-end of the High Renaissance (finish PowerPoint 5)
-Raphael: he had a different personality than Leonardo &
Michelangelo. However, you see Leonardo’s influence on Raphael—this can be seen with how the figures are in 3 (pyramidal), which is similar to Leonardo’s Virgin of the Rocks (1483-1490). Also, there is a hint of sfumato*
-Marriage of the Virgin (1504): oil on wood; painted for the chapel of Saint Joseph in Florence.
-Madonna of the Meadow (1505-1506): oil on wood. Figures are Don't forget about the age old question of How did adams win the election of 1824?
composed in 3 in subtle chiaroscuro**
- Philosophy (School of Athens) (1509-1511):
fresco; it is located in the Stanza della Signature
(Hall of Signatures) in Vatican City, Rome;
commissioned by Julius II. It represents Greek
philosophers such as Plato & Aristotle. There is a
self-portrait of Raphael on the right. Michelangelo
(or Heraclitus… it is vague as who the man is) is
shown in the middle left in a melancholy***
manner. Overall, it shows how the High
Renaissance was about increasing monuentary figures.
*sfumato: smoky, vague, blurred
**chiaroscuro: bright & dark If you want to learn more check out What is the hieroglyphic symbol for pharaoh?
***In the Renaissance, melancholy was associated with genius.
-What is Mannerism?
-from “maniera” (manner) & “grazia” (grace)… and now to the modern term Mannerism. -An extension of the period of the High Renaissance in mid-16th century Italy.
-represents a weird rejection of many things from the High Renaissance as well as an intensification of things that were already present. However, it is NOT anti-Renaissance
-instead of beauty & realism, now we have hyperrealism/ beautification (ex: porcelain skin)… also very erotic. Additionally, there is a presence of: bright, contrasting, elongated figures, & visual complexity
-the meaning of many Mannerist artworks were ambiguous If you want to learn more check out How do you calculate consumption spending?
-Agnolo Bronzino: from Florence, Italy
-Venus, Cupid, Folly, and Time (1546): oil on wood. It was
commissioned by the head of the Medici family & given to the
King. The meaning of the painting is ambiguous.
-Jacopo da Pontormo: also Florentine
-Entombment of Christ (1525-1528): oil on wood; altarpiece for a We also discuss several other topics like Why is supply inelastic in the short run?
We also discuss several other topics like What is a risk and what is a hazard?
church in Florence. It depicts disciples around the body of Christ
after he is taken down from the cross, and the Virgin Mary in
blue. Note that here, it is a religious subject, but it is in the
same style as other Mannerist paintings.
-Parmigianlno: from Italy If you want to learn more check out What are the characteristics of possessive?
-Madonna of the Long Neck (1535-1540): oil on wood; altarpiece.
Another religious subject. Note the mannerist tendency to
idealize (the hyper-elegance… ex: texture of the shirt).
-Key History of Artwork at this time:
-figures in central Italian paintings = crisply defined & contouring of figures but now Venetian figures = a softer touch
-Venetian painters were first to favor/pick up oil as a medium
-Venetian paintings were ‘poetic’… acting like poetry & paintings were seen as paintings
-Disegno means design of a painting (ex: posing; arrangement of figures). Mostly the foundation of art for central Italians (in Florence) and Norther Europeans.
-Colorito means color and it was the strong point for Venetians… rick & luminous colors -landscape in the 16th century appears now
-Giovanni Bellini: Venetian artist; teacher to two others (Giorgione
-Madonna and Child with Saints (San Zaccharia Altarpiece 1505):
oil on wood transferred to canvas.
It is a Sacra Conversazione = Sacred Conversion of grouping; an
altarpiece style of figures in a semicircle conversing
-Giorgione: a Venetian artist
-The Tempest (1510): oil on canvas. Not clear who the man &
mother is. This painting is a great example of how in the 16th
century: multiple paintings were being displayed together so
paintings seen as paintings. Thus it suggest the landscape is
the subject of the painting and the figures are just there.
-Titan: Venetian artist who was flexible (ex: artwork was mythological, religious, etc.). He also combined Venetian motifs with central Italian action-packed figures. His painting had THICK pigment and was known for conveying light through color.
-Pastoral Symphony (1508-1511): oil on canvas; an
independent picture. Subject = landscape view of 2 males,
2 females, & an individual with a bagpipe in the background.
Males: 1 is elegant & 1 is peasant-like (a familiar look from
pastoral poems). Pastoral Poets had an erotic/love theme.
Also, it shows the Villa theme developing in the
-Assumption of the Virgin (1515-1518): oil on wood; altarpiece.
Iconography = Virgin Mary heading to heaven on cloud & disciples
below (it became a common theme). Here Titian merges heroism
with Venetian color (rich & luminous colors).
-Pesaro Madonna (1519-1526): oil on canvas; side-aisle ???? ???? ????
altarpiece. Pesaro is a member of a family that the painting was
dedicated to. The diagonally arranged figures create a dynamic
-Venus of Urbino (1536-1538): oil on canvas; doesn’t
necessarily represent Venus (the goddess of love); owned
by the Duke (not necessarily commissioned by him).
-Titan and Palma Giovane: Later in Titan’s career.
Palma was a younger pupil. Late style in Titian’s career
is sketchy… however, the tradition of rough painting
had a long legend after Titian.
-Pieta (1570-1576): oil on canvas. Iconography is
religious… after crucifixion with Mary Magdalene
(usually depicted with long hair) on the left.
-Moving on to 16th century art in northern europe:
-In 16th century Northern Europe, there is a contact with Italian Renaissance… figures are classical
Matthias Grunewald: German painter.
Isenheim Altarpiece (1510-15): oil on wood.
Represent the altarpiece when it is closed, open
(second position) & open (third position),
reespectively. The theme is cruxifiction; all
figures are super realistic.
????Central Image: Left: Saint Sebastian (may be in
controposto stancs);Middle: depicts Virgin Mary,
St. John the Baptist (although he died before the
cruxifiction) w/ the lamb; Right: Saint Anthony.
Second Position: opened on Sundays. Left: annunciation; Middle: chorus of angels playing music w/ the Virgin and Child; Right: resurrection of Christ
Third Position: interior is carved wood and guilded sculptures; elaborate gothic frame like the Ghent Altarpiece. The main figure is St. Anthony and scenes from his life are depicted on the left and right.
~~the theme of healing & suffering/sickness is the underlying messages… “connection of the healing of body and soul” is why St. John the Baptist is there.
Albrecht Durer: merges Northern European identity w/ Italian
Self Portrait (1500: oil on wood; an unsusual pose for a self
portrait. Durer represents himself Christlike. He is immitating
divine characteristics of a genius.
Adam and Eve (1504): engraving; 1st example of printmaking. The
outline is in a copper plate w/ burin.
Melancolia I (1514): engraving; thought there were many types of
Melancolia and this depicts Melonchalia I.
Four Apostles (1526): oil painting; Durer supported Lutheranism; it
represents religious figures; displayed in the town hall of Nuremberg so it had a civil context (commission from the government of Nuremberg).
Hieronymus Bosch: a Netherlandish painter; we don’t know much about him
Garden of Earthly Delights (1505-1510): oil painting; a triptych; a large altarpiece (shown open below); depicts a landscape view w/ little figures & imaginary motifs. Thus, there is no clear iconic image & this is why it couldn’t really function as an altarpiece… it was in an
art collection (not in a church because ideologically, it was created for an audience that collects artwork).
Left: represents Adam &
Eve/ Garden of Eden
Middle: depicts many
strange things such as
enlarged song birds
Right: shows scene of hell
Joachim Patenir: a local painter & almost all his work
revolved around landscape
Landscape with St. Jerome (1520-1524): oil painting; NOT an
altarpiece; it was a private collection of art.
-Pieter Aertsen: known for still life & genre painting
(paintings of everyday life)
Butcher’s Stall (1551): a still life painting of food; the idea
of gluttony & idea of giving to the poor & salvation…. Mary &
the Christ Child in the background
-Pieter Bruegel: painted landscapes, human activities & peasant servants
Netherlandish Proverb (1559): it shows his understanding of
human nature throught many proverbs
Hunters in the Snow (1565): one of many paintings that
showed seasonal changes across several months. Recall that
this tradition was from the Book of Hours
-Italy & Spain in the Baroque:
-refers to European art from 1600 to 1750
-In contrast to the simple, rational style in the Renaissance, Baroque artwork had dramatic, exaggerated features and elaborate ornaments. Baroque artwork was irregular and unequal… no rules of proportion.
-Annlabale Carracci: Italian painter; his gallery was in the
Palazzo Farnese in Rome, Italy.
Loves of the Gods (1597-1601): frescos on a curved vault;
known as quadro riportato = ceiling design where paint scenes
are arranged in panels that resemble framed pictures. It
depicts mythological scenes in chiaroscuro light.
Caravaggio: Italian painter. His work had tenebrism =
a shadowy manner/ contrast of light and dark. Many
painters followed his naturalism and drama. However,
the impact of Caravaggio is short lived in Rome.
Calling of St. Matthew (1597-1601): oil on canvas; in
the Contarelli chapel. There is naturalism in the
religious painting; the light focuses on the tax
Conversion of St. Paul (1601): oil painting; another religious
painting; located in the Cerasi Chapel. St. John the Baptist is in
the foreground, and his blood forms Caravaggio’s signature.
Artemisia Gentileschi: a female Italian painter; her favorite
theme was heroic women; like Caravaggio, had tenebrism in her
Judith Slaying Holofernes (1614-1620): oil on canvas; the
dramatic lighting is similar to Caravaggio’s.
Self Portrait of as the Allegory of Painting (1630): oil on canvas; the way she paints herself resembles a text called “Iconologia”, which describes how human appearances should be depicted.
-Guido Reni: Italian painter;
artwork is in a much more
classical style (brighter colors)
unlike paintings above.
Aurora (1613-1614): a ceiling
fresco in Casino Rospigliosi in
Rome. He saw it as a quadro
-Gianlorenzo Bernini: Italian
sculptor & painter
Interior of Cornaro Chapel in Rome
(1645-1652): sculptures carved out
of marble with rods arranged behind
the figures ???? Ecstasy of Saint
Theresa zoomed in shows the
Saint’s lifelike emotions.
St. Peter’s with Bernini’s plaza (1656-1667): Vatican
City, Rome. The colonnade (rows of columns) set a
welcoming environment through which worshippers
enter St. Peter’s plaza.
Giovanni Battista Gaulli: Italian artist who worked with
Bernini early in his career.
Triumph of the Name of Jesus (1676-1679): it was a ceiling
fresco. It can be described by the adjective “baroque”, which
was a jewelers term referring to irregular shapes.
Jose de Ribera: a Spanish painter; influenced by Caravaggio.
Martyrdom of Saint Phillip (1639): oil on canvas. Caravaggio’s influence here is direct--- notice the drama & realism of the figures. Scenes of Martyrdom in Spain were popular during Counter-Reformation.
Diego Velazquez: Spanish painter; influenced by Caravaggio. Notice that his paintings had delicate paint pigments that seemed to flicker (unlike Titian a century earlier, whose paint pigments were THICK).
Water Carrier of Seville (1619): oil on canvas. Seville was the southwest part of Spain. It depicts the selling of flavored water in a cellar. Iconography = the “genre of painting” of images from the market/ selling food… still life. His painting seems to have a deeper significance;
Las Meninas (1656): oil on canvas; also known as the Maids of Honor; a late painting by Velasquez. It is an unusual painting because it is a group painting on a large canvas. It depicts Princess Margarita (the child in the center) & the rest of the court. Additionally, it shows King Philip IV & the queen are reflected in the mirror. It is possible that he got the mirror idea from Jan Van Eyck’s painting of Arnolfini and his wife.