History 1378: The US Since 1877
Exam 2 Review Sheet
Part I: Identification Terms (30 points)
SIX of the following terms will appear on the exam, of which you will need to address THREE. Each will be worth 10 points, for a total of 30 points for the whole section. A good ID will be more than a sentence. It usually takes at least 45 sentences in order to respond to each ID, or about half a page.
Be sure that you use relevant information from both the lectures and class textbooks. You will be tested on class material, so do not use Internet sources.
Each ID should have two parts: a basic definition of the term including who, what, where, when, why, AND the significance of the term, or how it relates to a broader historical theme and/or event. For example, if “sharecropping” were a term, you would want to both define it and also explain the consequences of sharecropping, what it meant for exslaves, that it was part of the failure of social reconstruction, etc.
1 Treaty of Versailles (1919)
In January 1919, the leaders of the great powers went to Paris to hold a peace conference at Versailles Palace. The treaty of Versailles was a treaty imposed on Germany by the allied powers in 1919 after WWI which demanded reparations and blamed Germany for the war. The treaty of Versailles was historically significant because it was the treaty that ended the war and there was a depression that resulted from the Versailles treaty that created a direct link to World War II. (The depression was due to the fact that Germany was punished so harshly that, so that its own economic recovery was impossible, the economies of other countries would not get to rebuild) We also discuss several other topics like How many babies go unadopted in the us?
2 League of Nation
The League of Nations was one of the third issues that appeared in the Treaty of Versailles in 1919 which was probably Wilson’s most painful failure. It was an attempt to manage and enforce collective security. The league would be an organization of all states working together to maintain peace and join together against other countries acting aggressively or threatening war. This was historically significant because it was the first major attempt to create an international organization that could prevent war, and even though it failed, it was still an inspiration for the next attempt, the United nations.
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3 Camp Logan Riots, Houston, TX
Camp Logan riots started on the evening of August 23, 1917 in Houston, Texas. Earlier in the day Houston police arrested one soldier and then pistolwhipped a member of the provost guard, Corporal Charles Baltimore. Following Baltimore’s’ return to camp the men went out for revenge which resulted in 16 Houstonian killed and 12 wounded. The city as a result tried 110 men and found them all guilty. 26 were sentenced to death and 19 hanged while 7 were commuted to life We also discuss several other topics like Communication disorders refer to what?
imprisonment. This is historically significant because it shows how race relations were bad if not worse than ever in the American south despite Wilson’s word and his crusade to make a better world.
4 Trade Associations
(what) A trade association is a cooperative group of businessmen who operate in the same industry who would get together along with a (where) US government representative to exchange information and establish programs for production prices and markets. (why)It was a concept created by (who) Herbert Hover in the (when) 1920s to organize the economy along rational lines. This is historically significant because it helped the economic growth in the 1920s in a way that it made decisions that were beneficial for the entire economy and not just for individual businesses. If you want to learn more check out What are the alternative explanations for democratic peace?
5 Edward Bernays
He was the nephew of Sigmund Freud and a propagandist and advertising genius from the early 1900s in the US. He understood that the anxiety and tragedy of the war had made an impact on people, so he wanted them to loosen up and have fun, be liberated and buy more goods. He believed that the basic ideas behind propaganda could be used in politics or more profitably to sell goods. He was historically significant because his advertising techniques led to a boom in US’s economy in the 1920s. We also discuss several other topics like What is job costing?
6 Dawes Plan
Dawes plan was a program in the 1920s by which Germany’s reparations would be adjusted to a lower amount and Americans and foreign investors would send 200 million to Berlin to help rebuild. This unfortunately led to an economic triangle where the US sent loans to Germany; Germany paid their reparations to England and Paris who would repay their debts to the US with the same money. This was historically significant because it was worthless because nothing real was passing and no one was penny worse.
7 Henry Ford
Henry Ford was the person who truly boosted the evolution of the American auto industry. In 1903 he incorporated the Ford Motor company after getting his start by building racing cars to promote his company. He then started to construct slower and cheaper cars for the American people. Then in 1908 he hit it big with Model T. He was the reason why the average American family could afford transportation. He was historically significant because no one had more to do with the evolution of the American auto industry than him and his actions increased the economy. If you want to learn more check out What is leonardo’s influence on raphael?
8 Herbert Hoover
He was the Commerce Secretary in the 1920’s who created trade associations. He also was a republican candidate who assumed presidency in 1929. However, he did not enjoy a positive
historical legacy because he was president when the economy crashed in 1929 and so naturally and unfairly took the blame. He was historically significant because he failed to fix the depression and was unfairly blamed for it.
9 Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC)
Created by Hoover in the 1930s, the RFC was a program (Hoover was facing reelection so he was looking for a way to fix depression before the elections) that would loan government money to banks, state and local governments, railroads, mortgage associations and others. It made funds available to banks that could not make loans or pay off depositors. However, The RFC was only supposed to loan to institutions that had sufficient collateral. The vast majority of that federal money went to big banks and corporations. A large number of those held on to the funds instead of loaning them out. Many companies in fact used the RFC money to pay down their own debts and lay off workers. The RFC was therefore historically significant because it did not help those who needed it the most.
10 National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA)
The NIRA was an act that FDR got the congress to pass in the 1930s. This was created to fix the industry by creating minimum wage and maximum hours’ requirement and established the right of workers to create unions. It was more an expansion of Hoover’s trade association concept. It gave federal government too much power and did little to help the economy. This was historically significant because it was one of FDR First New Deal policies that showed that FDR was in favor of big businesses and corporation.
11- Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)
In 1933 soon after President Roosevelt was inaugurated, The Agricultural Adjustment Act was introduced and enacted to The U.S. congress. This was sought to balance the supply and demand for farm items so that farmers will purchase using reasonable prices. The act also limited the amount of supply and sparked controversy on if the act was constitutional. The AAA subsidized commodities by cutting many farmers’ production. This act is historically significant because it is another example of FDR’s policies that were favorable to big businesses
12- Glass-Steagall Act
The Glass-Steagall Act was signed by the president in 1933 to address the stock market and credit crises that helped cause the depression. The act was introduced by Senators Carter Glass and Henry Steagall to counter the failures of approximately 5,000 banks during the Great Depression. This act also helped the depositors to be sure, but was also created as a way to preserve capitalism.
This historically significant because it shows how FDR policies favored the intervention of the government in the economy as capitalists wished.
13- Huey Long (give this)
During depression, Huey Long was a significant governor of Louisiana and a U.S. Senator years after. He used his power to build, structure, and expand the state’s undeveloped structure. Long had a famous address titled “the national radio” which implemented the fair share of wealth. He promoted and anticipated a decent living standard to all Americans. Long was assassinated in 1935 leaving a legacy and outlook on FDR’s Second New Deal in 1935. He was historically significant because his criticism prompted FDR to implement a more radical second new deal.
14- End Poverty in California (EPIC)
1934-A program proposed in the 1930s by Upton Sinclair who had a goal of providing land & jobs for the poor. This program would have the state of California take-over private industry and farms and turn them over to the unemployed. It was historically significant because although this plan never came to fruition since Sinclair did not win the gubernatorial election, it sent a message to FDR that something was to be done to improve the lives of American people.
15- Wagner Act
1935-The Wagner Act was a proposed bill by Senator Wagner to establish the legal right of all workers to join labor unions without fear of retribution from private sectors. This act was officially enacted into law in the United Stated on July 5, 1935 by FDR and later titled the National Labor Relations Act ensuring that Americans have the right of collective bargaining as an employee in the private sector. It is a law that did not affect any private property rights of corporation. This act was historically important because it was one of the Second new deal and shows how FDR changed his policies due to criticism.
16- Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO)
1935 - A group of industrial workers led by mine union leader John Lewis, ultimately split from the AFL due to organizational and racial issues. The AFL favored organizing skilled labor, however “industrial workers” (mine, steel, and auto workers) were considered unskilled. The CIO fought to organize unskilled labor as well as African American laborers. They won several concessions in the depression years and even led to FDR counting on the CIO for democratic votes in 1936. It was historically significant because it was an all-inclusive union integrating people of color within it.
17- Flint, MI Strike (1936-37)
1936- The Flint Michigan Strike was the very first sit-down strike in the United States auto industry that lasted 44 days. The many changes in the condition for workers and pay were contributing factors on why this took place. President FDR wanted General Motors to recognize the union so all plants could reopen. The dispute came to an official end when the United Auto Workers Union signed a contract with General Motors in 1937 which gave workers a 5% raise and free speech in lunchrooms. This is significantly important because Michigan autoworkers won union rights and would later have an impact on all employee.
18- Works Progress Administration (WPA)
1935 - The WPA was a direct response to new deal critics such as Sinclair and Long. It was the largest second new deal agency which gave the government responsibility in creating consumption. To do this, it put 3.5 million people to work regardless of vocation. It poured billions into economy on over 250,000 projects dealing with things such as infrastructure, arts, and teaching Americans to read. However, FDR eventually cut the program since it was accumulating public debt and this turn away from federal programs would eventually lead to another recession in 1937. This was historically significant because it was the largest agency implemented as a response to FDR’s first new deal critics.
19- John Maynard Keynes
Keynes was one of the most influential economists in history. One of his theories during the 19th century noted that investments and savings are two independent of each other. Rates of returns and saving/interest rates are based solely on whether to classify them as an investment. He believes that government should engage during the harder times to exhibit deficit spending which will stimulate activity. John Keynes is significantly important because he revealed a different mindset to have which details on looking far beyond the future and what may happen later. America should take action now to prevent a failed economy in the future.
20 Atomic Diplomacy (give this)
This is a book written by Gar after US bombing Japanese cities during the World War II. Gar’s argument is that the atomic bombing was not necessary from a military point of view because Japanese were in an urgent shape. This book is historically significant because it suggests that the bombs only served as a way
for the US to claim their position as the lead world power. A message to the world that the US could do what it wanted going forward.
21 Manhattan Project
During the World War II, this project was created because the US feared that German scientists would invent an atomic bomb. So the United States research and develop an atomic weapon at the beginning of
the war in order to use it against Germany or Japan if needed. This project is historically significant because it demonstrates that the US was very involved in the War World II and because this is the project that ended that war.
22 Yalta Conference
The Yalta conference was a meeting held in Ukraine in1945, by the heads of the state of the allied nations (Stalin, Roosevelt, and Churchill) to discuss the future of Poland and Germany. The Americans and Russians agreed that Poland would have a fair and free elections, which Russia won. Regarding Germany, it was divided into 4 zones and the US, the Soviet Union Great Britain and France were all given control over a particular zone. This conference is historically important because the German decision did not satisfy everyone which led to the Cold War rivalry.
23 Second Front
The second front refers to Stalin's wish for the allies to open another front in the west Europe (France preferably) during the World War II against the Germans to take the pressure of the Russians on the Eastern Front which the British weren’t eager to do. The second front controversy exposed divisions between the US and Great Britain. This is historically significant because it shows that even though the allies were on the same side during the war, they had their own separated interests.
24 Pearl Harbor
In December 1941, Japan successfully attacked a US naval base in Hawaii, Pearl Harbor. As a result, Roosevelt asked Congress for a declaration of war, which he received. Germany then declared war on the US and World War II had officially begun. This historically significant because it led to the official declaration and begining of the World War II.
25 NaziSoviet Pact (online)
In 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union signed the GermanSoviet Nonaggression Pact, in which the two countries agreed to take no military action against each other for the next 10 years. Stalin viewed the pact as a way to keep his nation on peaceful terns with Germany, while giving him time to build up the soviet
military. This is historically significant because it shows the good relationship Germany held with the Soviet Union before Germany’s attempt to occupy Russia.
On March 1941, the president Roosevelt announced the LendLease program. The US would provide aid to Britain, the Soviet Union, China, France and other antiAxis groups to fight against Germany and Japan. US Congress appropriated $50 billion for Lend Lease (equivalent to $800 billion today). This historically significant because it shows how much interest the US had to defeat Germany, and to expand the American economy.
27 The Battle of Britain (online)
In the World War II, German and British air forces clashed in the skies over the United Kingdom. Hitler began air attacks against Britain with the German Luftwaffe. It was a significant point of World War II. The Battle of Britain ended when Germany failed to gain air superiority over the Royal Air Force. This is historically significant because no country had ever used just air power to defeat an enemy.
28 Neutrality Acts
In 1935 the US Congress passed the first neutrality act to prohibit the president from selling or shipping any weapons or other goods for war to any parties involved in a conflict. In 1937, congress extended the Neutrality law which included a ban on aid to the government in Spain. Another Neutrality Act in 1937 allowed the president to send aid on a “cash and carry” basis to antifascist countries. Still, the Neutrality
Act of 1939 banned the arming of merchant ships or their entry into war zones. This is historically significant because it shows how the US was involved in the beginning of World War II.