
Causes people to start more dangerous drugs
It is completely harmless:
Marijuana smoke contains more cancercausing substances than tobacco smoke Impairs reaction time and thinking
High doses cause negative changes in mood, hallucinations, and can cause panic/anxiety
∙ What are “universal laws of learning”? Example? When we reward a behavior a person or thing will do that behavior more often.
∙ Classical Conditioning
o Briefly describe/define the terms CS, UCS, CR, and UCR
nonlearned stimulus AND response, learned stimulus AND response
In Pavlov’s famous work, what was the UCS? the UCR? the CS? the CR? Baseline measures:
Ring a bell=no salivation
Learning (Acquisition) phase:
Ring a bell + food (a bunch of times)
Ring a bell à ????
o Briefly describe/define the terms “acquisition” and “extinction”
Acquisition is learned behavior and extinction is when you unlearn. Trials are learning. o Briefly describe/define the terms “generalization” and “discrimination”. Examples? generalizing the response to something new and discriminating from a different stimulus o In class, and in the assignment, we talked about 4 different “types” of classical conditioning, which differed in terms of the sequence/timing of the CSUCS pairing. Name all 4 types, and briefly describe/draw the sequence/timing of the pairing in each. Forward ShortDelay CS comes on a few seconds before UCS and continues throughout Forward, Trace Pairing CS comes on before UCS and ends before it starts Simultaneous CS comes on at same time UCS and ends at same time
Backward CS comes on after UCS
o What is fear conditioning? Example? Learned through classical conditioning (electric shock)
How can fear conditioning be used to help reintroduce animals to the wild? They use fake foxes and dogs to induce that fear so they can go to the wild What is the basic principle behind most treatments of phobias?
If a fear can be learned then it can be unlearned.
∙ Describe the methods of Systematic Desensitization vs. Flooding.
SD: learn to relax and then realize the fear they have.
F: drastically exposed to the object of their fear.
o What is Conditioned Aversion? Example? What you associate with a stimulus. ∙ Operant Conditioning
o Thorndike observed that cats gradually become faster in escaping from a “puzzle box”. In his view, how did cats come to learn the correct series of motions? Instrumental learning; when a behavior becomes necessary for the outcome you want. What does the Law of Effect state? A response that is followed by a satisfying outcome is more likely to occur then the one with the unsatisfying outcome. o B.F. Skinner believed that learning was as simple as ABC. What do these letters stand for, and briefly describe what each term means
ABC (A: antecedentstimuli present before behavior, B: behavior, C: consequence (reinforcement and punishment))
What is a Discriminative Stimulus? Example?
Signal certain consequences if a response is made. (Bell go to school or go home) When talking about consequences, what is the difference between one that is reinforcing and one that is punishing? What is the difference between positive and negative reinforcement?
Reinforcement is the response you want to happen, more likely behavior. Punishment you don’t want it to happen, less likely behavior.
Positive something is being added to the scene.
Negative something is being taken away.
Parent spanks child for hitting sibling(positive punishment)
Parent says “no TV for a week!” after child tosses peas(negative punishment) Parent takes Tylenol for his splitting headache(negative reinforcement)
Parent gets himself a beer for a job well done!(positive reinforcement)
What is the difference between a primary and secondary consequence? Primary: innate biological importance
Secondary: only important because of relationship to primary
What is delayed gratification? Is when you wait for a better reward for showing patience in a situation. The kids who can do this when they’re
younger are better at studies when they are older.
o Define/describe shaping and chaining. Examples?
Shaping reinforce behaviors that are closer to the actual behavior
Chaining reinforce the next behavior in line with a chain of behaviors
o Schedules of Reinforcement:
What is the difference between continuous and partial reinforcement? Continuous every response is reinforced while with partial only some responses are reinforced. 4 Types of Partial Reinforcement:
Fixed ratio certain proportion of responses e.g. more levers pressed=more reinforcement Variable ratio certain amount of time must pass e.g. a rat pushing a lever over and over for a reward that only will happen after a minute (most resistant to extinction)
Fixed interval always the exact same amount e.g. every 5th lever press (scalloped response) Variable interval varies around that amount e.g. every 3rd and 7th lever press o What is the difference between escape and avoidance conditioning? Through what type of reinforcement are these behaviors maintained?
organism learns a behavior that terminates an unpleasant stimulus (negative) learn a behavior to completely avoid a stimulus before it even begins (positive)
∙ Biology and Learning
o What is the main idea of biological preparedness?
Organisms prewired to learn certain behaviors and things
Briefly describe the study by Garcia and colleagues in which rats were given sweettasting water, heard a buzzer, and saw a light. How do the results
support the idea of preparedness? Rats were exposed to xrays (nausea) or electric shocks (fear). One group was given sweet water and the other plain water. One group had plain water with the buzzer and the other group had sweet water with the buzzer. The groups avoided the electric shock at all cost. Taster and sight/sound fear will make people avoid things since they are
associated with discomfort.
∙ Cognition and Learning
o What is insight? Has this been observed in animals? Example? Perception of a useful relationship that helps solve a problem.
o What is a “cognitive map”? mental representation of a place
When Tolman had a rat figure out the maze and then changed it up the rat still knew the layout so it was able to find the center.
o The traditional idea in classical conditioning is that the number of CSUCS pairings predicts how well the association between them is learned. How does the cognitive perspective differ from this?
Organism forms expectation that CS predicts UCS. Learning depends on how well CS predicts UCS. Traditional behaviorist theories think it’s the number of times we pair them together o What is latent learning? Organisms learn even when it isn’t enforced
Briefly describe Tolman’s study that showed latent learning
Group 1: get food reinforcement for finishing maze
Group 2: get no reinforcement
Group 3: 10 days with no reinf. à then switch (start reinforcing for finishing maze)
∙ Observational Learning
Learn by watching someone else get reinforced for their behavior. In the Bob Doll experiment the group that saw the person being rewarded hit the doll more than groups who saw punishment and no reward.
∙ Give a very brief description 3 basic processes of memory?
Encoding translating info into a neural code our brains can understand
Storage retain info over a period of time
Retrieval pulling info out of storage
∙ ThreeComponent Model of Memory
o Sensory Memory
Name the two sensory registers (or ‘stores’) in sensory memory?
Iconic store visual info (lasts ½ second)
Echoic store auditory info (2 seconds)
Briefly describe the experiment by Sperling that showed that sensory memory contains all the information we just saw/heard for a brief period. Use the terms “whole report” and “partial report” in the description.
Usually ~4.5 out of 12 (37.5%)
Immediate tone à 3.3 (82% correct)
Delayed tone à worse
By 1 sec, performance no better than Whole
o ShortTerm Memory
Give a brief description of the 4 ways that information can be coded in STM (i.e. phonological, visual, motoric, semantic).
Coding, sensory, rehearsal, and be phonological, visual, motoric, or semantic How long does STM last (without rehearsal)? 20 secs
∙ Name and briefly describe the two types of rehearsal. Examples?
Maintenance rehearse over and over
Elaborative focus on what it means to you (headphones)(better for long term) What is the capacity of STM (i.e. how much information can it hold)? 7,2 Why is STM also called “Working Memory”? it is in constant use while long term has to be retrieved.
o LongTerm Memory
What is the capacity of longterm memory? Unlimited capacity and duration Serial Position Curve
What is the “Serial Position Effect”? items at beginning and end are
remembered better than ones in the middle
∙ What is the “Primacy Effect”? better memory for the first few items
∙ What is the “Recency Effect”? better memory for the last few items
∙ What type of memory (STM vs. LTM) is thought to be involved in the Primacy Effect?
∙ What about the Recency Effect? STM
o What is the basic idea of the Levels of Processing Theory?
Deeper processing, better memory
What is the difference between effortful vs. automatic processing? Examples? One requires attention the other really doesn’t.
Name and briefly describe the two types of rehearsal. Examples?
Maintenance; maintains info in STM and elaborative; based on what you already know being transferred to LTM
o Briefly describe what we mean by the term “chunking”. Combining individual pieces into larger units.
o Dual Coding Theory
Briefly outline the basic ideas of Allan Paivio’s “Dual Coding Theory” We can remember things visually or verbally (bus, truck, car)
o Briefly describe the memory enhancement technique called the “Method of Loci” When you remember things based off where it would make sense in your house. Apples, milk and cereal. You might imagine where you can find these things in your house.
o What is the difference between Declarative and Procedural memory? Examples? Declarative memory you can declare or talk about (episodic and semantic) Procedural an action for skills or actions
What is the difference between Episodic and Semantic memory? Examples? Episodic personal experience (episodes)
Semantic general facts and knowledge
Both a part of declarative
o What is the difference between explicit and implicit memory? Examples? When you are conscious or aware of the memory that you are having. E.g. multiple choice Implicit is when it effects actions that you make without you realizing it. E.g. ride a bike ∙ Retrieval
o Very briefly, describe the basic idea of Spreading Activation Theory
Assumes LTM is a network of associations e.g. first you think of when “fire truck” is said. What is a “Retrieval Cue”?
When you hear a word and then think of another word that may be related to that word. ∙ In terms of retrieval cues, what makes some things more likely to be
remembered? (i.e. what kinds of cues are best for studying/memory?)
Humorous, wellrehearsed, multiple and selfgenerated cues
o Flashbulb Memories
What are flashbulb memories? Example?
Memories that are so distinct i.e. a snapshot in time. (The most emotional memories are the likeliest to be remembered). We think they are special but they change.
o What is the general idea of Encoding Specificity?
What is meant by the term “ContextDependent Memory”? Examples? Memory is best when the conditions are the same. If we are in the same state of mind it is remembered well also (StateDependent Memory).
What is meant by the term “MoodCongruent Recall”? Examples?
If we are in the same mood we recall. Currently happy remembers happy memories. o What are 4 Additional Tips for studying (i.e. improving memory for exams)? Briefly describe each one and/or give an example.
Overstudying, imagery, distribute over a couple days, link to what you already know. ∙ Forgetting
o How did Hermann Ebbinghaus study forgetting?
He used nonsense words so that it couldn’t be associated to preexisting knowledge. And then memorized. On the “forgetting curve” you see that after about 9 hours you won’t really remember anything more. Before that time you forget gradually (20 mins, 1 hr, 9 hrs) o Ways Memory Can Fail
What level of processing or kind of rehearsal can lead to encoding failure? No encoding or rehearsal can lead to encoding failure.
Briefly describe the basic idea of memory decay
Memory decay(we store and then don’t use so we forget),
Briefly describe the basic idea of memory interference
Memory interference(we are remembering something else and that can interfere with what we already know),
∙ What is the difference between proactive and retroactive interference? Proactive interference (something in the past interferes with recalling new info), retroactive interference(new info effects ability to remember old),
∙ What is the difference between retrograde and anterograde amnesia?
Retro you can’t remember anything prior to the event, ante can’t form LTM after event.
∙ False Memories
o What is source monitoring? In what way is it like a decisionmaking process? Determining where the memory came from.
o What is the Misinformation Effect?
Info presented after a person witnesses something can change how they describe it.
Briefly describe the famous Loftus & Palmer study that asked people to estimate the speeds of 2 vehicles involved in an accident. Describe the results. Used different words and asked the participants what times they saw certain things happen. (hit, crash, bumped,etc.)
∙ Anatomy of Memory
o LongTerm Memory
Which structure of the brain is involved in transferring from STM to LTM (in terms of declarative memory)?
Which structure of the brain is involved in procedural memory?
CHAPTER 8 (NOTE CHAPTER 9 – INTELLIGENCE – WILL NOT BE ON THE EXAM) ∙ General Terms
o What are the 5 properties of Language? In 12 sentences, briefly explain each term. Symbolic (arbitrary symbols represent actions and objects), structured (rules for meanings sound/word/phase combo), conveys meaning (once people know the sound rules they can convet ideas, thoughts), generative (symbols can be combined to convey infinite amount of messages), permits displacement (can refer to objects that aren’t physically present)
Which 2 properties are NOT present in nonhuman communication? Last two o How are phonemes different than morphemes? Examples of each?
Phonemes most basic unit of speech sounds ae (cat)
Morphemes smallest units of meaning in a language (pig, pigs, piggify)
o What is the difference between semantics and syntax?
Semantics meaning of words and sentences (deep structure; underlying meaning) Syntax grammar rules for how we organize words in a sentence (surface structure; spoken word) o What does the term pragmatics refer to? Knowledge of the practical application of the word. E.g. “do you have the time?” “yes”.
o What is prosody? Example? How you say something is the way you mean something. ∙ Language and the Brain
o In which lobes would you find Broca’s an Wernicke’s Areas, respectively? B Left frontal (Damage: impairment in language production)
V left temporal (Damage: impairment in language comprehension)
o Which brain areas are activated when reading actionwords such as “lick” or “kick”? Leg and tongue are activated. The body parts that are associated with the words. o Which people are most/least likely to show left lateralization of language function? Women
o What are the 3 modes of thought? Give examples of each.
Propositional (inner speech), motoric (mental rep. body parts with words), imaginal (images with words)
o What is the difference between concepts and propositions?
C mental categories
P connections that link different concepts
o According to the Classical view of categorization, how does a person decide if a brand new animal that they see is a BIRD vs. a FISH?
Classical/ prototype approach features and mental representation. Problem is there is so many different things that you may think aren’t “chairs” but can be turned into one. There is no definite way of saying what something is or isn’t.
How can Sentence Verification Techniques demonstrate the Typicality Effect? When things are more of a prototype they are more easily identified for being seen as something.
o What are the 3 different types of concepts? Briefly describe.
Conjunctive (bike 2 wheels and 2 handlebars), relational (defined by relating it to something else), disjunctive (eitheror)
What are the two types of meaning of concepts? Briefly describe.
Denotative actual definition (premise stated as facts)
Connotative emotional meaning
o What is the major difference between Deductive and Inductive reasoning? Examples? Deductive general reasoning and principals about a specific case
Inductive (specific reasoning and cases about a general principle
o Briefly outline (with examples) how the belief bias, framing, and irrelevant information can each affect logical reasoning.
Belief bias often confuse logical correctness with valid correctness
e.g. All bird are animals (premise 1)
All animals have 4 legs (premise 2)
Therefore, all birds have 4 legs (conclusion)
Framing abandon logic in favor of emotions
Irrelevant information forget the basic stuff you need to know since distracted by unimportant info
What is the difference between validity and truth?
Valid true conclusion since both premise are true
Truth premise 2 is false so conclusion is false
∙ Problem Solving:
o Can framing a problem affect problem solving? Example?
When you add in a lot of info then yes.
o What are problem solving schemas? Distinguish between heuristics and algorithms. Problem solving schemas mental blueprint for how to go about a problem. Heuristics “good idea” strategies
Algorithms formulas that will give correct answer
What is a meansends analysis? Or a subgoal analysis?
Meansends present state and goal state
Subgoal small goals that will get the result you want
What is a mental set, and how does it impede problem solving?
∙ What is functional fixedness? Example?
Mental set preconceived notions on how to solve a problem based off past experience Functional fixedness restricting possible uses of an object