SOC 204 Midterm Study Guide
SOC 204 Midterm Study Guide SOC 204
Popular in Intro Sociology
Popular in Social Science
verified elite notetaker
This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Scott Morrison on Friday April 24, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 204 at University of Oregon taught by Dr. C.J. Pascoe in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 739 views. For similar materials see Intro Sociology in Social Science at University of Oregon.
Reviews for SOC 204 Midterm Study Guide
Good In-depth Study Guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 04/24/15
SOC 204 Midterm Study Guide Some Important Folks to Keep in Mind Simmel number of people in group affects group behavior dyad triad small group party large group Cooley Looking Glass Self you develop and shape yourself based on how you imagine other people perceive and judge you This is how we develop our selfregard Mead improved upon the looking glass self He believed that signi cant others also help us develop the self through socialization DuBois Double consciousness black people follow the same social norms as white people but in addition to this they follow an additional set of cautious norms like keeping their hands out of their pockets while shopping that ensure that they won t be mistaken for a criminal due to racial prejudice They are conscious of TWO sets of norms Goffman Dramaturgy every social situation has an actor and an audience we all perform as our ideal self and breaking social norms messes up your performance Garfinkel Ethnomethodology Breaching experiments break social rules in order to find out more about them Marx Con ict Theory inequality 9 con ict 9 social change Comte and Martineau Social Physics the original sociology sociological imagination Durkheim Functionalism everyone plays different unequal roles inequality is necessary for society to function Weber Interpretive Theory reality is only real because everyone agrees on it shared personal values create culture Anomie drastic social changes and the absence of agreedupon norms leads to suicide What is Sociology The study of human life groups and societies how societies form how societies change how societies die out how society affects the individual how the individual affects society Sociology is a large umbrellaterm for many different areas of study eg the sociologies of sports of gender etc Individuals are dramatically shaped by the society around them even though we like to think that each person is fully autonomous Sociologies all share a set of methods Surveys Interviews Ethnography Content Analysis more on methods later Social Institutions A social institution is a complex group of interdependent positions that collectively perform a role in society These roles reproduce themselves over time The existence of a social institution relies on many things changing just one thing like the name does not change the whole institution to the point where it is regarded as a fully different institution Many characteristics must be changed in order to do so Social Structures Patterned relationships between institutions social groups and individuals Invisible rulespattems that govern our everyday actions What Makes Sociology Different from Other Disciplines Anthropology biologicalarcheological focus the what what did this culture eat Sociology more focused on the why why did this culture eat that History focuses on speci c cases and events Sociology analyzes the nature of society based on speci c cases and events Psychology focuses investigating the mind of the individuals Sociology focuses on the interaction of the individual with society and society with the individual Economics examines human motivation in terms of money assumes all humans are completely rational everyone wants to optimize everyone wants the best deal Sociology takes into account the irrationality of human nature Not everyone is rational and there are reasons why Politics examines power relations state relations legal structure etc Political science is experimental and statistical like sociology these two overlap quite a bit Biography Public Issues History Private Troubles Sociology The Sociological Imagination Aka the sociological lens this is a way of looking at the world in a way that allows us to see the societal reasoning behind our everyday actions In class Pascoe showed us a clip from The Devil Wears Prada in which Anne Hathaway gets grilled by Meryl Streep Hathaway39s character did not autonomously pick a cerulean sweater to wear many events in the history of fashion led to the color cerulean being shown on the runway in high class fashion and eventually in department stores Hathaway did not just pick a sweater many other things happened in the fashion industry that enabled and led her to do so How was the sociological imagination developed Social Physics the original sociology developed by August Comte and Harriet Martineau Comte in a time when God was the reason for everything including social dynamics recognized that society was changing The enlightenment era led to lots of people examining the scienti c reasoning behind the world around them which led Comte to examine the reasoning behind societal change Comte argued that secular morals could exist and that religion would soon fall behind science as the explanation for how the world works Comte wanted to apply the scienti c method to the social world he called this way of thinking positivism Martineau a journalist was the rst to translate Comte into English this brought the new ideas of sociology to Englishspeaking countries Social Physics 9 Con ict Theory Functionalism and Interpretive Theory After Comte the eld of sociology evolved into these three groups Conflict Theory Karl Marx Marx called sociology historical materialism Marx believed that social change was driven by economic inequality it resulted from periodic uprisings of the poor proletariat against the rich bourgeoisie He believed that personal values did not matter in history only economic turmoil would bring social change History is the con ict of rich vs poor Marx believed that religion politics etc were part of society s superstructure this superstructure was designed by the bourgeoisie to bene t the bourgeoisie and it could be changed only by revolution Functionalism Emile Durkheim The polar opposite of con ict theory functionalism is the idea that everyone in society must play their role whether rich or poor and that if these roles are not being played society cannot function People in highstatus jobs are there because they had to compete to get there this competition results in only the most quali ed people holding highstatus positions People in lowstatus jobs are necessary in order for a society to have its basic needs met if all farmers became surgeons we would not have any vegetables in grocery stores and we would all have to grow our own Functionalism centers around how people of different social statuses work together to create a functioning society Functioning societies according to Durkheim cannot be made without inherent inequality contrary to what Marx wanted there will always be rich and there will always be poor Inequality is an inherent part of society Interpretive Theory Max Weber Weber criticized Marx for overlooking personal values in the study of sociology Personal values are what create culture a culture is a group of people who share the same personal values The economy material and who possesses the material is not as important as the meanings of that material Durkheim also introduced the concept of Anomie He argued that suicide has social factors along with personal he argued that separation from society causes suicide Anomie refers to the outofplace feeling that one experiences when drastic sudden changes to one39s environment are made these drastic changes are the cause of suicide The Chicago School The first American sociology hub the Chicago School attracted many great thinkers to teach and research the methods of sociology Among the thinkers present were WEB DuBois Jane Addams Charles Horton Cooley and George Herbert Mead Chicago School Thinkers Cooley Mead and Wirth and WEB DuBois Jane Addams Cooley Mead and Wirth were interested in the lives and societal problems of people living in the inner city These three are considered the main thinkers of the Chicago school WEB DuBois and Jane Addams who contributed just as much are often written off due to race and gender bias DuBois Double Consciousness Addams did tremendous research work for the Chicago School with poor people community studies journalism Not given much credit due to her gender Cooley Mead the social self more on this later Wirth division of labor in densely populated areas divides society Symbolic Interactionism From the Chicago School arose symbolic interactionism the idea that people behave based on what others deem to be true Meanings and definitions are created through interactions between individuals More on Functionalism Durkheim Durkheim focused on what held society together when labor was so strongly divided high division of labor means highly specialized jobs that tend to push groups of people apart rather than everyone hunting and gathering for instance He believed that culture a shared system of values norms and beliefs was the glue that held society in place Culture centers around totemic symbols or sacred symbols sacred can refer to secular objects like the Duck mascot Puddles Everyone loves Puddles Another example would be the American ag To disrespect the American ag is considered profane the opposite of sacred People unite around preserving the sacred and denouncing the profane Collective Effervescence Gathering around sacred things and engaging in group activities e g a football game Activities such as this bring society together Anomie A state of normlessness when the social norms of the situation you are in are not known to you Anomie is a big threat to society with enough Anomie society will diminish much like postearthquake Haiti many people committed suicide due to feelings of normlessness in the newly destroyed infrastructure of the country Symbolic Interaction the interactions between individuals and how they form meanings interactions with the social world and the forming of meanings through these interactions is the basis of individuals39 motivations and reasoning behind their actions e g the only reason a stop sign actually means stop is because everyone else says it does Critical Sociology Based on inequality critical sociology examines inequality the origins of inequality why the inequality remains and how the inequality is dealt with and perpetuated in everyday life e g feminism Macrotheorv Microtheorv and Midrange Theory Macrotheory sociological theory involving broad sweeping concepts and phenomena that span across large populations or countries examples include symbolic interactionism when applied to huge populations functionalism and con ict theory Microtheory sociological theory involving interactions between individuals eg bathroom etiquette Symbolic interactionism can be microtheory when applied to small groups of individual people MidRange Theory Big concepts that often make themselves evident in both large and small groups of people critical sociology like feminism tends to give a lot of examples of both large and small groups of people being affected Socialization and Social Construction Socialization is based largely off of symbolic interactionism For instance a cockroach Do you step on it or do you cook and eat it If you step on it you have been socialized to believe bugs are gross If you cook and eat it you have been socialized to believe bugs are delicious and nutritious Two very different socially derived meanings and both are correct in different parts of the world Intersubjectivity Things are true only as long as we agree they are In America we agree not to eat dogs because we agree that we love dogs Reality can only be produced by people agreeing that something is true When reality is challenged by disagreement people get very upset Is the dress black and blue or white and gold Look this up if you don39t know what I mean very interesting Lots of people angry over just a dress It39s not just a dress reality was challenged Socialization The process by which humans learn the norms rules and expectations culture of society by being immersed in that society Alternatively how we learn to be functioning members of society Norms The unstated implicit rules of everyday life Norms are shared and agreed upon among groups of people Norms govern our behavior Norms are enforced by positive and negative sanctions rewards and punishments The Three Levels of Social Norms Folkways Mores and Laws Folkways The gentlest of norms these include mild rules such as no elbows on the table no standing on tables at a fancy restaurant or no sampling from bulk bins If violated you may be scolded or made fun of Mores MOREays More severe than folkways these include deeper societal symbolism Desecrating the American flag would be a violation of a more Violation of mores results in responses of anger sometimes violence or casting out of society a negative sanction Laws The harshest of norms Not only backed up by social sanctions but by government sanctions Punishment can be as severe as the death penalty Norms are learned through socialization The Three Tiers of Socialization Primary Secondary and Alternative Primary The lowest level e g children learning not to lick everything or not to announce when they need to use the restroom or if they have just done so in an inappropriate place Secondary Built on a foundation of primary socialization secondary socialization involves learning to function in speci c roles includes things such as learning how to use fancy cutlery or how to give a political speech Alternative The hardest form of socialization alternative socialization occurs when a person39s present socialization is broken down entirely and they are resocialized from the ground up can often be seen in total institutions like the military Agents of Socialization who socializes us Who teaches us the norms Family Peers 9 just as in uential as family School Mass Media 9 often does more harm than good anorexia nervosa mass consumerism etc Socialization can produce inequality Concerted Cultivation The process of middleclass parental socialization of children The child39s time is structured and regulated the child is pushed to participate and practice in as many extracurricular activities as possible in order to maximize potential reproduces the uppermiddle class Expensive to do Natural Development The process of workingclass socialization of children The parents do not structure the child39s free time Often the child simply spends time with friends The Products of Socialization The Self 1 Me Significant Other Generalized Other The Self your personality the separation of you from other people The self is stable and unchanging It is produced through socialization I the active impulsive portion of the self The I only exists when it is doing something I drank too much last night Me The portion of the self that judges the I and has emotional responses to the actions taken by the I I took a bad picture and that makes me feel ugly Significant Other Any loved one A child39s rst socialization often comes from significant others such as parents and other close family members Generalized Other The general public throughout socialization we learn an expectation of what the generalized other expects from us The generalized other expects simple things from us not to punch people not to pee on people39s feet The generalized other also expects larger things like devotion to a god or enthusiastic patriotism Sometimes the expectations of the significant other con ict with those of the generalized other this leads to significant distress in a person Cooley and Mead Chicago School were the first to theorize the self They believed that the self develops out of social interaction Cooley developed the Looking Glass Self you develop and shape yourself based on how you imagine other people perceive and judge you This is how we develop our self regard Children use imaginary friends as a sort of practice for the looking glass self they don39t have a lot of people to speculate that kind of feedback from so they pretend Children in a sense can socialize themselves to an extent Mead improved upon the looking glass self He believed that significant others also help us learn in this way They help us develop a sense of societal norms in little gentle tidbits while we are still young without throwing us into it full force This is how we form our conception of the generalized other The Three Forms of Symbolic Interaction Role Theory Dramaturgv and Ethnomethodology Role Theory Roles are facets of the self e g father son baseball player etc Society functions correctly when everyone plays all their roles correctly Roles are enactments of a particular social status Social Status a position in society There are three types of statuses Ascribed Status a natural status you were born with like race Achieved Status a status that you have achieved like a PhD Master Status The status by which you most deeply identify typically the status off of which most people base their interactions with you Nonmaster statuses are called auxiliary statuses Role Con ict when a person s different roles create con icting demands Role Strain when a single one of a person s roles creates con icting demands Dramaturgy Erving Goffman theorized that social interactions can be analyzed like a theatrical production there is a frontstage and a backstage to every relationship The presentation of the Self depends on whether we are frontstage or backstage we may share different information and treat people differently depending on to whom we are speaking With every interaction there is an actor and an audience The actor is trying to get the audience to be convinced of their performance or their presentation of their ideal Self Face the positive interpretation of your Self that you want people to buy into Losing face occurs when the Self is presented poorly it is embarrassing to lose face Losing face disrupts the show the actor makes a mistake Social interaction stops when this happens which Goffman believed to be the worst thing that could happen Because it is so uncomfortable to lose face people typically try to ensure that no one does so we cover for each other so that social interaction does not stop Ethnomethodologv Irving Gar nkel built on Goffman s insights He performed breaching experiments experiments in which a person would break social norms in order to better define those norms Garfinkel theorized that we all agree on the rules of a particular social situation When these rules are broken people become upset When social norms are broken to a large enough extent our reality must be called into question questioning reality can be very unsettling and can make people angry Groups and Networks Ossification The process by which a person s roles shape and create the Self The experience of one role can undermine previous experiences of other roles thereby changing the Self This often occurs in college when students slowly begin to disagree with their parents beliefs about the world Reference Groups the group real or imaginary who is used as a frame of reference by a social actor Reference groups in uence the self they can change the personality If no one in your reference group can connect you to some way of becoming a particular self e g rockstar surgeon etc then you cannot become that new self Primary Groups groups with relationships that are longlasting and noninterchangeable like family Limited number of members people can t spontaneously join and leave Face to face interactions Primary groups don t exist for a particular purpose or goal Secondary Groups groups that exist for a particular purpose instrumental Relationships are short and interchangeable Members can join or leave InGroups the more powerful or popular group High social status OutGroups the less powerful marginalized group not necessarily smaller Low social status Groups are important because they are capable of exercising supraindividual control over individuals like how everyone in the Stanford Prison experiment somehow forgot that they weren t actually in a prison the group controlled each member and pressured them to behave as if they were in a real prison The Self the personality is produced through groups Georg Simmel Simmel invstigated the size of groups and how the number of members affects the behavior of individuals What can we know just from the size of a group Dyad a group of two people One possible relationship Must have symmetrical effort on both sides of the group The most unstable type of group because when one member leaves the group ceases to exist Both members are completely dependent on the other and there are no secrets Triad a group of three people At three members the group now holds more power than the individual The group can still exist if one member leaves There can be secrets because if person B eats person A s chocolate person A can t be sure if it was person B or person C who ate it The three roles of the triad Mediator negotiates between other two members when there is a con ict between them Tertius Gaudens Latin for the third who celebrates benefits unintentionally from con ict between other two members Divide et Impera Latin for divide and conquer benefits intentionally from actively instigating con ict between other two members The larger the group the more possible relationships and the more complex the group becomes Small groups Face to face interaction Unifocal always No formal roles No hierarchy Party Multifocal No hierarchy No formal roles No tumtaking of speakers Large Group Can be unifocal or multifocal at any time Strong hierarchy and formal roles Networks a set of relationships held together by ties between individuals UnipleX ties a simple tie A direct relationship between you and another person Multiplex tie a complex tie An indirect relationship involving friendsoffriendsoffriends that connects you to another person Narrative the sum of the stories embedded in a particular tie Embeddedness the degree to which ties are enforced through indirect connections Strength of Weak Tie Hypothesis Weak ties will get you more resources than strong ones Structural Hole a gap between two groups with complementary resources that could benefit from a closer connection with one another Weak ties bridge structural holes A more diverse social network is more beneficial in terms of resources People who bridge structural holes in order to diversify their network are able to quickly move up the social ladder Social Capitol the information knowledge of people and things and the connections that allow people to enter gain power in or leverage a group Developed when structural holes are bridged Social capitol of a society decreases when people don t help each other out Network Analysis Similar people cluster together by level of happiness health etc Network Effects things that happen in a part of a network that spread to other parts like STDs Emotions can travel through networks sad people make other people sad Inequality can also travel if you only associate with lower class people you don t have a way of obtaining the resources of upper class people Inequality is reproduced through clustered social networks The Ethics and Methods of Sociological Research Sociology has a standard set of methods used to answer sociological questions Sociological Research Quantitative information that can be converted into a numerical form like a hard science Can be used to determine how one variable affects another Typical quantitative methods include surveys opinion polls census data Qualitative information that cannot be translated into numerical form meanings that people attach to their actions Typical qualitative methods include interViews ethnography Mixed Method Research mixing qualitative and quantitative research with each other This often leads to a more wellsupported study Deductive reasoning hypothesis 9 observations to explain hypothesis tends to be quantitative e g you think that increased alcohol consumption will lead to an increase in car accidents You then do a study and observe a correlation between the two Inductive reasoning observations 9 hypothesis to explain observations tends to be qualitative e g you notice that depression is positively correlated with number of car accidents This must be because depression makes people drink more which increases the amount of drunk driving thereby increasing the number of car accidents To remember the difference between deductive and inductive remember that you are a good sociologist If someone doubts yo research they will say 403933Lvlnj atr dd i K W56 U lr Maui quotW HWS W44 Because you are a good sociologist you can say Correlation vs Causality Correlation two things change at the same time and at the same rate They vary in proportion to one another Causation One thing causes another thing Much more difficult to prove than correlation requires much more experimentation and analysis Correlation is NOT the same as causality Independent Variable The variable that is to be manipulated in the experiment The values of this variable are known before the experiment Dependent Variable The variable that is to be measured in the experiment The values of this variable are not known before the experiment Moderating Variable Variables that actively interfere moderating variables cause the independent variable to affect the dependent variable Mediating Variable Explain but do not affect the IVDV relationship Control any variable that is held constant throughout the experiment Time Order The order in which things happen in a sequence of events this is relevant to proving causality because if thing A happens after thing B then thing A cannot possibly cause thing B In order to prove causality two variables must have correlation correct time order alternative explanations what else could explain the relationship How to do Good Research Operationalization Strictly de ne the variables If variables aren t de ned how can you know that you are accurately measuring what you are trying to measure Validity Accuracy Ensuring that your experiment measures what you intend to measure Reliability Precision The same results are achieved if the experiment is done a second time Generalizability The results of a sample also apply to a large population Experimenter Effects The presence of a researcher can change the behavior of a subject for instance a researcher looking to study nosepicking isn t going to get accurate results if they sit alone in a room staring at a person and waiting for them to pick their nose Re exivity Taking your position as a researcher seriously and weighing over how you could be affecting your results and how you should be reporting them The ability to research a community and report your results acting as a voice for the community is a position of power and it should not be taken lightly Feminist Methodology How do power relationships affect study results How does personal bias e g sexism on part of the researcher sway the results of a study Using language or conducting research that excludes whole groups of populations like women for instance leaves massive chunks of populations untested leaving the researcher with results that are true and consistent for only part of a population Feminist methodology seeks to examine sociology in the sense that women can t be accurately studied by studying men and guessing about women based on what is known about men Three basic principles of feminist methodology treat women s experiences as legitimate sources of legitimate data participate in sociological research that leads to positive policy changes for women the researcher is just as important as the subject matter Data Collection establish research topic write hypothesis determine experiment to test hypothesis operationalize define variables for validityaccuracy collect data but how There are many aspects to take into account for proper data collection Population who are you examining Women Black women Rich women The population is the ENTIRE group of people that you want to study Sample The sample is the portion of the population that you will actually be experimenting on It is too difficult to experiment on an entire population so a small group is selected and tested to represent the population 1000 n for a healthy sample size n sample size Methods Surveys Ordered series of questions designed to get information from respondents Can be done in person electronically or by mail Researchers can ask a variety of questions but the questions can only be closedended questions with a limited set of choices pick A B or C Part of the issue with surveys is that the same question worded differently can get very different responses People respond positively to positively worded questions and negatively to negatively worded questions not allow will get more people to agree than forbid forbid is too harsh Good surveys will have a good variety of questions and very specific questions another issue with surveys is that questions can always be interpreted in multiple ways The question do you smoke has a lot of different answers and it can t necessarily be limited to yes or no do I smoke if I smoked once as a college student Are we talking about smoking cigarettes specifically The reward given to the sample can also introduce bias offering free beer in exchange for participating in a survey about drinking will only bring participants who drink Experiments Take two groups that are as similar as possible alter only one variable in only one group and compare the groups to one another Experiments tend to be more valid than surveys because experiments allow researchers to get into subconscious behaviors that can t be examined by surveys Surveys allow people to make themselves look better by giving politically correct answers people can t give politically correct results in an experiment Informed voluntary consent is needed for any experiment It can be difficult to get consent for an experiment without invalidating the experiment if people know what s really being tested it might affect the results Interviews Like surveys but with openended questions no limited set of choices respondent can give any answer Interviews have back and forth communication between the researcher and the respondent Interviews have the capability to be qualitative AND quantitative unlike surveys which are usually just quantitative Ethnography Living inside of a community observing and reporting your results Requires participant observation meaning you are actively participating in the group that you are observing Ethnography is fascinatingly capable of finding divisions in groups that externally appear to be homogenous Some issues with ethnography include power relations being a researcher and speaking for a community when that community cannot do so itself is a very powerful position and should not be taken lightly
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'