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UH / History / HIST 1381 / What is leonardo’s influence on raphael?

What is leonardo’s influence on raphael?

What is leonardo’s influence on raphael?


School: University of Houston
Department: History
Course: Art and Society: Renaissance to Modern
Professor: Rodney nevitt
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: Art, history, and ARTH
Cost: 50
Name: ARTH 1381 exam 2 study-guide.
Description: This is a study guide for exam two on Thurs. 3/30.
Uploaded: 03/25/2017
12 Pages 58 Views 8 Unlocks

Exam Two:

What is leonardo’s influence on raphael?

-end of the High Renaissance (finish PowerPoint 5)

-Raphael: he had a different personality than Leonardo &  

Michelangelo. However, you see Leonardo’s influence on Raphael—this  can be seen with how the figures are in 3 (pyramidal), which is similar  to Leonardo’s Virgin of the Rocks (1483-1490). Also, there is a hint of  sfumato*  

-Marriage of the Virgin (1504): oil on wood; painted for the chapel of  Saint Joseph in Florence.  

What kind of painting is the madonna of the meadow (1505-1506)?

-Madonna of the Meadow (1505-1506): oil on wood. Figures are  Don't forget about the age old question of How did adams win the election of 1824?

composed in 3 in subtle chiaroscuro**

- Philosophy (School of Athens) (1509-1511):  

Where is fresco located?

fresco; it is located in the Stanza della Signature

(Hall of Signatures) in Vatican City, Rome;  

commissioned by Julius II. It represents Greek  

philosophers such as Plato & Aristotle. There is a  

self-portrait of Raphael on the right. Michelangelo  

(or Heraclitus… it is vague as who the man is) is  

shown in the middle left in a melancholy***  

manner. Overall, it shows how the High  

Renaissance was about increasing monuentary figures.  

*sfumato: smoky, vague, blurred

**chiaroscuro: bright & dark If you want to learn more check out What is the hieroglyphic symbol for pharaoh?

***In the Renaissance, melancholy was associated with genius.

-What is Mannerism? 

-from “maniera” (manner) & “grazia” (grace)… and now to the modern term Mannerism.  -An extension of the period of the High Renaissance in mid-16th century Italy.

-represents a weird rejection of many things from the High Renaissance as well as an intensification of things that were already present. However, it is NOT anti-Renaissance

-instead of beauty & realism, now we have hyperrealism/ beautification (ex: porcelain  skin)… also very erotic. Additionally, there is a presence of: bright, contrasting, elongated  figures, & visual complexity

-the meaning of many Mannerist artworks were ambiguous If you want to learn more check out How do you calculate consumption spending?

-Agnolo Bronzino: from Florence, Italy

-Venus, Cupid, Folly, and Time (1546): oil on wood. It was  

commissioned by the head of the Medici family & given to the  

King. The meaning of the painting is ambiguous.  

-Jacopo da Pontormo: also Florentine  

-Entombment of Christ (1525-1528): oil on wood; altarpiece for a  We also discuss several other topics like Why is supply inelastic in the short run?
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church in Florence. It depicts disciples around the body of Christ  

after he is taken down from the cross, and the Virgin Mary in  

blue. Note that here, it is a religious subject, but it is in the  

same style as other Mannerist paintings.

-Parmigianlno: from Italy If you want to learn more check out What are the characteristics of possessive?

-Madonna of the Long Neck (1535-1540): oil on wood; altarpiece.  

Another religious subject. Note the mannerist tendency to  

idealize (the hyper-elegance… ex: texture of the shirt).  

-Key History of Artwork at this time: 

-figures in central Italian paintings = crisply defined & contouring of figures but now  Venetian figures = a softer touch

-Venetian painters were first to favor/pick up oil as a medium

-Venetian paintings were ‘poetic’… acting like poetry & paintings were seen as paintings  

-Disegno means design of a painting (ex: posing; arrangement of figures). Mostly the  foundation of art for central Italians (in Florence) and Norther Europeans.  

-Colorito means color and it was the strong point for Venetians… rick & luminous colors -landscape in the 16th century appears now

-Giovanni Bellini: Venetian artist; teacher to two others (Giorgione  

& Titian)  

-Madonna and Child with Saints (San Zaccharia Altarpiece 1505):  

oil on wood transferred to canvas.

It is a Sacra Conversazione = Sacred Conversion of grouping; an  

altarpiece style of figures in a semicircle conversing

-Giorgione: a Venetian artist  

-The Tempest (1510): oil on canvas. Not clear who the man &  

mother is. This painting is a great example of how in the 16th 

century: multiple paintings were being displayed together so  

paintings seen as paintings. Thus it suggest the landscape is  

the subject of the painting and the figures are just there.

-Titan: Venetian artist who was flexible (ex: artwork was mythological, religious, etc.). He  also combined Venetian motifs with central Italian action-packed figures. His painting had  THICK pigment and was known for conveying light through color.

-Pastoral Symphony (1508-1511): oil on canvas; an  

independent picture. Subject = landscape view of 2 males,  

2 females, & an individual with a bagpipe in the background.  

Males: 1 is elegant & 1 is peasant-like (a familiar look from  

pastoral poems). Pastoral Poets had an erotic/love theme.  

Also, it shows the Villa theme developing in the  


-Assumption of the Virgin (1515-1518): oil on wood; altarpiece.  

Iconography = Virgin Mary heading to heaven on cloud & disciples  

below (it became a common theme). Here Titian merges heroism  

with Venetian color (rich & luminous colors).  

-Pesaro Madonna (1519-1526): oil on canvas; side-aisle ???? ???? ????

altarpiece. Pesaro is a member of a family that the painting was  

dedicated to. The diagonally arranged figures create a dynamic  


-Venus of Urbino (1536-1538): oil on canvas; doesn’t  

necessarily represent Venus (the goddess of love); owned  

by the Duke (not necessarily commissioned by him).

-Titan and Palma Giovane: Later in Titan’s career.  

Palma was a younger pupil. Late style in Titian’s career  

is sketchy… however, the tradition of rough painting  

had a long legend after Titian.

-Pieta (1570-1576): oil on canvas. Iconography is  

religious… after crucifixion with Mary Magdalene  

(usually depicted with long hair) on the left.  

-Moving on to 16th century art in northern europe: 

-In 16th century Northern Europe, there is a contact with Italian Renaissance…  figures are classical  

Matthias Grunewald: German painter.  

Isenheim Altarpiece (1510-15): oil on wood.  

Represent the altarpiece when it is closed, open  

(second position) & open (third position),  

reespectively. The theme is cruxifiction; all

figures are super realistic.

????Central Image: Left: Saint Sebastian (may be in  

controposto stancs);Middle: depicts Virgin Mary,  

St. John the Baptist (although he died before the  

cruxifiction) w/ the lamb; Right: Saint Anthony.

Second Position: opened on Sundays. Left: annunciation; Middle: chorus of angels playing  music w/ the Virgin and Child; Right: resurrection of Christ  

Third Position: interior is carved wood and guilded sculptures; elaborate gothic frame like  the Ghent Altarpiece. The main figure is St. Anthony and scenes from his life are depicted  on the left and right.

~~the theme of healing & suffering/sickness is the underlying messages… “connection of  the healing of body and soul” is why St. John the Baptist is there.

Albrecht Durer: merges Northern European identity w/ Italian  


Self Portrait (1500: oil on wood; an unsusual pose for a self  

portrait. Durer represents himself Christlike. He is immitating  

divine characteristics of a genius.  

Adam and Eve (1504): engraving; 1st example of printmaking. The  

outline is in a copper plate w/ burin.

Melancolia I (1514): engraving; thought there were many types of  

Melancolia and this depicts Melonchalia I.

Four Apostles (1526): oil painting; Durer supported Lutheranism; it  

represents religious figures; displayed in the town hall of Nuremberg so  it had a civil context (commission from the government of Nuremberg).  

Hieronymus Bosch: a Netherlandish painter; we don’t know much about him

Garden of Earthly Delights (1505-1510): oil painting; a triptych; a large altarpiece (shown  open below); depicts a landscape view w/ little figures & imaginary motifs. Thus, there is  no clear iconic image & this is why it couldn’t really function as an altarpiece… it was in an  

art collection (not in a church because ideologically, it was created for an audience that  collects artwork).

Left: represents Adam &  

Eve/ Garden of Eden

Middle: depicts many  

strange things such as  

enlarged song birds  

Right: shows scene of hell

Joachim Patenir: a local painter & almost all his work  

revolved around landscape  

Landscape with St. Jerome (1520-1524): oil painting; NOT an  

altarpiece; it was a private collection of art.  

-Pieter Aertsen: known for still life & genre painting  

(paintings of everyday life)

Butcher’s Stall (1551): a still life painting of food; the idea  

of gluttony & idea of giving to the poor & salvation…. Mary &  

the Christ Child in the background  

-Pieter Bruegel: painted landscapes, human activities & peasant servants  

Netherlandish Proverb (1559): it shows his understanding of  

human nature throught many proverbs  

Hunters in the Snow (1565): one of many paintings that  

showed seasonal changes across several months. Recall that  

this tradition was from the Book of Hours

-Italy & Spain in the Baroque: 

-refers to European art from 1600 to 1750

-In contrast to the simple, rational style in the Renaissance, Baroque artwork had  dramatic, exaggerated features and elaborate ornaments. Baroque artwork was irregular  and unequal… no rules of proportion.  

-Annlabale Carracci: Italian painter; his gallery was in the  

Palazzo Farnese in Rome, Italy.  

Loves of the Gods (1597-1601): frescos on a curved vault;  

known as quadro riportato = ceiling design where paint scenes  

are arranged in panels that resemble framed pictures. It  

depicts mythological scenes in chiaroscuro light.  

Caravaggio: Italian painter. His work had tenebrism =  

a shadowy manner/ contrast of light and dark. Many  

painters followed his naturalism and drama. However,  

the impact of Caravaggio is short lived in Rome.

Calling of St. Matthew (1597-1601): oil on canvas; in  

the Contarelli chapel. There is naturalism in the  

religious painting; the light focuses on the tax  


Conversion of St. Paul (1601): oil painting; another religious  

painting; located in the Cerasi Chapel. St. John the Baptist is in  

the foreground, and his blood forms Caravaggio’s signature.  

Artemisia Gentileschi: a female Italian painter; her favorite  

theme was heroic women; like Caravaggio, had tenebrism in her  


Judith Slaying Holofernes (1614-1620): oil on canvas; the  

dramatic lighting is similar to Caravaggio’s.  

Self Portrait of as the Allegory of Painting (1630): oil on canvas; the  way she paints herself resembles a text called “Iconologia”, which  describes how human appearances should be depicted.  

-Guido Reni: Italian painter;  

artwork is in a much more  

classical style (brighter colors)  

unlike paintings above.  

Aurora (1613-1614): a ceiling  

fresco in Casino Rospigliosi in  

Rome. He saw it as a quadro  


-Gianlorenzo Bernini: Italian  

sculptor & painter

Interior of Cornaro Chapel in Rome

(1645-1652): sculptures carved out  

of marble with rods arranged behind  

the figures ???? Ecstasy of Saint  

Theresa zoomed in shows the  

Saint’s lifelike emotions.  

St. Peter’s with Bernini’s plaza (1656-1667): Vatican  

City, Rome. The colonnade (rows of columns) set a  

welcoming environment through which worshippers  

enter St. Peter’s plaza.  

Giovanni Battista Gaulli: Italian artist who worked with  

Bernini early in his career.

Triumph of the Name of Jesus (1676-1679): it was a ceiling  

fresco. It can be described by the adjective “baroque”, which  

was a jewelers term referring to irregular shapes.

Jose de Ribera: a Spanish painter; influenced by Caravaggio.  

Martyrdom of Saint Phillip (1639): oil on canvas. Caravaggio’s  influence here is direct--- notice the drama & realism of the  figures. Scenes of Martyrdom in Spain were popular during  Counter-Reformation.

Diego Velazquez: Spanish painter; influenced by Caravaggio.  Notice that his paintings had delicate paint pigments that  seemed to flicker (unlike Titian a century earlier, whose paint  pigments were THICK).  

Water Carrier of Seville (1619): oil on canvas. Seville was the  southwest part of Spain. It depicts the selling of flavored  water in a cellar. Iconography = the “genre of painting” of  images from the market/ selling food… still life. His painting  seems to have a deeper significance;

Las Meninas (1656): oil on canvas; also known as the Maids of  Honor; a late painting by Velasquez. It is an unusual painting  because it is a group painting on a large canvas. It depicts  Princess Margarita (the child in the center) & the rest of the  court. Additionally, it shows King Philip IV & the queen are  reflected in the mirror. It is possible that he got the mirror  idea from Jan Van Eyck’s painting of Arnolfini and his wife.

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