NURS 2330 Health Promotion
Study Guide/ Answers to Sample Question
Chapter 3 Stress and Stress Management
Probable answers are highlighted, and reference pages from the book are to the right of the answer
1. This is a group of nonnutrients from plants that may result in health benefits. ∙ Phytochemicals – pg. 280
2. These help or prevent activity of free radicals which are unstable and highly reactive causing cellular damage.
∙ Antioxidants – pg. 280
3. These occur when an individual cannot use and/or store excess nutrients particularly fat soluble vitamins.
∙ Nutrient Toxicities – pg. 283
4. Brown rice and wheat bran are excellent sources for this.
∙ Insoluble Fiber – pg. 284
5. This is the only disorder which is CLEARLY associated with carbohydrate consumption. ∙ Tooth Decay – pg. 285 If you want to learn more check out Communication disorders refer to what?
6. What three signs and symptoms are common to both Type 1 as well as Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus?
∙ 1. Excessive Thirst
∙ 2. Frequent Urination
∙ 3. Vision Problems pg. 286 Table 9.5 We also discuss several other topics like What makes democracies less likely to fight?
7. Do kidney beans have a high glycemic index, or a low glycemic index? ∙ Low Glycemic Index – pg. 287
8. Individuals with Asian or African ancestry are more likely to be affected by lactose intolerance than are…
∙ Caucasians – pg. 288
9. The vast majority (~95%) of lipid content in foods consists of this. If you want to learn more check out What is job costing?
∙ Triglycerides – pg. 289
10. Cholesterol is a structural part of steroid hormones, vitamin D, bile, as well as this. ∙ Fat Digestion – pg. 290
11. This process results in the formation of trans fatty acids.
∙ Hydrogenation – pg. 291
12. The flavor enhancer MSG stands for what?
∙ Monosodium Glutamate – pg. 293
13. Lowquality proteins are also known as what?
∙ Incomplete Proteins –pg. 293
14. A number of athletes believe it is necessary to eat larger amounts of protein to… ∙ Increase their muscle mass – pg. 293
15. This vegetarian diet contains eggs as well as dairy products.
∙ Lacto-ovo-vegetarian Diet – pg. 294
16. Three common foods individuals may be allergic to include…
∙ Milk, Eggs, and Wheat – pg. 295 If you want to learn more check out What is leonardo’s influence on raphael?
17. What is anaphylaxis?
∙ An acute allergic reaction to an antigen – pg. 295
18. Free radical formation produces chemical changes in cells that may contribute to what conditions?
∙ Cardiovascular disease, certain cancers, degenerative changes in the eye, and other chronic health conditions – pg. 298
19. List three vitamins which may function as an antioxidant.
∙ Vitamins E, C, and A – pg. 298
20. According to our textbook, the usefulness of Vitamin C in preventing these three conditions is not supported by scientific evidence.
∙ Diabetes, Cancer, and Alzheimer’s – pg. 298
21. What is “dowager’s hump”? Don't forget about the age old question of How did adams win the election of 1824?
∙ Occurs when bones in the upper spine are so weak that they experience small compression fractures over time while trying to support the weight of the skull resulting in abnormal curvatures in the spine due to osteoporosis – pg. 299 Don't forget about the age old question of What is the hieroglyphic symbol for pharaoh?
22. This hormone signals bones to maintain their mass and retain calcium. ∙ Estrogen – pg. 300
23. What is hemochromatosis?
∙ A genetic condition that increases the intestinal absorption of dietary iron (hemo blood, chromat color chromatid, osis abnormal condition) pg. 302
24. Define anemia.
∙ When the body produces abnormal red blood cells pg. 301 25. What three conditions (as noted in our textbook) can result in a substantial loss of water, and thus cause dehydration?
∙ Prolonged fevers, bouts of Diarrhea, and Vomiting – pg. 302 I am also attaching the Words of the Day regarding this exammette:
1. Fred Kummerow- a 100-year old scientist/professor who pushed the FDA to
ban artificial trans fats
2. Triglyceride/Triglycerol- an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids; are the main portion of body fat in humans and other animals, as well as vegetable fat
3. Hydrogenation- to treat with hydrogen; process commonly used to reduce or
saturate organic compounds
4. Trans Fatty Acid- an unsaturated fatty acid that occurs in manufactured
cooking oils and margarines as a result of the hydrogenation process 5. Cholesterol- a sterol; a type of lipid molecule that is biosynthesized by all
animal cells because it is an essential structural component of all animal cell
membranes to maintain structural integrity and fluidity
6. Omega 3 Fatty Acid- (w-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids with a double bond at
the third carbon atom from the methyl/omega end of the carbon chain 7. Saturated Fatty Acid- a long chain of carbon atoms all linked together by
8. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid- fatty acid chains the contain more than one
double bond in their backbone
9. Phospholipid- a lipid containing a phosphate group in its molecule; make up
the phospholipid bilayer that surrounds cells
10.Inuit People- diet containing foods that are fished, hunted, mainly fish and fat to maintain body heat in North America where they live, but are surprisingly
11.Cis Fatty Acid- two hydrogen atoms are on the same side of a double bond 12.Omega 6 Fatty Acid- (w-6) come from vegetable oil; polyunsaturated fatty
acids with a double bond at the sixth carbon from the methyl/omega end of the carbon chain
1. Amino Acid- chemical units that compose proteins; organic compounds containing amine, carboxyl group, and a side-chain (R group) specific to each
2. Limitting Amino Acid- found in the shortest supply during protein synthesis
from incomplete proteins
3. Complete Protein- high-quality proteins; contains all of the essential amino
acids; red meat, poultry, seafood, eggs, and dairy
4. Incomplete Protein- low-quality protein; contain insufficient amounts of lack
one or more of the essential amino acids
5. Essential Amino Acid- cannot be made by the body thus must come from
food; 9 essential amino acids
a. Non-essential Amino Acid- can be made in the body thus nonessential in the human diet; 11 nonessential amino acids
6. Complementary Protein- combining two or more foods with incomplete proteins forms complementary proteins to provide adequate amounts of all
the essential amino acids
7. Free Radical- an uncharged molecule having an unpaired balance electron;
having lost and electron; unstable/reactive
a. diseases and why- they start to steal neighboring electrons attacking DNA leading to dysfunction, mutation, and cancer, attack enzymes and
proteins disrupting normal cell activities
∙ inflammatory joint disease
∙ senile dementia
∙ degenerative eye disease
8. Antioxidant- a substance the inhibits oxidation, especially one used to counteract the deterioration of stored food products; removes potentially
damaging oxidizing agents in a living organism
9. Phytochemical/Phytonutrient- any of various biologically active compounds found in plants; help protect plants from germs, fungi, bugs, and other
10.Linus Pauling- American chemist, biochemist, peace activist, author, and
educator and published papers about the nature of the chemical bond 11. Mega Vitamin Therapy- the use of large doses of vitamins in attempt to
prevent or treat diseases