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WTAMU / Nursing and Health Science / NURS 2330 / What are phytochemicals and how do they benefit plants and humans?

What are phytochemicals and how do they benefit plants and humans?

What are phytochemicals and how do they benefit plants and humans?

Description

School: West Texas A&M University
Department: Nursing and Health Science
Course: Health Promotion
Professor: Dirk nelson
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: NURS
Cost: 50
Name: Exammette 4 study Guide
Description: This study guide also contain the Words of the Day that are relative to this exammette and the notes for this section
Uploaded: 03/22/2017
9 Pages 46 Views 3 Unlocks
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NURS 2330 Health Promotion  


What are phytochemicals and how do they benefit plants and humans?



Study Guide/ Answers to Sample Question

Chapter 3 Stress and Stress Management  

Probable answers are highlighted, and reference pages from the book are to  the right of the answer 

1. This is a group of nonnutrients from plants that may result in health benefits.  ∙ Phytochemicals – pg. 280 

2. These help or prevent activity of free radicals which are unstable and highly reactive  causing cellular damage.

∙ Antioxidants – pg. 280 

3. These occur when an individual cannot use and/or store excess nutrients particularly fat soluble vitamins.

∙ Nutrient Toxicities – pg. 283 


What kind of harm can free radicals cause?



4. Brown rice and wheat bran are excellent sources for this.

∙ Insoluble Fiber – pg. 284 

5. This is the only disorder which is CLEARLY associated with carbohydrate consumption.  ∙ Tooth Decay – pg. 285 If you want to learn more check out Communication disorders refer to what?

6. What three signs and symptoms are common to both Type 1 as well as Type 2 Diabetes  Mellitus?

∙ 1. Excessive Thirst 

∙ 2. Frequent Urination 

∙ 3. Vision Problems  ­pg. 286 Table 9.5 We also discuss several other topics like What makes democracies less likely to fight?

7. Do kidney beans have a high glycemic index, or a low glycemic index? ∙ Low Glycemic Index – pg. 287 


What foods contain wheat bran?



8. Individuals with Asian or African ancestry are more likely to be affected by lactose  intolerance than are…

∙ Caucasians – pg. 288 

9. The vast majority (~95%) of lipid content in foods consists of this. If you want to learn more check out What is job costing?

∙ Triglycerides – pg. 289 

10. Cholesterol is a structural part of steroid hormones, vitamin D, bile, as well as this. ∙ Fat Digestion – pg. 290 

11. This process results in the formation of trans fatty acids.

∙ Hydrogenation – pg. 291 

12. The flavor enhancer MSG stands for what?

∙ Monosodium Glutamate – pg. 293 

13. Low­quality proteins are also known as what?

∙ Incomplete Proteins –pg. 293 

14. A number of athletes believe it is necessary to eat larger amounts of protein to… ∙ Increase their muscle mass – pg. 293 

15. This vegetarian diet contains eggs as well as dairy products.

∙ Lacto-ovo-vegetarian Diet – pg. 294 

16. Three common foods individuals may be allergic to include…

∙ Milk, Eggs, and Wheat – pg. 295 If you want to learn more check out What is leonardo’s influence on raphael?

17. What is anaphylaxis?

∙ An acute allergic reaction to an antigen – pg. 295 

18. Free radical formation produces chemical changes in cells that may contribute to what  conditions?

∙ Cardiovascular disease, certain cancers, degenerative changes in the eye, and other chronic health conditions – pg. 298 

19. List three vitamins which may function as an antioxidant.

∙ Vitamins E, C, and A – pg. 298 

20. According to our textbook, the usefulness of Vitamin C in preventing these three  conditions is not supported by scientific evidence.

∙ Diabetes, Cancer, and Alzheimer’s – pg. 298 

21. What is “dowager’s hump”? Don't forget about the age old question of How did adams win the election of 1824?

∙ Occurs when bones in the upper spine are so weak that they  experience small compression fractures over time while trying to  support the weight of the skull resulting in abnormal curvatures  in the spine due to osteoporosis – pg. 299 Don't forget about the age old question of What is the hieroglyphic symbol for pharaoh?

22. This hormone signals bones to maintain their mass and retain calcium. ∙ Estrogen – pg. 300 

23. What is hemochromatosis? 

∙ A genetic condition that increases the intestinal absorption of  dietary iron (hemo­ blood, chromat­ color chromatid, ­osis­ abnormal  condition) ­ pg. 302 

24. Define anemia.

∙ When the body produces abnormal red blood cells­ pg. 301 25. What three conditions (as noted in our textbook) can result in a substantial loss of water,  and thus cause dehydration?

∙ Prolonged fevers, bouts of Diarrhea, and Vomiting – pg. 302 I am also attaching the Words of the Day regarding this exammette:

1. Fred Kummerow- a 100-year old scientist/professor who pushed the FDA to  

ban artificial trans fats

2. Triglyceride/Triglycerol- an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids;  are the main portion of body fat in humans and other animals, as well as  vegetable fat

3. Hydrogenation- to treat with hydrogen; process commonly used to reduce or  

saturate organic compounds  

4. Trans Fatty Acid- an unsaturated fatty acid that occurs in manufactured  

cooking oils and margarines as a result of the hydrogenation process 5. Cholesterol- a sterol; a type of lipid molecule that is biosynthesized by all  

animal cells because it is an essential structural component of all animal cell  

membranes to maintain structural integrity and fluidity  

6. Omega 3 Fatty Acid- (w-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids with a double bond at  

the third carbon atom from the methyl/omega end of the carbon chain  7. Saturated Fatty Acid- a long chain of carbon atoms all linked together by  

single bonds  

8. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid- fatty acid chains the contain more than one  

double bond in their backbone  

9. Phospholipid- a lipid containing a phosphate group in its molecule; make up  

the phospholipid bilayer that surrounds cells  

10.Inuit People- diet containing foods that are fished, hunted, mainly fish and fat  to maintain body heat in North America where they live, but are surprisingly  

healthy

11.Cis Fatty Acid- two hydrogen atoms are on the same side of a double bond  12.Omega 6 Fatty Acid- (w-6) come from vegetable oil; polyunsaturated fatty  

acids with a double bond at the sixth carbon from the methyl/omega end of  the carbon chain  

1. Amino Acid- chemical units that compose proteins; organic compounds  containing amine, carboxyl group, and a side-chain (R group) specific to each  

amino acid  

2. Limitting Amino Acid- found in the shortest supply during protein synthesis  

from incomplete proteins  

3. Complete Protein- high-quality proteins; contains all of the essential amino  

acids; red meat, poultry, seafood, eggs, and dairy  

4. Incomplete Protein- low-quality protein; contain insufficient amounts of lack  

one or more of the essential amino acids  

5. Essential Amino Acid- cannot be made by the body thus must come from  

food; 9 essential amino acids

a. Non-essential Amino Acid- can be made in the body thus nonessential  in the human diet; 11 nonessential amino acids

6. Complementary Protein- combining two or more foods with incomplete  proteins forms complementary proteins to provide adequate amounts of all  

the essential amino acids  

7. Free Radical- an uncharged molecule having an unpaired balance electron;  

having lost and electron; unstable/reactive

a. diseases and why- they start to steal neighboring electrons attacking  DNA leading to dysfunction, mutation, and cancer, attack enzymes and

proteins disrupting normal cell activities  

∙ atherosclerosis

∙ cancer

∙ inflammatory joint disease

∙ asthma

∙ diabetes

∙ senile dementia

∙ degenerative eye disease  

8. Antioxidant- a substance the inhibits oxidation, especially one used to  counteract the deterioration of stored food products; removes potentially  

damaging oxidizing agents in a living organism  

9. Phytochemical/Phytonutrient- any of various biologically active compounds  found in plants; help protect plants from germs, fungi, bugs, and other  

threats  

10.Linus Pauling- American chemist, biochemist, peace activist, author, and  

educator and published papers about the nature of the chemical bond  11. Mega Vitamin Therapy- the use of large doses of vitamins in attempt to  

prevent or treat diseases

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