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AU / History / HIST 1020 / What is cultural ascendency?

What is cultural ascendency?

What is cultural ascendency?


School: Auburn University
Department: History
Course: World History II
Professor: Michael smith
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: World History, WorldWarI, and TheRussianRevolution
Cost: 50
Name: Unit II Study Guide
Description: This study guide covers the end of the 19th century, World war I, The Russian Revolution, and modernization
Uploaded: 03/24/2017
13 Pages 162 Views 8 Unlocks

Exam 2 Study Guide

What is cultural ascendency?

Perry Colvin

This study guide covers everything from Competitive Nationalism, through WWI, and  the Russian Revolution. I highly recommend reading the books for extra clarification and  understanding. Best of Luck

Competitive Nationalism

- Are you able to describe Competitive Nationalism?  

1. What are two driving forces for Competitive Nationalism? (Pick two) a. Industrialization

b. Modernization

c. Cultural Ascendancy

d. The Berlin Conference  

- What is Cultural Ascendency? 

Forming of a cultural identity that can be shared between other people groups, each  empire is seeking to build a name for its own culture.

- What are some technologies that developed due to European Imperialism? - Steam ships

What war was basically fought for american imperial expansion?

- Increased weapons firepower

- Quinine (for malaria)

2. What was the earmark of the Scramble for Africa?

a. The Belgian Resolution

b. The Berlin Conference

c. Belgian Congo

d. Boer War

- What was the goal of the above answer?

- To negotiate which European nations get what amount of land in Africa. 3. Why did the European nations want Africa so badly?

a. For slaves

b. For economic gain

c. Rubber

d. National Power statement

- What were the Belgians doing in the Congo?

- collecting Ivory and Rubber by forcing locals to comply with work orders through  violence.

What is the tokugawa shogunate?

We also discuss several other topics like Who is george whitefield?

Militarism and Navalism

- What is Militarism?

- The glorification and promotion of military power as a reflection of national character  and superiority.

- How was militarism marketed and promoted to populations?

- By advertising in cigarette packs famous generals, soldiers, and more.  4. What are the two wars that define the origins of militarism? (Pick two) a. The Revolutionary War If you want to learn more check out What is the function of systemic circuit?

b. The American Civil War

c. The Franco-Prussian War

d. The Russo- Japanese War

5. Who was the prime example for militarism, because of his people’s morale? a. Duke of Wellington

b. Louis XIV

c. George Washington

d. Napoleon

6. What war was basically fought for American Imperial Expansion

a. WWI

b. Spanish-American War

c. War of 1812

d. Boer War

- America “liberates” several countries in the above war. We actually made them a part of our  empire. What some of those countries? We also discuss several other topics like What is the decision-making process?

- Philippines, Guam, Puerto Rico, Cuba (unofficially)

7. Who was Britain trying to bring into their empire by suppressing a rebellion in the Boer War.  a. Congo

b. Central African Republic

c. Libya

d. South Africa

8. What ways did industrialized nations seek to build a healthier population? a. Boy Scouts

b. Promotion of sports

c. All the Above

d. None of the above

- What is Navalism?

- The belief that Naval Power can be used to dominate world trade and diplomacy.  - Motivated by the need for coaling stations to fuel ships at intervals across the world.  Examples:

- Queen Victoria’s Diamond Jubilee (Britain)

- German Naval Armament in 1898

- Great White Fleet (USA)

*Bonus: What ideas does Navalism fuel for these nations? We also discuss several other topics like What are the percent of people using substances (2013)?

Japanese Modernization

- What is the Tokugawa Shogunate?

- Composed of Daimyo: local Lords

- Samurai: hereditary warrior class,

- all led by the shogun

9. What tactic did the Japanese use to threaten governments/villages/nations to comply with  them?  We also discuss several other topics like Ability to solve problems, and adapt and learn from experiences.

a. Gunboat Diplomacy

b. Iwakara tactics

c. Samurai tactics

d. Navalism

-What occurred during the Meiji Restoration? 

- The Emperor resigned his power to the Shogun

- Iwakura Missions: aimed at identifying factors of industrialization in other nations to  apply to Japan.  

- Rapid Industrialization and Militarization that seeks Japan as a large naval power. 10. What was the war in which Japan tried to get a foothold in China for imperial power? a. First Sino-Japanese War

b. First Boxer Rebellion

c. Beijing Conflict

d. First Manchu-Japanese War

- In the above war, other imperial European nations carve up China for imperial gain (Britain,  Germany, France, Russia, Japan)

- What was the Rebellion by the Chinese against the colonists in their land? - Boxer Rebellion We also discuss several other topics like The idea that operant responses are influenced by their effects, is what?

- What milestone was set by the Russo-Japanese War?

- First time that an Eastern Power had defeated a Western Power in a major battle.  - Last military Engagement before WWI

Fin de Siecle

- What does Fin de Siecle mean?

- End of the century. 

- Three main ideas arose at this time:


- Feminism

- Communism

- Define Modernism: a cultural, artistic movement at the turn of the 20th century that broke w/  earlier conventions and sought new ways of seeing and describing the world.  11. What is the Middle class family centered around at this time?

a. The Wife

b. Dance

c. Nuclear family structure

d. Progressive parenting

- What types of Cultural expressions developed the middle class?

- Art from Picasso, and Van Gogh / Dance and music / Architecture and design

- What is Feminism?

- Advocacy of the equality of the sexes and the establishment of the political, social, and  economic rights of the female sex.  

12. What is the term for an educated, independent, middle class woman during this time a. Empowered

b. Suffragist

c. Feminist

d. New Woman

13. What is Suffrage

a. Support for women’s equal rights in job market

b. Support for women’s right to vote

c. Support for women’s right to choose

d. Support for women’s right to equal pay

- What is communism?

- A theory that advocates the abolition of private ownership, all property being vested in  the community and the organization of labor for the common benefit of all members.  -Who were the major innovators of this idea?

- Marx and Engels 

- What does the book, Das Kapital predict?

- a future confrontation between the rich and poor, and what will come is a Utopian  Socialist system.  

- People see an “Eminent Communist Revolution” coming

Each of these ideas sets up for WWI.

WWI: Dynamics of Destruction

- Nations around the world are seeking to impose their own culture in other places across the  world

- How do they do this? By propaganda through posters etc.  

14. What ways did nations prepare defensively? (Pick two)

a. Naval buildup

b. Alliance System

c. Border Walls

d. Aviation innovation for spying

- What general did the British hire?

- John Fisher

- HMS Dreadnaught is built (an advanced ship in 1905)

15. Who makes up the Triple Entente?  

a. Russia

b. Britain

c. France

d. All of the above

16. Who makes up the Triple Alliance?

a. Germany

b. Austria-Hungary

c. Italy

d. All of the Above

- What almost caused the war in 1901?

- The Agadir Crisis

- Germany and Britain standoff over Morocco (Germany backs down)

- The Ottoman Empire

- The Ottoman Empire is crumbling, and Russia and Austria-Hungary are clamoring for  more territory, sparking feuds.

- The decline of old empires

- The Assassination of Franz Ferdinand in Serbia ignites a war between The Serbs and  Austria- Hungary. Serbia drags Russia into the war, and A-H drags Germany into the  war.

- Each of the above points causes the global conflict of WWI 

WWI: Opening Moves

-There is great enthusiasm for the war

- Mass enlistment

- Global Mobilization of troops, even from colonies.

- What is driving this enthusiasm?

- power of nationalism and national ideologies reigning supreme 

17. What was the name of Germany’s plan?

a. Mobility plan

b. Keiser Plan

c. Brusilov Plan

d. Schlieffen Plan

- What did the above plan entail?

- Invade France, take Paris. Then go to Russia, who will take longer to mobilize. Then  invade Russia and take Moscow. 

- The Germans go through Belgium to get to France, which drags Britain into the war 18. What is the battle that happened outside of Paris where troops were brought to the front by  taxi?  

a. Battle of Jutland

b. Battle of the Somme

c. Battle of the Marne

d. Battle of Verdun

- The above battle caused the Race to the Sea (each army trying to out-flank the other) - What type of warfare developed?

- Trench warfare

- Where was the Battle of Gallipoli?

- In the Dardanelle straights, in the Ottoman Empire

- A failure for the British navy.  

19. Why was Gallipoli a failure?

a. Poor communication

b. Lack of knowledge of the territory

c. Rise of Ottoman nationalism to protect the empire

d. All of the above

WWI: Industrial War

- Who invented the Early Machine Gun and what was it called?

- Hiram Maxim (Maxim Gun)

- How did soldiers adapt to trench warfare?

- machine guns, periscope rifles, helmets, gas masks,  

- What is the 8 step “Pattern” of trench warfare? 

1. Build up stockpiles of men and ammunition

2. Assess the morale of the enemy

3. Carefully plan an assault

4. Bombard the enemy

5. Cease bombardment

6. Send infantry in to capture enemy trenches

7. Send cavalry through hole in line by infantry and artillery

8. Change objective when it doesn’t work.  

Battles of 1916 

- Jutland 

- Climactic sea battle between the British and Germans (a draw)

- Out of this comes the Chantilly Agreement: between all Entente Powers for a combined  offensive against the Germans.  

- Verdun 

- Posterchild for trench warfare battles

- A 10 month long battle with nearly 1 million casualties

- Brusilov Offensive

- A Russian offensive on the Eastern Front against the Germans

- Nothing changes.  

- Somme 

- An attempt by the British to draw the Germans away from Verdun

- They fired 1.5 million artillery shells, but the British still lost 100,000 men.  

What comes of these terrible battles?

- Women take up work roles to fill where men are dying in war, and leaving for duty - Artists try to interpret what is happening in this horrible war

- Irony and Sarcasm develops to soften the brevity of the situation.  

WWI: Technological War

20. What was a pre-existing technology developed more in WWI?

a. Chemical Weapons

b. Mining under armies

c. Camouflage

d. Aviation

- What was believed to be the way of the future in warfare?

- aviation (currently used for just reconnaissance)

- Why was Chlorine gas and Mustard gas used?

- to sink into the trenches and kill soldiers in a location that the enemy could enter and  begin to take the trench.  

21. What two things have a dramatic effect on warfare?

a. The wireless radio

b. Tanks

c. Camouflage

d. Small Unit tactics

- The Germans used one of the above frequently, by using fire power to maneuver.  - What is one of the most important technologies used in the war?

- Submarine warfare 

- Sinking of the Lusitania brings America into the war, boosting Ally Morale and  winning the war.  

The War is over November 11, 1918!

1919: Peace?

22. What were the major subjects of Woodrow Wilson’s 14 points of surrender? a. Preventing a war from happening again by getting rid of secret treaties b. National self determination

c. Creation of the league of nations

d. All of the Above

- Lots of nationalism develops during this time and many independent nations were formed.  23. The name of the treaty that Germany had to sign admitting full responsibility for the war.  a. Treaty of Versailles

b. Paris peace treaty

c. Chantilly treaty

d. Geneva Accords

- Where were troubles arising again around the globe?

- Middle East

- India (Amritsar massacre)

- Ireland (disagreement between Northern and Southern Ireland on whether to be part of  the UK or independent leads to revolution)

- Why are the Germans so down in the dumps? 

- Germany has to repay France 55 billion dollars, displeased with their new government  the Weimar republic, has no economy and no morale.  

- League of Nations becomes meaningless

24. What led to global naval disarmament?

a. Geneva Naval Conference

b. League of Nations

c. Washington Naval Conference

d. London Naval Conference

- the above conference created a system of ratio requirements for ships

- What three things still linger after the war?

- Territorial Aspirations

- Violent populations

- Imperialism

Russian Revolution

What type of slavery binds people to the land in Early 20th century Russia? - Serfdom

25. Who can be blamed for the degeneration of the leadership of the Czar in Russia? a. Nicholas II

b. Lenin

c. Churchill

d. Rasputin  

26. What were the names two revolutions in Russia?

a. February Revolution

b. March Revolution

c. October Revolution  

d. September Revolution

- The first one occurred why and what happened?

- Riots over not having food and distrust in the Czar

- Culminated in the storming of the Winter Palace, Czar abdicates the throne and a  National Assembly is created

- What happened in the second revolution?

- A group of radical Soviets called the Bolsheviks seizes power (Led by Lenin) - They stage a coup and take control of the government.

- Other nations respond and the Russian Civil War breaks out.  

- Britain, USA, and others get involved to fight the Bolsheviks in a bloody conflict - What was Red Scare?

- An effort by Western powers to prevent the spread of communism to their own  countries. (Fear of color red that represents communism)

27. What two things come out of the Red Scare?

a. A more aggressive surveillance state

b. Nuclear development

c. Collaboration between political groups that are anti-communist

d. A return to capitalism in Russia

- What is the name of Lenin’s economic policy in 1921?

- NEP ( New Economic Policy)  

Mass Culture

- Distinctive form of popular culture that developed in the immediate post WWI era that used  new technologies to reach an entire population and consolidate their sense of having a single  culture.  

28. What two technologies took hold after WWI?

a. Radio

b. Air travel

c. Television

d. Movies

-One of the above became the center of the home, giving a nationwide collective experience of  the world.  

- The second brought old ideas into a new culture such as racism and klans (The movie: The  Birth of a Nation did this)

-What is a way that mass marketing took off?

- Through advertising, by making people want the things that were made in America.  - Many goods were exported.

- Cigarettes take off in the Post-war era.

- Mass Marketing through politics also became popular.  

- Ex: FDR and Fireside chats  

- Technology is used to benefit governments to reach people directly and even spread  propaganda.

- What was seen as the bridge in the gap of world problems and separation? - Aviation, especially the crossing of the Atlantic by Charles Lindburgh.  - Even brings about the era of Art-deco design.  

- What thing brought about the idea of celebrity in this nationwide phenomena? - Sports, spread by mass communication and advanced by Mass culture.

Question Answers:

1) a/c 2) b 3) d 4) b/c 5) d 6) b 7) d 8) d 9) a 10) a 11) c 12) d 13) b 14) a/b 15) d 16) d 17) d  18) c 19) d 20) d 21) b/d 22) d 23) a 24) c 25) d 26) a/c 27) a/c 28) a/d

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