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UA / Geospatial Studies / GEO 101 / What are the major energy resources found in rock and sediment?

What are the major energy resources found in rock and sediment?

What are the major energy resources found in rock and sediment?


School: University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa
Department: Geospatial Studies
Course: Dynamic Earth
Professor: Deborah keene
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: Geology
Cost: 50
Name: Geology 101, Test 4 Studyguide
Description: These cover what's going to be in our next exam.
Uploaded: 03/23/2017
10 Pages 26 Views 8 Unlocks

Chapter 12 Learning Objectives 

What are the major energy resources found in rock and sediment, how do they form and how are they recovered? specifically, for oil, gas, and coal?

1. What are the major energy resources found in rock and sediment, how do  they form and how are they recovered? Specifically, for oil, gas, and coal?

a. Kerogen: the waxy molecules into which the organic material in shale  transforms when reaching 80 C. at higher temps, kerogen turns into oil

b. Oil, gas, and coal are fossil fuels, and solar energy is stored into these  fossils that formed from organisms long ago

c. Oil and gas consist of hydrocarbons: organic chemicals made of chain  like or ring like molecules made of carbon and hydrogen atoms  

d. Hydrocarbon type (natural gas, gasoline, oil, tar) is a function of chain  length

e. Coal is a black brittle sedimentary rock that burns-it does not have the  same composition or origin as oil

What needs to be present and at what temperatures to make a good oil recovery site? what is the oil window, source rock, seal rock, porosity, permeability, etc.?

If you want to learn more check out What is the meaning of bhutan?
If you want to learn more check out What is the meaning of the humerus?

2. What needs to be present and at what temperatures to make a good oil  recovery site? What is the oil window, source rock, seal rock, porosity,  permeability, etc.?

a. Oil window: the narrow range of temperatures under which oil can form in a source rock (90-160 C)

b. Source rock: a rock (organic rich shale) containing the raw materials  from which hydrocarbons eventually form

c. Seal rock: a relatively impermeable rock, such as shale, salt, or  unfractured limestone, that lies above a reservoir rock and stops the oil and/or gas from rising further

d. Porosity: the total volume of empty space (pore space) in a material,  usually expressed as a percentage

What does the energy consumption of the us look like? what do we use for energy production?

e. Permeability: the degree to which a material allows fluids to pass  through it via an interconnected network of pores and spaces

f. Reservoir rock: a rock that contains (or could contain) an abundant  amount of easily extractable oil and gas; these rocks have high  porosity and permeability  

3. What does the energy consumption of the US look like? What do we use for  energy production?

a. 19% of the global energy consumption, mainly fossil fuels We also discuss several other topics like In primate adaptive trends kingdom means what?

4. What are the renewable and nonrenewable resources?

a. Renewable: a natural resource that can be re-made/re-grown quickly

b. Nonrenewable: a natural resource that cannot be re-made or re-grown  at a scale comparable to its consumption

5. What are the common mineral resources and how do they form and how are  they extracted?

a. Limestone, crushed stone, siltstone, granite, marble, slate, gypsum,  phosphate, pumice, clay, sand, salt, sulfur (chart in slides)

Chapter 13 Learning Objectives 

∙ Mass movement: (mass wasting) is the downslope motion of rock, regolith  (soil, sediment, debris) snow, and ice.  

∙ Creep: the slow downhill movement of regolith due to seasonal expansion  and contraction of regolith

∙ Solifluction: the slow downhill movement of tundra If you want to learn more check out What is the meaning of misdemeanor?

∙ Slumping: mass movement by sliding or regolith as coherent blocks ∙ Mudflow: a slurry of water and fine sediment If you want to learn more check out What is the meaning of product complexity?

∙ Debris flow: a mudflow with many large rocks

∙ Lahars: volcanic ash from recent or ongoing eruptions mixes with water from  heavy rains or melted glacial ice

∙ Avalanche: turbulent cloud of debris and air

o Snow avalanche: a thick mass of over steepened snow that detaches  from a mountain peak  

o Wet: viscous slurry, hugging the slope and entraining little air. Move  relatively slowly

o Dry: move cold, powdery slow. Above the ground surface on a layer of  pressurized air, move rapidly  

∙ Turbidity current: move as a turbulent cloud of suspended sediment that  deposit graded beds

∙ Initiating mass movements

o Occur when earth materials that has been weakened by weathering.  Chemical and physical weathering produce regolith. Surface material is much weaker than solid crustal rock

∙ Steeper slopes create a larger force imbalance  

o Downslope forces-gravity

 The weight of earth materials  

 The weight of added water Don't forget about the age old question of What does cultural convergence theory argue about globalization and culture?

 The weight of added structures

o Resisting forces-material strength

o Cohesion

o Chemical bonds

o Electrical charges

o Surface tension

o Friction

∙ Angle of repose: the steepest angle of descent or dip relative to the  horizontal plane to which a material can be piled without slumping (on the  verge of sliding)

∙ Slope change: slope characteristics can destabilize a slope. Loading the top of a slope with added weight, steepening a slope beyond the angle of repose

∙ Important factors affecting slope strength

o Relief: steeper slopes have more mass movement

o Climate: more rainfall creates larger water problems and accelerates  rates of chemical weathering

∙ Preventing mass movements

o Revegetation: roots stabilize the potential failure plane

o Regrading: terrace steps  

o Drainage: potential failure plane dries and becomes stronger o Reducing undercutting

o Engineering structures

Chapter 14 Learning Objectives 

1. What are the characteristics of a stream channel? Where is erosion and  deposition occurring and how will the channel evolve?

a. Stream formation

i. Precipitation occurs

ii. Sheetwash flows downhill

iii. Flowing water digs tiny channels called rills

iv. Rills downcut; develop into streamflow

b. Headward erosion: the process by which a stream channel lengthens  up its slope as the flow of water increases

c. Drainage network: an array of interconnecting streams that together  drain an area

d. Erosion is usually occurring on the outer banks, while deposition occurs on the inside.  

e. High energy=sediment erosion/transportation

f. Low energy=sediment deposition

g. Fluvial deposits(alluvium): sediment deposited in a stream channel,  along a stream bank, or on a floodplain

h. Point bar: a wedge-shaped deposit of sediment on the inside bank of a  meander  

i. Delta: a wedge of sediment formed at a river mouth when the running  water of a stream enters standing water, the current slows, the stream  loses competence, and sediment settles out

2. What are the major drainage network patterns?

a. Dendritic

b. Rectangular

c. Trellis

d. Radial

e. Parallel

3. How do rivers carry sediment and what is stream competence and capacity? a. The total volume of sediment is referred to as the sediment load

b. Dissolved load: water seeping through rock surrounding stream  channel dissolves certain minerals and transports these ions down the  stream

c. Suspended load: small solid particles (silt or clay size) that swirl along  in the water without settling to the floor of the channel

d. Bed load: larger solid particles (sand, pebbles, or cobbles) that that  bounce or roll along stream floor  

e. Stream competence: refers to the maximum particle size a stream can  carry

f. Stream capacity: refers to the total quantity of sediment it can carry  (depends on competence and discharge)

4. How is discharge calculated and measured?

a. Discharge: area of the stream times average stream velocity b. D=A_c times v_a D=(100m^2) times (10m/s) D=1000m^3/s

5. What is base level?

a. The lowest elevation a stream channel’s floor can reach at a given  locality  

b. Ultimate base level is sea level (sea level can move up and down). A  lake (natural or man-made) represents a local base level

c. A stream “tries” to erode down to base level (slow process) 6. What is a flood recurrence interval and why is it important?

a. The average amount of time it takes for the same discharge level to  occur again. Helps to predict nature of floods

Chapter 15 Learning Objectives 

1. What is the bathymetric profile of the oceans?

a. The study of the underwater depth of lake or ocean floors. In oceans,  the highest point is in the middle of the ocean

2. How do temperature and salinity change throughout the climate zones of  Earth and how does this effect circulation?

a. Salinity is a function of:

i. Water temperature (warm water holds more salt)

ii. Addition of freshwater from river runoff, groundwater, ice melt,  and direct rain

iii. Evaporation rate at ocean’s surface

iv. Ocean currents (fast vs. slow)

v. Most ocean water is cool to cold, with the greatest difference is  temperature by depth in the tropics

vi. Warm water from the tropics is transported to the poles by  currents (more solar radiation)

3. What is the Coriolis force and how does it effect circulation in the northern  and southern hemispheres?

a. Coriolis effect: the deflection of objects, winds, and currents on the  surface of the earth owing to the planets rotation

4. How are tides formed and at what alignment of the Moon, Sun and Earth) are  they the greatest?

a. Formed by a combination of gravitational attraction from the moon and sun, as well as the force generated by the earth’s rotation

5. What are the characteristics of a wave and how it breaks on shore and what  effects does this have on sediment transport and erosion?

a. Wave refraction: the bending of the waves as they approach the shore  at an angle

b. Because of this, wave energy is concentrated against sides and ends of headlands causing coastal erosion. Low energy sites associated with  sand deposition (embayment)

c. Wave action

i. Open ocean: waves with constant wavelength  

1. Depth is half of wavelength

ii. Approaching shore: waves touch bottom (wavelength shortens) 1. Velocity decreases (wave height increases)

iii. Surf: breakers form

d. Longshore drift: the movement of sediment laterally along a beach; it  occurs when waves wash up a beach diagonally

Chapter 16 Main Topics 

∙ Groundwater: water that resides under the surface of the earth, mostly in  pores and cracks of rock or sediment

o A major component of hydrologic cycles

o A major source of water

o Largely hidden from view but susceptible to contamination o Provides 2/3 of freshwater resources

 Drinking water for people and livestock

 Agriculture

 Industry

∙ Karst landscape: a region underlain by caves in limestone bedrock; the  collapse of the cave creates a landscape of sinkholes separated by higher  topography; or of limestone spires separated by low areas

∙ Water table: the boundary, approximately parallel to the earth’s surface, that  separates substrate in which groundwater fills the pores from substrate in  which air fills the pores

∙ Unsaturated zone: the region of the subsurface above the water table, pore  space may contain some water and some air

∙ Saturated zone: the region below the water table where pore space is filled  with water

∙ Aquitard: sediment or rock that does not transmit water easily and therefore  retard the motion of water (typically has both low porosity and permeability)

∙ Aquifer: sediment or rock that transmits water easily (high porosity and  permeability)

o Confined aquifer: an aquifer that is separated from the earth’s surface  by an overlying aquitard

o Unconfined aquifer: an aquifer that intersects the surface of the earth ∙ Groundwater flow

o Gravity and pressure cause groundwater to flow (can flow sideways  and upward)

o Infiltrate: seep down into

o Recharge area: a location where water enters the ground and infiltrates down to the water table

o Discharge area: a location where groundwater flows back up to the  surface, and may emerge at springs

o Flows from high to low pressure

o Hydraulic head: the potential energy available to drive the flow of a  given volume of groundwater at a location; it can be measured as an  elevation above a reference  

o Very slow compared to surface water

 Rate can vary from 4-500 meters per year (13 to 1640 feet per  year)

o Groundwater flow rate is a function the slope of the water table  (hydraulic head) and the permeability of the material through which  the groundwater is flowing  

o Moves at a snail’s pace

∙ Cone of depression: the downward pointing cone shaped surface of the water  table in a location where the water table is experiencing drawdown because  of pumping at the well

∙ Artesian well

o A well in which water rises on its own (due to angled bedrock and  natural pressure within the system)

o Potentiometric surface: the elevation to which water in an artesian  system would rise if unimpeded; where there are flowing artesian  wells, the potentiometric surface lies above ground

∙ Spring: a natural outlet from which groundwater flows onto the ground  surface

o Where the ground surface intersects the water table in a discharge  area

o Where flowing groundwater collides with a steep, impermeable barrier, and pressure pushes it up to the ground along the barrier

o Where a perched water table intersects the surface of a hill

o Where downward percolating water runs into a relatively impermeable  layer and migrates along the top surface of the layer to a hillslope

o Where a network of interconnected fractures channels groundwater to  the surface of a hill

∙ Oasis: a verdant (green with grass, etc.) region surrounded by desert,  occurring at a place where natural springs provide water to the surface

∙ Hot spring: a spring that emits water ranging in temperature from 30 C to  104 C

∙ Travertine: a rock composed of crystalline calcium carbonate formed by  chemical precipitation from groundwater that has seeped out at the ground  surface

∙ Groundwater uses

o Drinking

o Irrigation

o Industry

∙ Groundwater concerns

o Over use

o Change of flow direction

o Saltwater intrusion

o Ground subsidence

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