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TEXAS A&M / Nutrition / NUTR 202 / What is lactose intolerance?

What is lactose intolerance?

What is lactose intolerance?


School: Texas A&M University
Department: Nutrition
Course: Fundamentals of Human Nutrition
Professor: Rebecca creasy
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: nutrition
Cost: 50
Name: nutrition 202 exam 2 study guide
Description: this study guide answers all the learning outcome objectives for the chapters covering the test
Uploaded: 03/24/2017
14 Pages 200 Views 9 Unlocks

== key terms and definitions 

What is lactose intolerance?


CH 3, 4, 5, 7 & 8 Study Guide Nutrition 202

Ch 3. Carbohydrates 

1. Define gluconeogenesis and ketosis.

● Gluconeogenesis: The synthesis of new glucose from non-carb sources ● Ketosis: Acid-base imbalance, dehydration, dizziness, fainting

2. Discuss the roles of insulin and glucagon in regulating blood glucose. ● Hormones insulin and glucagon help maintain a stable level of glucose in blood. ● Insulin meets immediate energy needs

● If glucose concentrations exceed energy requirements, it is stored as glycogen in the liver and muscle. Glucagon increases blood glucose by breaking down glycogen for glucose

3. Describe the three categories of diabetes mellitus and associated complications ● Pre-diabetes: state of impaired glucose tolerance leading to elevated blood glucose; left untreated can progress to diabetes.

What is the basic structure of lipids?

If you want to learn more check out What war was basically fought for american imperial expansion?

● Type 1: Most often diagnosed in children or adolescents

○ pancreas is unable to produce insulin

○ it is thought to be an autoimmune disease If you want to learn more check out When did bacon's rebellion happen?

● Type 2: accounts for more than 90% of all cases

○ Cells are insulin resistant 

○ Typically over age 40 and overweight or obese when diagnosed

○ increasing # of diagnosis at younger ages

● Complications: greater water loss as kidneys try to eliminate excess glucose, increased risk for developing coronary heart disease, kidney disease, high blood pressure, damage to eyes and blood vessels (blindness), damage to nervous system (tingling and numbness)

4. Distinguish between soluble and insoluble fiber and resistant starch; List food sources and benefits of each.

What are the types of fat substitutes?

● Soluble fiber: can dissolve in water

○ Is a jelly-like material that acts like a cement in plants

○ Dietary sources: Fruit, legumes, oat bran, potatoes, peas If you want to learn more check out What is the function of pulmonary circuit?

○ Health benefits: Binds to bile in intestine, can aid in lowering blood cholesterol, may reduce risk of heart disease

● Insoluble fiber: can’t be dissolved in water

○ Composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin

○ May soften stools and accelerate passage of contents through gastrointestinal tract (decreasing transit time) If you want to learn more check out What is the decision-making process?

○ Dietary sources: cereals, whole grains, wheat bran, legumes, brown rice ○ Health benefits: Assists w/ bowel regularity

== key terms and definitions 


CH 3, 4, 5, 7 & 8 Study Guide Nutrition 202

■ reduced constipation

■ Hemorrhoids

○ Reduced risk of diverticulosis

○ Reduces contact of toxic materials w/ intestinal wall

■ Reduced risk of colon cancer We also discuss several other topics like What are the percent of people using substances (2013)?

○ May aid in weight control If you want to learn more check out What is gardner’s theory?

○ Reduces risk of heart disease

○ Improves glucose control

● Resistant starches: starch that escapes digestion within the small intestine but is not classified as dietary fiber.

○ R1= least digestable

■ Seeds, unprocessed whole grains and legumes

○ R2= more granular type of starch

■ Uncooked potatoes and green banana flours

■ Improve blood glucose control, gut flora

○ R3= created by first cooking and then cooling rapidly a high-starch food ■ Breads, cornflakes and cooked-then-cooled potatoes have this type of starch

■ May help with safety, improve glucose control, gut flora

○ R4= chemically synthesized

5. Define celiac disease and identify foods appropriate for those with the disease. ● Celiac disease: intolerance to the protein gluten that results in autoimmune response

● Avoid foods with gluten such as wheat, barley, rye and some oats

6. Explain the etiology of tooth decay.

● Carb can adhere to enamel of teeth

● Bacteria metabolize carbohydrate in mouth

● Lactic acid produced by bacterial fermentation degrades tooth enamel ○ Allows for further bacterial infiltration and growth

7. Discuss the pros and cons of low-carbohydrate diets.

● Pros: helps you lose weight

● Cons: high in fat, particularly saturated fat has a potential risk for heart disease ○ Bad breath due to increase of ketone bodies

○ Constipation due to low dietary fiber intake

○ Dehydration from induced water loss

○ Difficult to maintain long-term

8. Define lactose intolerance.

● Lactose intolerance: unable to digest lactose due to loss of function of enzyme lactase

== key terms and definitions 


CH 3, 4, 5, 7 & 8 Study Guide Nutrition 202

Ch 4. Lipids 

1. List the categories of lipids

● Triglycerides

● Phospholipids

● Sterols (ex: cholesterol)

2. Describe the basic structure of a fatty acid

● Fatty acids are chains of carbon linked together. The chain has a carboxyl group (COOH) on one end and a methyl (CH3) on the other

3. Compare and contrast the structures of saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, cis and trans acids.

● Saturated fatty acids: carbon chain is fully occupied by hydrogen atoms ● monounsaturated fatty acids: fatty acid with one double bond

● Polyunsaturated fatty acids: Fatty acid with two or more double bonds ● Cis fatty acids: chains of carbon atoms are on the same side of the double bond, resulting in a kink.

● Trans fatty acids: Hydrogen atoms are on the opposite side of the double bonds of the carbon chain, making the fat molecule straight.

4. List common dietary sources of saturated, unsaturated and trans fatty acids and cholesterol

● Saturated: Beef, pork, poultry w/ skin and other meats, cheese, butter, and other dairy products palm and coconut oils (tropical oils)

● Unsaturated: vegetable oils, nuts and seeds, fish

● trans fatty acids: dairy milk and meat

● cholesterol:Testosterone, Estrogen, Vitamin d, also found in animal products

5. Describe the effect of saturation on the physical state of fatty acids at room temperature.

● Saturated fatty acids are sold at room temperature

6. Identify the 2 essential fatty acids and common dietary sources of each. ● Essential fatty acids can’t be made by the body, must be provided in the diet. ● Omega 6 fatty acids (flaxseed, chia, and walnuts)

● Omega 3 fatty acids (breast milk, fish oil)

7. List the functions of lipids in the body and in foods

● Helps with flavor

● Storage of energy as fat tissue

● Steroid hormone production

● Absorption of fat-soluble vitamins by small intestine

== key terms and definitions 


CH 3, 4, 5, 7 & 8 Study Guide Nutrition 202

● Cell membrane structure

● Organ protection (fat around kidneys)

● Primary energy source for heart

8. Identify the kcal per gram and AMDR for lipids.

● 9 kcals/g fat

● Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges for Adults (AMDR) for fat is 20-35% of calories 

9. List 3 types of fat substitutes used in food products

● Carbohydrate based

● protein -based

● Fat-based

10. Discuss the side effects of taking fat blockers for weight loss

● Anal leakage (inability to control bowel movements)

● Reduced fat soluble vitamin a,d,e, & k absorption

● Malabsorption of oral contraceptives

11. Define atherosclerosis, ischemia, myocardial infarction, stroke and cardiovascular disease

● atherosclerosis: buildup of fatty deposits and streaks in the arteries

● Ischemia: due to reduced blood flow to areas of the heart

● myocardial infarction or heart attack: artery becomes completely blocked ● stroke: blockage of artery supplying blood to brain, can result in permanent paralysis

● Cardiovascular disease: heart disease, increased risk if overweight/obese, includes the above diseases

12. Identify the type of lipid carried by each of the 4 lipoproteins

● Chylomicrons: Transport dietary lipids to the liver

● VLDLs: Contain both triglycerides and cholesterol

● LDLs: Cholesterol rich, deliver cholesterol to other tissues, including blood vessels

● HDLs: Removes excess cholesterol from cells

13. Discuss the functions of LDL and HDL and their impact on heart disease ● Both are associated with dietary trans fatty acids from hydrogenation which increase risk for heart disease. The american heart association recommends 2 g of trans fatty acids per day or <1% of total calories

● LDL: increased levels of “bad” or low-density lipoprotein

○ Deliver cholesterol to other tissues, including blood vessels

== key terms and definitions 


CH 3, 4, 5, 7 & 8 Study Guide Nutrition 202

● HDL: Reduced levels of “good” or high density lipoprotein

○ Removes excess cholesterol from cells

14. List the diet and lifestyle recommendations to reduce risk of heart disease ● Saturated fat less than or equal to 10% of total calories, replace with

polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids

● Minimize trans fat and products with hydrogenated fat

● Consume less: high fat meat, pork, lamb, poultry with skin on, cheese and whole fat dairy, processed meats, butter, margarine

● Consume more: fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts, seeds, low fat or non-fat dairy, liquid vegetable oils, lean meat, pork, lamb, poultry without skin and fatty fish

● 150 min of moderate or 75 min of vigorous activity each week

● Stop smoking

● Alcohol moderation

15. Explain the ​Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2015​ recommendations on fat intake ● 20-35% of daily calories from fat for adults (AMDR)

○ Fat intake below range not recommended

○ Decreased absorption of fat-soluble vitamins

● Children under 2

○ 30-35% calories from fat

○ Growth and nervous sys. development depend on adequate fat intake ● Saturated fat less than or equal to 10% of total calories

16. Compare the mediterranean diet to the typical western diet

● Those who follow mediterranean diet are generally less obese. The diet is 35% of calories from fat so diet is not lower fat

● % of calories from fats in American diets has decreased over the last 2 decades. Low fat diets may promote weight loss.

17. Describe the link between dietary fat intake and chronic diseases ● There is a link between too much fat in our diet and specific diseases ● Heart disease risk increases by excess consumption of nutrients that raise blood cholesterol

● Primary type of heart disease linked with fat intake is atherosclerosis

Ch. 5 Proteins 

1. List the elemental units of an amino acid.

== key terms and definitions 


CH 3, 4, 5, 7 & 8 Study Guide Nutrition 202

● Carbon

● Hydrogen

● Oxygen

● Nitrogen

2. Define essential, non-essential and conditionally essential amino acids.

● essential amino acids: Must be acquired from our diet. phenylalanine ● Non-essential amino acids: Normally made by body in adequate amounts ○ Transamination: transfer of amine group from one molecule to another to create an amino acid

● Conditionally essential amino acids: can’t be made by our body.

3. Identify the essential and conditionally essential amino acids.

● Essential amino acids: Phenylalanine

● Conditionally essential amino acids: arginine, cysteine, Glutamine, Proline, tyrosine.

4. Describe the functions of proteins in the body.

● Hormones

● growth/maintenance/repair

● Body structure and blood

● Fluid balance (proteins act as buffers)

● Transport

● Acid base balance

● Immune function

● Enzymes

5. Describe the process of protein turnover in the body.

● Includes protein synthesis and protein breakdown

● Protein synthesis: requires presence of essential amino acids in adequate amounts

● Limiting amino acid

■ Present in lowest amount relative to body’s needs

● Protein breakdown: Free amino acids become part of amino acid pool ○ Deamination: required for elimination of excess amino acids.

■ Occurs primarily in the liver

■ Keto-acid used for energy production

■ Amino group converted to urea

● Excreted in urine

○ Nitrogen balance

■ Nitrogen consumed vs nitrogen excreted (in the form of urea)

■ Basis of many nutrition recommendation

== key terms and definitions 


CH 3, 4, 5, 7 & 8 Study Guide Nutrition 202

○ Positive nitrogen balance: intake exceeds excretion (Occurs during

growth, recovery from illness and during pregnancy)

○ Negative nitrogen balance: Excretion exceeds intake or intake is

inadequate to meet body’s needs (Occurs during AIDS, cancer,

starvation, and low calorie diets)

6. Identify dietary sources of complete proteins and incomplete proteins.

● Complete proteins (high quality) includes: animal proteins and soy

● Incomplete proteins: don’t contain all essential amino acids in amount required by body. Ex: legumes, grains, vegetables.

7. List nutrients and non-nutritive substances found in soy proteins.

● Nutrients in soy proteins: high protein, low in saturated fat and cholesterol ● Non-nutrients in soy proteins: b-vitamins, calcium, potassium, vitamin A, iron

8. List the DRIs for protein.

● RDA: 0.8 g per kg of body weight (high-quality protein)

● AMDR: 10%-35% (kcal per day of protein)

○ This recommendation is meant for healthy adults

9. Identify individuals who may need additional protein.

● Those with protein energy malnutrition (PEM), infants and young children are most susceptible internationally.

○ Marasmus: skeletal appearance

○ Kwashiorkor: swollen abdomen appearance

10. List and define the types of vegetarian diets.

● Vegans: no animal products

● Lacto-vegetarians: no animal foods, except can eat dairy

● Lacto-ovo-vegetarians: include eggs and dairy products but no meat

● Macrobiotic vegetarians: consume mostly whole grains, sometimes white fish but no meat, poultry, eggs and dairy

● semi vegetarians/flexitarians: occasionally eat meat products and seafood, but predominantly vegetarian diet

11.Identify the health benefits and potential nutrient deficits of vegetarian diets

● Health benefits: Reduced risk of heart disease, reduced rates of obesity ● Potential nutrient deficits:

○ Vitamin B12

○ Zinc: found in wheat and poultry

○ Iron: animal based foods

○ Calcium

○ Vitamin d

== key terms and definitions 


CH 3, 4, 5, 7 & 8 Study Guide Nutrition 202

○ Protein

12.Differentiate between protein energy malnutrition, marasmus, and kwashiorkor.

● Protein energy malnutrition: Disorder that occurs w/ inadequate protein and/or energy consumption; most lethal form of malnutrition

● Marasmus: type of PEM, condition of starvation characterized by emaciation or skeletal appearance

○ Causes: inadequate protein/ calorie intake

● Kwashiorkor: characterized by swollen appearance, especially abdomen ○ Causes: low protein intake, low quality protein

13.Describe the potential negative effect of too much dietary protein.

● Increased risk for colon, breast and pancreatic cancers

● Kidney disease/stones

● Increased risk for heart disease

Ch. 7 Energy Balance and obesity 

1.Explain the relationship between energy balance and body weight. ● unbalanced energy equation is connected to weight gain

● Energetics: obesity caused by positive energy balance which results from eating more calories than you burn

2.List and describe the components of total energy expenditure.

● 1. ​Resting energy expenditure (REE): Calories burned while sitting or sleeping; make up most of calories burned in a day.

● 2. Physical activity: Energy expenditure through voluntary physical efforts, including daily activities, exercise or physical labor

● 3. Thermic effect of food (TEF): The process of burning calories as you digest, absorb, transport, store and metabolize food.

3.Calculate BMI to determine if individual is underweight, normal weight, overweight or obese.

● Weight in kilograms/ (height in meters)^2= standard formula to calculate BMI ● Over 30: obese

● 25-29.5: overweight

● 18.5-24.9: normal body weight

● Under 18.5

4.Discuss the relationship between location of excess body fat and risk of chronic conditions and mortality.

● Gynoid​ pattern: fat over muscle and under skin at hips and thighs

○ Subcutaneous fat (pear shape, more fat in lower half of body)

== key terms and definitions 


CH 3, 4, 5, 7 & 8 Study Guide Nutrition 202

● Android ​pattern: body fat can be stored under the abdominal muscle around the internal organs

○ Visceral fat (inflammatory molecules can increase risk of chronic diseases due to excess fat)

5.Define osteoporosis and list risk factors for the disease.

● Osteoporosis: decreased bone mass/ bone density

● Risk factors: increased risk of bone fracture

6.Discuss the causes of obesity.

● Energetics: positive energy balance resulting from eating more calories than burning

● Environment- as a society

○ We move less, eat more, weight increase seems acceptable in social network

● Genetics

○ Set point theory: body likes to stay within a certain weight limit

○ Metabolism may adjust upwards or downward to ensure that weight is neither gained nor lost

● Decreased leptin (hormone)= increase food intake= decreased energy expenditure

7.Identify hormones and neurotransmitters that influence hunger/appetite and weight status.

● Hormone leptin: increased food intake, decreased energy expenditure ● Hunger stimulating hormone Neuropeptide Y: produced by cells lining the stomach when the stomach is empty

● Ghrelin: hormone increases hunger

● Neurotransmitter compound: increases food intake and blood glucose levels, promoting storage of energy in fat cells. Increases with weight loss.

8.Distinguish between hunger and appetite.

● hunger: need to eat

● Appetite: desire to eat

9.List reasons why fad diets are unsuccessful for long term weight loss. ● Unrealistic and difficult to follow long term

● Many categorize foods as “good” or “bad” and encourage dieters to eliminate certain foods.(fad diets) which could make “bad” foods more desireable

10.Discuss the recommendations for successful long-term weight loss and maintenance in adults.

● Establish diet and physical activity plans that can be followed for a lifetime

== key terms and definitions 


CH 3, 4, 5, 7 & 8 Study Guide Nutrition 202

● promote small, moderate lifestyle changes

● Decrease portion size

● Increase daily physical activity

11.Recognize 3 different weight loss surgeries and how each may result in weight loss.

● 1. Vertical sleeve gastrectomy: parts of stomach removed. Small stomach= less room for food (restriction)

● 2. Adjustable gastric band procedure: bands fits around upper part of stomach (restriction)

● 3. Roux-en- Y Gastric Bypass: small pouch created from stomach, part of small intestine bypassed

○ Restriction and malabsorption

12.Describe the recommendations for treating childhood obesity.

● Weight maintenance is advised

● Gain height and grow into their weight

● Caloric restriction can inhibit growth during rapid development phases, so take caution.

13. Define all the terms below

● Body mass index: measure of weight relative to height, used to diagnose overweight/obesity

● Essential fat: fat required for normal physiological functioning

● Storage fat: at in adipose tissue, tissue under the skin, and fat that “pads” essential organs

● Visceral fat: inflammatory molecules can increase risk of chronic diseases due to excess fat, in abdomen

● Subcutaneous fat: pear shape, more fat in lower half of body

● Adipocytes: fat storing cells

CH 8 Water and Electrolytes 

1.Describe how elements in a water molecule allow other particles to dissolve in water.

● Water ​consists of 2 hydrogen atoms and 1 atom bonded together

○ Bonding causes a shift in charge among individual atoms

■ Hydrogen side: slightly +

■ Oxygen side: slightly -

■ Allows water to attract other water molecules

■ Other substances that are also charged can dissolve in it

== key terms and definitions 


CH 3, 4, 5, 7 & 8 Study Guide Nutrition 202

2.List body compartments in which water is found and describe water distribution in the compartments.

● 1. Intracellular

○ 60%

● 2. Extracellular

○ 40%

○ Includes interstitial and intravascular fluid

3.List sources of water intake and loss.

● Water intake: beverages, foods, metabolic water

● Water loss: urine, feces insensible losses such as sweating and ire


4.Describe how water intake and retention are regulated in the body.

● Hypothalamus in brain controls body’s perceived need for water: thirst ○ Triggered when water levels in blood decrease and solute

concentration increase

○ Perception of thirst lags behind time when body first needs water

● 2 hormones help maintain hydration

○ Antidiuretic hormone: Released by pituitary gland to signal kidneys

to retain water

○ Aldosterone: hormone produced by adrenal glands above kidneys

and Induces kidneys to retain sodium and water

5.Identify risk factors for developing hyponatremia and dehydration.

● Hyponatremia: ​Too much water not enough sodium/ electrolytes.

○ Risks: water intoxication: Dilution of blood electrolytes, particularly


● Dehydration risk factors

○ mild : thirst, some lack of mental clarity and mild fatigue

○ Moderate: reduced athletic ability

○ Sever: cramping and heat exhaustion

○ If water loss continues, hallucinations and heat stroke occur

6.List the functions of water and electrolytes in the body.

● Water and electrolytes are moved across cell walls through 2 processes: ○ Movement from area of greater concentration to area of lesser

concentration: diffusion

== key terms and definitions 


CH 3, 4, 5, 7 & 8 Study Guide Nutrition 202

○ Movement of water across membranes from area with fewer particles where to area with more particles: osmosis 

● Electrolytes: minerals that, when placed in water, become charged particles ○ Cations: minerals with + charge

○ Anions: minerals with - charge

○ Na+ k+ and Cl- are electrolytes important for water balance:

■ Sodium (Na+): primary cation in extracellular fluid

■ Potassium (k+): primary intracellular cation

■ Chloride (Cl-) an anion, more concentrated in extracellular fluid

7.List food sources of sodium and potassium.

● food sources of sodium: processed foods (50-75% of sodium intake) ○ preservatives

● Food sources of potassium:

○ Fresh fruits and vegetables (greatest) potatoes and avocado, orange juice

○ Legumes (greatest)

○ Milk

○ Meats

○ Whole grains

○ Other sources: salt substitutes like potassium chloride (KCL)

8.Identify Adequate Intake values for sodium, potassium and water in adults. ● Sodium: 2300 mg for adults

● Potassium: 4700 mg per day

● Water: ​1-1.5 mL/kcal of energy expenditure (food and beverages combined)

9.Identify the organ responsible for water and waste elimination in the body. ● kidneys

10.Discuss how the proposed updates to the food label may help improve sodium and potassium intake.

● Potassium was added to the new label, sodium is required on food label

11.Identify the systolic and diastolic blood pressures that correspond with a diagnosis of hypertension.

● systolic bp

== key terms and definitions 


CH 3, 4, 5, 7 & 8 Study Guide Nutrition 202

○ Peak pressure generated when the heart contracts and forces blood to move

● Diastolic blood pressure 

○ Lowest bp reading during cardiac relaxation

● diagnosis of hypertension associated w/ elevation of BP

12.List the minerals that may influence blood pressure.

● Sodium

● Potassium

● Calcium

● magnesium

13.Describe the DASH diet, including the list of minerals that the diet is a good source of and the food groups these minerals are found in.

● Dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) eating plan:

○ Increased fruits/vegetables

■ Increases potassium intake

○ Increased whole grains

■ Increases magnesium intake

○ Low fat dairy

■ Increases calcium intake

○ Other recommendations

■ Lower saturated fat

14.List other diet/lifestyle changes recommended to improve blood pressure and prevent or treat hypertension.

● Decrease sodium intake

○ Avoid or limit processed/fast foods

● Lifestyle:

○ Attain or maintain healthy body weight

○ Physical activity

○ Stop smoking

○ Alcohol in moderation

15.Describe the effect of sodium intake on blood pressure around the world.

● Northern japan:

○ 20-30 grams of salt/day

○ High incidence of hypertension

○ Monosodium glutamate (MSG) does not appear to have this effect

== key terms and definitions 


CH 3, 4, 5, 7 & 8 Study Guide Nutrition 202

● Africa, south pacific, malaysian highlands, and amazon basin:

○ Minimal or no incidence of high BP in the past

○ When salt was introduced into diets, BP increased

16. Define both the terms below

● Nephron: Microscopic structures that filter bloods; 1 million in each kidney ● Essential hypertension: High bp due to unknown cause is

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