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UH / History / HIST 1378 / What did the treaty of versailles in 1919 do?

What did the treaty of versailles in 1919 do?

What did the treaty of versailles in 1919 do?

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History 1378: The US Since 1877


What did the treaty of versailles in 1919 do?



Exam 2 Review Sheet 

Part I: Identification Terms (30 points) 

SIX of the following terms will appear on the exam, of which you will need to address THREE. Each will be worth 10 points, for a total of 30 points for the whole section. A good ID will be more than a  sentence.  It usually takes at least 4­5 sentences in order to respond to each ID, or about half a page.  

Be sure that you use relevant information from both the lectures and class textbooks.  You will be  tested on class material, so do not use Internet sources. 

Each ID should have two parts: a basic definition of the term including who, what, where, when,  why, AND the significance of the term, or how it relates to a broader historical theme and/or event.   For example, if “sharecropping” were a term, you would want to both define it and also explain the  consequences of sharecropping, what it meant for ex­slaves, that it was part of the failure of social  reconstruction, etc. 


Why did league of nations fail?



1­ Treaty of Versailles (1919)

In January 1919, the leaders of the great powers went to Paris to hold a peace conference at  Versailles Palace. The treaty of Versailles was a treaty imposed on Germany by the allied powers in  1919 after WWI which demanded reparations and blamed Germany for the war. The treaty of  Versailles was historically significant because it was the treaty that ended the war and there was a  depression that resulted from the Versailles treaty that created a direct link to World War II. (The  depression was due to the fact that Germany was punished so harshly that, so that its own economic  recovery was impossible, the economies of other countries would not get to rebuild) We also discuss several other topics like How many babies go unadopted in the us?

2­ League of Nation

The League of Nations was one of the third issues that appeared in the Treaty of Versailles in 1919  which was probably Wilson’s most painful failure. It was an attempt to manage and enforce  collective security. The league would be an organization of all states working together to maintain  peace and join together against other countries acting aggressively or threatening war. This was  historically significant because it was the first major attempt to create an international organization  that could prevent war, and even though it failed, it was still an inspiration for the next attempt, the  United nations. 


T prompted the houston riot in 1917?



We also discuss several other topics like What are phytochemicals and how do they benefit plants and humans?

3­  Camp Logan Riots, Houston, TX

Camp Logan riots started on the evening of August 23, 1917 in Houston, Texas. Earlier in the day  Houston police arrested one soldier and then pistol­whipped a member of the provost guard,  Corporal Charles Baltimore. Following Baltimore’s’ return to camp the men went out for revenge  which resulted in 16 Houstonian killed and 12 wounded. The city as a result tried 110 men and found them all guilty. 26 were sentenced to death and 19 hanged while 7 were commuted to life  We also discuss several other topics like Communication disorders refer to what?

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imprisonment. This is historically significant because it shows how race relations were bad if not  worse than ever in the American south despite Wilson’s word and his crusade to make a better world.

4­ Trade Associations

(what) A trade association is a cooperative group of businessmen who operate in the same industry  who would get together along with a (where) US government representative to exchange information and establish programs for production prices and markets. (why)It was a concept created by (who)  Herbert Hover in the (when) 1920s to organize the economy along rational lines.  This is historically  significant because it helped the economic growth in the 1920s in a way that it made decisions that  were beneficial for the entire economy and not just for individual businesses. If you want to learn more check out What are the alternative explanations for democratic peace?

5­ Edward Bernays

He was the nephew of Sigmund Freud and a propagandist and advertising genius from the early  1900s in the US.  He understood that the anxiety and tragedy of the war had made an impact on  people, so he wanted them to loosen up and have fun, be liberated and buy more goods. He believed  that the basic ideas behind propaganda could be used in politics or more profitably to sell goods. He  was historically significant because his advertising techniques led to a boom in US’s economy in the  1920s. We also discuss several other topics like What is job costing?

6­ Dawes Plan

Dawes plan was a program in the 1920s by which Germany’s reparations would be adjusted to a  lower amount and Americans and foreign investors would send 200 million to Berlin to help rebuild.  This unfortunately led to an economic triangle where the US sent loans to Germany; Germany paid  their reparations to England and Paris who would repay their debts to the US with the same money.   This was historically significant because it was worthless because nothing real was passing and no  one was penny worse.

7­ Henry Ford

Henry Ford was the person who truly boosted the evolution of the American auto industry. In 1903  he incorporated the Ford Motor company after getting his start by building racing cars to promote his company. He then started to construct slower and cheaper cars for the American people. Then in  1908 he hit it big with Model T. He was the reason why the average American family could afford  transportation. He was historically significant because no one had more to do with the evolution of  the American auto industry than him and his actions increased the economy.  If you want to learn more check out What is leonardo’s influence on raphael?

8­ Herbert Hoover

He was the Commerce Secretary in the 1920’s who created trade associations. He also was a  republican candidate who assumed presidency in 1929.  However, he did not enjoy a positive 

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historical legacy because he was president when the economy crashed in 1929 and so naturally and  unfairly took the blame.  He was historically significant because he failed to fix the depression and  was unfairly blamed for it.

9­ Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC)

Created by Hoover in the 1930s, the RFC was a program (Hoover was facing reelection so he was  looking for a way to fix depression before the elections) that would loan government money to  banks, state and local governments, railroads, mortgage associations and others. It made funds  available to banks that could not make loans or pay off depositors. However, The RFC was only  supposed to loan to institutions that had sufficient collateral. The vast majority of that federal money  went to big banks and corporations. A large number of those held on to the funds instead of loaning  them out. Many companies in fact used the RFC money to pay down their own debts and lay off  workers. The RFC was therefore historically significant because it did not help those who needed it  the most.

10­ National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA)

The NIRA was an act that FDR got the congress to pass in the 1930s. This was created to fix the  industry by creating minimum wage and maximum hours’ requirement and established the right of  workers to create unions. It was more an expansion of Hoover’s trade association concept. It gave  federal government too much power and did little to help the economy.  This was historically  significant because it was one of FDR First New Deal policies that showed that FDR was in favor of  big businesses and corporation.

11- Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)

In 1933 soon after President Roosevelt was inaugurated, The Agricultural  Adjustment Act was introduced and enacted to The U.S. congress. This was  sought to balance the supply and demand for farm items so that farmers will  purchase using reasonable prices. The act also limited the amount of supply and sparked controversy on if the act was constitutional. The AAA subsidized  commodities by cutting many farmers’ production. This act is historically  significant because it is another example of FDR’s policies that were favorable to big businesses

12- Glass-Steagall Act

The Glass-Steagall Act was signed by the president in 1933 to address the stock  market and credit crises that helped cause the depression. The act was  introduced by Senators Carter Glass and Henry Steagall to counter the failures  of approximately 5,000 banks during the Great Depression. This act also helped  the depositors to be sure, but was also created as a way to preserve capitalism.  

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This historically significant because it shows how FDR policies favored the  intervention of the government in the economy as capitalists wished.

13- Huey Long (give this)

During depression, Huey Long was a significant governor of Louisiana and a U.S. Senator years after. He used his power to build, structure, and expand the  state’s undeveloped structure. Long had a famous address titled “the national  radio” which implemented the fair share of wealth. He promoted and anticipated a decent living standard to all Americans. Long was assassinated in 1935  leaving a legacy and outlook on FDR’s Second New Deal in 1935. He was  historically significant because his criticism prompted FDR to implement a more  radical second new deal.  

14- End Poverty in California (EPIC)

1934-A program proposed in the 1930s by Upton Sinclair who had a goal  of providing land & jobs for the poor. This program would have the state of  California take-over private industry and farms and turn them over to the  unemployed. It was historically significant because although this plan never  came to fruition since Sinclair did not win the gubernatorial election, it sent a  message to FDR that something was to be done to improve the lives of  American people.

15- Wagner Act

1935-The Wagner Act was a proposed bill by Senator Wagner to establish  the legal right of all workers to join labor unions without fear of retribution from  private sectors. This act was officially enacted into law in the United Stated on  July 5, 1935 by FDR and later titled the National Labor Relations Act ensuring  that Americans have the right of collective bargaining as an employee in the  private sector. It is a law that did not affect any private property rights of  corporation. This act was historically important because it was one of the  Second new deal and shows how FDR changed his policies due to criticism.  

16- Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO)

1935 - A group of industrial workers led by mine union leader John Lewis,  ultimately split from the AFL due to organizational and racial issues. The AFL  favored organizing skilled labor, however “industrial workers” (mine, steel, and  auto workers) were considered unskilled. The CIO fought to organize unskilled  labor as well as African American laborers. They won several concessions in the  depression years and even led to FDR counting on the CIO for democratic votes  in 1936. It was historically significant because it was an all-inclusive union  integrating people of color within it.

17- Flint, MI Strike (1936-37)

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1936- The Flint Michigan Strike was the very first sit-down strike in the United  States auto industry that lasted 44 days. The many changes in the condition for  workers and pay were contributing factors on why this took place. President FDR wanted General Motors to recognize the union so all plants could reopen. The  dispute came to an official end when the United Auto Workers Union signed a  contract with General Motors in 1937 which gave workers a 5% raise and free  speech in lunchrooms. This is significantly important because Michigan  autoworkers won union rights and would later have an impact on all employee.

18- Works Progress Administration (WPA)

1935 - The WPA was a direct response to new deal critics such as Sinclair and  Long. It was the largest second new deal agency which gave the government  responsibility in creating consumption. To do this, it put 3.5 million people to  work regardless of vocation. It poured billions into economy on over 250,000  projects dealing with things such as infrastructure, arts, and teaching Americans to read. However, FDR eventually cut the program since it was accumulating  public debt and this turn away from federal programs would eventually lead to  another recession in 1937. This was historically significant because it was the  largest agency implemented as a response to FDR’s first new deal critics.

19- John Maynard Keynes

Keynes was one of the most influential economists in history. One of his  theories during the 19th century noted that investments and savings are two  independent of each other. Rates of returns and saving/interest rates are based  solely on whether to classify them as an investment. He believes that  government should engage during the harder times to exhibit deficit spending  which will stimulate activity. John Keynes is significantly important because he  revealed a different mindset to have which details on looking far beyond the  future and what may happen later. America should take action now to prevent a  failed economy in the future.

20­ Atomic Diplomacy (give this)

This is a book written by Gar after US bombing Japanese cities during the World War II. Gar’s argument  is that the atomic bombing was not necessary from a military point of view because Japanese were in an  urgent shape. This book is historically significant because it suggests that the bombs only served as a way

for the US to claim their position as the lead world power. A message to the world that the US could do  what it wanted going forward. 

21­ Manhattan Project

During the World War II, this project was created because the US feared that German scientists would  invent an atomic bomb. So the United States research and develop an atomic weapon at the beginning of 

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the war in order to use it against Germany or Japan if needed. This project is historically significant  because it demonstrates that the US was very involved in the War World II and because this is the project  that ended that war.

22­ Yalta Conference

The Yalta conference was a meeting held in Ukraine in1945, by the heads of the state of the allied nations (Stalin, Roosevelt, and Churchill) to discuss the future of Poland and Germany. The Americans and  Russians agreed that Poland would have a fair and free elections, which Russia won. Regarding Germany, it was divided into 4 zones and the US, the Soviet Union Great Britain and France were all given control  over a particular zone. This conference is historically important because the German decision did not  satisfy everyone which led to the Cold War rivalry.

23­ Second Front

The second front refers to Stalin's wish for the allies to open another front in the west Europe (France  preferably) during the World War II against the Germans to take the pressure of the Russians on the  Eastern Front which the British weren’t eager to do. The second front controversy exposed divisions  between the US and Great Britain. This is historically significant because it shows that even though the  allies were on the same side during the war, they had their own separated interests. 

24­ Pearl Harbor

In December 1941, Japan successfully attacked a US naval base in Hawaii, Pearl Harbor. As a result,  Roosevelt asked Congress for a declaration of war, which he received. Germany then declared war on the  US and World War II had officially begun. This historically significant because it led to the official  declaration and begining of the World War II.  

25­ Nazi­Soviet Pact (online)

In 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union signed the German­Soviet Nonaggression Pact, in which the two  countries agreed to take no military action against each other for the next 10 years. Stalin viewed the pact  as a way to keep his nation on peaceful terns with Germany, while giving him time to build up the soviet 

military. This is historically significant because it shows the good relationship Germany held with the  Soviet Union before Germany’s attempt to occupy Russia.

26­ Lend­Lease

On March 1941, the president Roosevelt announced the Lend­Lease program. The US would provide aid  to Britain, the Soviet Union, China, France and other anti­Axis groups to fight against Germany and  Japan. US Congress appropriated $50 billion for Lend Lease (equivalent to $800 billion today). This  historically significant because it shows how much interest the US had to defeat Germany, and to expand  the American economy.

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27­ The Battle of Britain (online)

In the World War II, German and British air forces clashed in the skies over the United Kingdom. Hitler  began air attacks against Britain with the German Luftwaffe. It was a significant point of World War II.  The Battle of Britain ended when Germany failed to gain air superiority over the Royal Air Force. This is  historically significant because no country had ever used just air power to defeat an enemy.

28­ Neutrality Acts

In 1935 the US Congress passed the first neutrality act to prohibit the president from selling or shipping  any weapons or other goods for war to any parties involved in a conflict. In 1937, congress extended the  Neutrality law which included a ban on aid to the government in Spain. Another Neutrality Act in 1937  allowed the president to send aid on a “cash and carry” basis to antifascist countries. Still, the Neutrality 

Act of 1939 banned the arming of merchant ships or their entry into war zones. This is historically  significant because it shows how the US was involved in the beginning of World War II. 

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