∙ Be able to define and provide examples of the concepts below:
o Race: sociopolitical, not a biological, construct, one that is created and reinforced by social and institutional norms and practices, as well as individual attitudes and behaviors.
o Ethnicity: clusters of people who have common culture traits that they distinguish from other people; related to culture; bears no intrinsic connection to biological variations or race
o Racialization: Classifying race; process of ascribing racial identifies to a group of a people that some people of said group do not feel as if they belong; making something about race
o Racial stereotype: formed by the majority and creates oppression
o Racial prejudice: a preconceived judgment or opinion, usually based on limited information; combines with social power leads to the institutionalization of racist policies and practices
o Racism: the cultural images and messages that affirm the assumed superiority of Whites and the assumed inferiority of people of color; a system of advantage based on race. It is a personal ideology based on racial prejudice and also involving cultural messages and institutional policies and practices as well as beliefs and actions of individuals
o Racial Discrimination: Acting upon prejudice. Treating someone differently because of a category they fall into. We also discuss several other topics like What are the factors that can inhibit the synthesis of vitamin d in the skin?
∙ What does examining biology and human variation tell us about race? o It’s not genetic, it’s a social construct
∙ What do sociologists mean when they discuss the social construction of race? Don't forget about the age old question of What are the major energy resources found in rock and sediment?
o The categories that society places onto groups of people based on physical appearance; being a Black Puerto Rican – considered an African American because of skin color but is from Puerto Rico
∙ Explain the possible consequences of minority group status.
o Multiculturalism, assimilation, segregation, expulsion, extermination
∙ How does Lipsitz explain the concepts of whiteness, white power, and white hegemony in The Possessive Investment in Whiteness? Give examples of the possessive investment in whiteness operating in colleges, communities, or workplaces.
o Whiteness never has to acknowledge its rules
o White power secures its dominance by acting as if it doesn’t exist
o White hegemony: Minority groups being separate from other groups in order for higher classes to keep themselves in power; WHITE HEGEMONIC SOCIETY CAN BE DEFINED AS A SOCIETY IN WHICH: 1) THE SOCIAL,
POLITICAL ECONOMIC, AND CULTURAL ARE CONTROLLED BY A WHITE POWER ELITE. 2) “WHITENESS” IS NORMALIZED AS THE STANDARD TO WHICH ALL GROUPS ARE EXPECTED TO CONFORM. We also discuss several other topics like A place is defined by its what?
o *Possessive investment: The institutionalization of minority groups; ex: making blackness associated with slavery
o Ex: Housing Federal Agency gave more money to white communities than black neighborhoods; Minorities are less likely than whites to receive preventive medical care or costly operations from Medicare; minorities receive a distinctive experience with the criminal justice system
∙ How does Dalmage explain the concept of “border patrolling?” How do racial borders impact multiracial people?
o Those who are multiracial feel guilty for identifying with their racial groups o Border patrolling: those who discriminate against multiracial people
∙ What resources (or lack thereof) contribute to different educational outcomes for students who are racial and ethnic minorities? How can differences in educational outcomes be minimized?
o Lack of funds due to location of school/property taxes (think: low income neighborhoods). A fix to this would be instead of basing a school’s funding on property taxes, instead give all schools equal funding or reallocating funds
∙ Explain the hidden curriculum. Don't forget about the age old question of What is the meaning of clavicle?
o the unwritten rules in education in terms of norms, behaviors, and attitudes. Things not directly taught. Teaches students to adhere to the status quo. Promotes national culture. We also discuss several other topics like In primate adaptive trends kingdom means what?
∙ Ex: work hard, follow directions, time management, obedience to
authority, patriotism, “boys will be boys”, girls are supposed to be ladies and not curse
∙ Explain the school to prison pipeline.
o zero tolerance and policing policies in schools correlate to arrests in adulthood. If a student curses (disorderedly conduct) in school, police are called, and the student can be arrested. They now are in the system and live a life of being in and out of jail or unable to do well in adulthood from missing school. Being arrested during school years typically means one will be arrested in adulthood
∙ How do deviance and crime differ? What are the benefits to society of classifying some behaviors as criminal? Conversely, how does labeling some acts as criminal reinforce social inequality?
o Crime breaks the law, deviance is when you behave a way that goes against social norms
o Benefits: people will behave in a better manner
o War on Drugs – difference in sentencing of crack and coke; police officers who look for crack more than they do coke
∙ We discussed the history of several racial/ethnic groups; Native Americans, African Americans, Asian Americans, etc. In what ways are the historical experiences of these groups similar and/or different? How are these historical patterns different/similar for new immigrants today? If you want to learn more check out What is the meaning of a felony?
o Have been marginalized by society. Asian Americans had to suffer through internment camps, Native Americans genocide, African Americans slavery.
o Multiculturalism, assimilation, segregation, expulsion, extermination
o Asian Americans assimilated the best because they receive the least amount of oppression
∙ Be able to explain the major components of the justice systems (courts, police, and corrections). How do we see inequalities reinforced in each of these branches of the justice system?
o Police enforce the law, courts sentence, corrections carry out the sentence o Stop and frisk laws where you racially profile
o If you are rich you can afford a good lawyer to reduce your sentence
o More arrests among those of
o White people are likely to less of a sentence
o Use of force
o Police stops and questioning
∙ What are the factors contributing to the rise of an immigration policing regime in the U.S.? (review page 103 in the book)
o “immigration policing regime” that attempts to connect the dots between disparate issues—including immigration, citizenship, the “war on terror”, border control, national security, crime, law enforcement, and the economy—all under the guise of “protecting the homeland.” This approach to immigration control and enforcement consists of four pillars:
∙ relentless criminalization of immigration status and the use of
incarceration through US laws, policies, measures, and practices—
weakening and even eliminating constitutional rights, particularly due process rights, and labor protections for noncitizens
∙ Persistent linking of immigration to the politics of national security and engaging in policing tactics that rely upon racial, ethnic/nationality, and religious profiling
∙ Escalating militarization of immigration control and border communities; reinforcing policies and strategies that deliberately funnel migrants,
forcing them to cross through the most dangerous segments of the US Mexico border and compromise the rights and safety of border residents ∙ Scapegoating immigrants for the economic crisis and leveraging anti immigrant sentiment to push federal, state, and county, and local laws and policies that cut and/or eliminate public services, and roll back civil rights, environmental, labor, and other social protections. These policies
contribute to corporate profitmaking and are integral to free trade and other economic development programs that displace communities and force individuals around the world into involuntary migration.
∙ What are some of the consequences of growing inequality as outlined in your readings? As presented in the movie?
o The economy is not doing so well for the 99% but doing very well for the 1% o Middle class is shrinking
o Harder for social mobility to occur
o Gap between middle class and high class is getting bigger
∙ What are some of the governmental policies that contributed to and increased the racial disparities in wealth, between Whites and Blacks? What are some of the legacies and consequences of this racial disparity in wealth today?
o GI Bill
o Mortgage loans
o We still see these disparities today
∙ How are transformations in the means of production to growing inequality? o Showing off what you can buy, how wealthy you are
o We used to just focus on our family but now we expand and compete o No longer needed are laborers since technology does a lot of the work
∙ What systems of stratification have existed (and still exist) in other societies? Be able to explain how these differ from social class.
o Slavery – typically born into
o Caste system – no social mobility, ascribed
o Estate system – nobility, clergy, commoners
o Social class – rich, middle class, poor (can achieve social mobility) o Stratification: the way categories are organized
o Social class: the category itself
∙ Be able to describe the major features of capitalism, socialism, and communism.
o Capitalism: An economic system in which a country’s trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state; pursuit of profit
o Socialism: An economic system in which the means of production and distribution are regulated by the state
o Communism: Collective ownership of the means of production and administered collectively (not by the state)
∙ Understand how convergence theory relates to these theories.
o The similarity between socialism and communism; democratic socialism (both states and individuals engage in production and distribution) is an example of this
∙ What financial services are part of the debtcycle? What are the financial disadvantages involved in using these services?
o Taking out loans and using credit to purchase a home, car, education, etc. Also includes pay day loans.
o Disadvantages: It’s a cycle – once you start using credit, you get further and further into debt and can’t get out of it.
∙ What are the factors differentiating the 99% from the 1%?
o MONEY, taxes
o 99% middle, lower, and working classes, spends more money trying to keep up with the lifestyle of the elite
o 1% the elite class, saves more money, has more wealth
∙ How do class oppression and class privilege intersect with racism, sexism, and ableism? o ??
∙ What is social mobility and what factors increase/decrease the possibility of experiencing social mobility?
o Social mobility: The movement from one status to another within a stratified society.
o Whatever class you’re born into, it may be more difficult/easier to move up the ladder. If you’re poor then it’s harder to become rich and do the things it takes to become rich. If you’re already rich, it’s easier to continue that or become richer.
∙ How does wealth differ from income? What factors other than wealth/income are important determinants of social class?
o Income is used for day to day necessities while wealth is used for influence and power. Income is what you earn from salary, wealth are the things you are able to buy from that income (homes, cars, boats, jewelry)