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VANDY / Neuroscience / NSC 2201 / What is the function of the spinal cord in the human body?

What is the function of the spinal cord in the human body?

What is the function of the spinal cord in the human body?

Description

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li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_l4qp9agolt03-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_l4qp9agolt03-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_1xjd1np2vqyo-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_1xjd1np2vqyo-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_1xjd1np2vqyo-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_1xjd1np2vqyo-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_rmeitris58g3-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_8anhayieva47-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_8anhayieva47-1}ol.lst-kix_1xjd1np2vqyo-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_1xjd1np2vqyo-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_1xjd1np2vqyo-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_1xjd1np2vqyo-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_1xjd1np2vqyo-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_rmeitris58g3-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_rmeitris58g3-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_rmeitris58g3-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_rmeitris58g3-3 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_8anhayieva47-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_8anhayieva47-6 0}.lst-kix_f0gka4ukhqfo-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_i6l8533i9mrb-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_i6l8533i9mrb-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_i6l8533i9mrb-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_f0gka4ukhqfo-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_i6l8533i9mrb-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_y6y09a8b8785-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_y6y09a8b8785-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_dbxiiwgxzobv-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_i6l8533i9mrb-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_i6l8533i9mrb-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_y6y09a8b8785-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_y6y09a8b8785-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_dbxiiwgxzobv-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_y6y09a8b8785-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_dbxiiwgxzobv-0 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_i6l8533i9mrb-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_i6l8533i9mrb-3 0}.lst-kix_dbxiiwgxzobv-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_dbxiiwgxzobv-6 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_8anhayieva47-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_8anhayieva47-5 0}.lst-kix_y6y09a8b8785-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_ytx8e4vu0w0r-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_i6l8533i9mrb-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_i6l8533i9mrb-3}.lst-kix_y3983bu56xk6-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_y3983bu56xk6-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_y6y09a8b8785-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_ytx8e4vu0w0r-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_ytx8e4vu0w0r-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_y6y09a8b8785-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_dbxiiwgxzobv-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_dbxiiwgxzobv-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_i6l8533i9mrb-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_8anhayieva47-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_8anhayieva47-3}ol.lst-kix_i6l8533i9mrb-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_i6l8533i9mrb-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_dbxiiwgxzobv-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_ytx8e4vu0w0r-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_l4qp9agolt03-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_y3983bu56xk6-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_y3983bu56xk6-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_ytx8e4vu0w0r-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_ytx8e4vu0w0r-6 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_seu7xnw1ius1-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ytx8e4vu0w0r-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_ytx8e4vu0w0r-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_seu7xnw1ius1-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_y3983bu56xk6-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_y3983bu56xk6-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_l4qp9agolt03-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_l4qp9agolt03-6 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_seu7xnw1ius1-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_l4qp9agolt03-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_y3983bu56xk6-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_l4qp9agolt03-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_dbxiiwgxzobv-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_i6l8533i9mrb-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_i6l8533i9mrb-4 0}ul.lst-kix_seu7xnw1ius1-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_y3983bu56xk6-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_seu7xnw1ius1-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_seu7xnw1ius1-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ytx8e4vu0w0r-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_y6y09a8b8785-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_seu7xnw1ius1-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_l4qp9agolt03-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_seu7xnw1ius1-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_y3983bu56xk6-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_l4qp9agolt03-0 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_seu7xnw1ius1-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_4l9xw3ezd38g-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_p6lggwe3ind4-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_p6lggwe3ind4-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_1xjd1np2vqyo-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_1xjd1np2vqyo-8}.lst-kix_4l9xw3ezd38g-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_8anhayieva47-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_8anhayieva47-4 0}.lst-kix_i6l8533i9mrb-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_i6l8533i9mrb-7}.lst-kix_1xjd1np2vqyo-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_1xjd1np2vqyo-7}ol.lst-kix_i6l8533i9mrb-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_i6l8533i9mrb-8 0}.lst-kix_4l9xw3ezd38g-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_i6l8533i9mrb-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_i6l8533i9mrb-6}.lst-kix_l4qp9agolt03-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_i6l8533i9mrb-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_i6l8533i9mrb-5 0}.lst-kix_8anhayieva47-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_8anhayieva47-6}.lst-kix_i6l8533i9mrb-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_i6l8533i9mrb-8}ul.lst-kix_y6y09a8b8785-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_y6y09a8b8785-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_y6y09a8b8785-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_y6y09a8b8785-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_y6y09a8b8785-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_y6y09a8b8785-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_y6y09a8b8785-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_y6y09a8b8785-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_y6y09a8b8785-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_8anhayieva47-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_8anhayieva47-4}.lst-kix_4l9xw3ezd38g-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_4l9xw3ezd38g-6 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_1xjd1np2vqyo-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_1xjd1np2vqyo-2 0}ul.lst-kix_ytx8e4vu0w0r-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_l0r9jjju9vhz-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_i6l8533i9mrb-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_i6l8533i9mrb-1,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_i6l8533i9mrb-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_i6l8533i9mrb-3,decimal) ". "}ul.lst-kix_ytx8e4vu0w0r-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ytx8e4vu0w0r-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ytx8e4vu0w0r-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ytx8e4vu0w0r-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ytx8e4vu0w0r-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_f0gka4ukhqfo-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_i6l8533i9mrb-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_i6l8533i9mrb-6 0}ul.lst-kix_ytx8e4vu0w0r-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_rmeitris58g3-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_ytx8e4vu0w0r-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_l0r9jjju9vhz-3 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_ytx8e4vu0w0r-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_8anhayieva47-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_8anhayieva47-2,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_i6l8533i9mrb-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_i6l8533i9mrb-5,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_ix7l7e39fmkb-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_ix7l7e39fmkb-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_1xjd1np2vqyo-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_1xjd1np2vqyo-0 0}.lst-kix_rmeitris58g3-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_l0r9jjju9vhz-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_8anhayieva47-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_8anhayieva47-0,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_f0gka4ukhqfo-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_f0gka4ukhqfo-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_i6l8533i9mrb-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_i6l8533i9mrb-7,lower-latin) ". "}ol.lst-kix_8anhayieva47-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_8anhayieva47-2 0}.lst-kix_l0r9jjju9vhz-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_1xjd1np2vqyo-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_1xjd1np2vqyo-1 0}ol.lst-kix_8anhayieva47-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_8anhayieva47-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_8anhayieva47-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_i6l8533i9mrb-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_i6l8533i9mrb-7 0}ol.lst-kix_8anhayieva47-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_8anhayieva47-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_8anhayieva47-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_8anhayieva47-8,lower-roman) ". "}ol.lst-kix_8anhayieva47-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_8anhayieva47-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_p6lggwe3ind4-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_8anhayieva47-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_8anhayieva47-6,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_seu7xnw1ius1-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_l0r9jjju9vhz-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_8anhayieva47-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_8anhayieva47-1 0}ul.lst-kix_l0r9jjju9vhz-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_p6lggwe3ind4-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_p6lggwe3ind4-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_i6l8533i9mrb-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_i6l8533i9mrb-1}ul.lst-kix_l0r9jjju9vhz-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_l0r9jjju9vhz-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_l0r9jjju9vhz-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_8anhayieva47-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_8anhayieva47-5}ul.lst-kix_l0r9jjju9vhz-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_l0r9jjju9vhz-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_l0r9jjju9vhz-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_8anhayieva47-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_8anhayieva47-4,lower-latin) ". "}ul.lst-kix_l0r9jjju9vhz-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_1xjd1np2vqyo-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_1xjd1np2vqyo-2}ol.lst-kix_8anhayieva47-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_8anhayieva47-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_rmeitris58g3-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_rmeitris58g3-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_rmeitris58g3-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_i6l8533i9mrb-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_i6l8533i9mrb-0}ul.lst-kix_rmeitris58g3-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_rmeitris58g3-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_rmeitris58g3-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_rmeitris58g3-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_rmeitris58g3-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_rmeitris58g3-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_8anhayieva47-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_8anhayieva47-0}.lst-kix_i6l8533i9mrb-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_i6l8533i9mrb-2}ul.lst-kix_y3983bu56xk6-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_8anhayieva47-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_8anhayieva47-3 0}ul.lst-kix_y3983bu56xk6-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_y3983bu56xk6-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_y3983bu56xk6-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_y3983bu56xk6-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_y3983bu56xk6-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_y3983bu56xk6-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_y3983bu56xk6-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_1xjd1np2vqyo-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_1xjd1np2vqyo-0}ul.lst-kix_y3983bu56xk6-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_dbxiiwgxzobv-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ix7l7e39fmkb-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_dbxiiwgxzobv-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_dbxiiwgxzobv-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ix7l7e39fmkb-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_ix7l7e39fmkb-3 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_dbxiiwgxzobv-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ix7l7e39fmkb-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_ix7l7e39fmkb-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_1xjd1np2vqyo-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_1xjd1np2vqyo-0,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_1xjd1np2vqyo-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_1xjd1np2vqyo-1,lower-latin) ". "}ul.lst-kix_dbxiiwgxzobv-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_dbxiiwgxzobv-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_dbxiiwgxzobv-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_1xjd1np2vqyo-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_1xjd1np2vqyo-2,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_1xjd1np2vqyo-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_1xjd1np2vqyo-3,decimal) ". "}ul.lst-kix_dbxiiwgxzobv-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_l0r9jjju9vhz-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_dbxiiwgxzobv-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_1xjd1np2vqyo-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_1xjd1np2vqyo-6,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_1xjd1np2vqyo-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_1xjd1np2vqyo-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_1xjd1np2vqyo-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_1xjd1np2vqyo-8,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_1xjd1np2vqyo-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_1xjd1np2vqyo-4,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_1xjd1np2vqyo-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_1xjd1np2vqyo-5,lower-roman) ". "}ol.lst-kix_1xjd1np2vqyo-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_1xjd1np2vqyo-4 0}.lst-kix_8anhayieva47-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_8anhayieva47-7}ul.lst-kix_f0gka4ukhqfo-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_f0gka4ukhqfo-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_f0gka4ukhqfo-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_f0gka4ukhqfo-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_1xjd1np2vqyo-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_1xjd1np2vqyo-4}ul.lst-kix_f0gka4ukhqfo-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_f0gka4ukhqfo-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_f0gka4ukhqfo-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_f0gka4ukhqfo-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_f0gka4ukhqfo-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_1xjd1np2vqyo-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_1xjd1np2vqyo-3 0}ul.lst-kix_4l9xw3ezd38g-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_4l9xw3ezd38g-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_4l9xw3ezd38g-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_4l9xw3ezd38g-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_4l9xw3ezd38g-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_4l9xw3ezd38g-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_4l9xw3ezd38g-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_4l9xw3ezd38g-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_4l9xw3ezd38g-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_4l9xw3ezd38g-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_4l9xw3ezd38g-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_p6lggwe3ind4-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_p6lggwe3ind4-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_4l9xw3ezd38g-3 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_ix7l7e39fmkb-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ix7l7e39fmkb-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ix7l7e39fmkb-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_8anhayieva47-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_8anhayieva47-7 0}ul.lst-kix_ix7l7e39fmkb-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ix7l7e39fmkb-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ix7l7e39fmkb-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ix7l7e39fmkb-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ix7l7e39fmkb-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ix7l7e39fmkb-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_l4qp9agolt03-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_p6lggwe3ind4-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_i6l8533i9mrb-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_i6l8533i9mrb-0 0}ul.lst-kix_p6lggwe3ind4-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_p6lggwe3ind4-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_1xjd1np2vqyo-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_1xjd1np2vqyo-6}ol.lst-kix_1xjd1np2vqyo-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_1xjd1np2vqyo-8 0}ul.lst-kix_p6lggwe3ind4-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_i6l8533i9mrb-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_i6l8533i9mrb-5}ul.lst-kix_p6lggwe3ind4-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_i6l8533i9mrb-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_i6l8533i9mrb-2 0}ul.lst-kix_p6lggwe3ind4-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_p6lggwe3ind4-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_p6lggwe3ind4-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_p6lggwe3ind4-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_1xjd1np2vqyo-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_1xjd1np2vqyo-5 0}.lst-kix_4l9xw3ezd38g-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_i6l8533i9mrb-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_i6l8533i9mrb-2,lower-roman) ". 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750 MusclesDon't forget about the age old question of What is the internal energy associated with the phase of a system?

We also discuss several other topics like Name the major concepts and themes of marketing.

03/02

EXAM #3

Key Terms

If you want to learn more check out Explain how marginal thinking works.

Control of Movement

  1. Brain’s command and control of the motor programs in the spinal cord
  2. The spinal cord’s command and control of coordinated muscle contraction

Don't forget about the age old question of What is the meaning of nitriles?

Muscle Force Control:

  1. Frequency of action potentials in a motor neuron
  2. Size of action potentials
  3. Number of motor units recruited

We also discuss several other topics like What are the three parts of a polynucleotide?

Golgi Tendon Organs:

  • Proprioceptive organ that senses muscle tension and force.

We also discuss several other topics like What is the frequency of allele a if allele a has a frequency of 0.78?

Stretch Reflex:

  • Mediated by Golgi tendon organs
  • Only single-synapse reflex in the whole body
  • The alpha motor neuron innervates the same muscle that the la sensory information comes from
  • Involves afferent and alpha motor neuron.

Motor Unit:

  • Composed of an alpha motor neuron and all of the muscle fibers its axon innervates.

Motor Neuron Pool:

  • Composed of all the alpha motor neurons innervating a single muscle.

Size principle: motor units are recruited in [fine control for light weight] strict order from smallest to largest

Fast Motor Units

  • Fast
  • White Muscle Fibers
  • Rapidly fatiguing
  • Fewer mitochondria
  • Anaerobic metabolism
  • Slow
  • Red muscle fibers
  • Long endurance- like the wing muscles of migrating birds
  • Many mitochondria - an aerobic metabolism

  • Our ratio of red to white is largely inherited.

Development Study

  • If a slow (red) motor unit is induced to fire like a fast (white) motor unit, the muscle (red) will turn to white fibers
  • Alpha Motor Neuron Type (above); Muscle Type (below)

  • ∝ muscle synapses directly
  • Muscle B is originally Fast, but when it is connected to a slow alpha motor neuron it becomes a slow-like muscle.

Alpha Motor neurons use acetylcholine (ACh)

EPSP (excitatory postsynaptic potential) is generated when acetylcholine arrives at the surface of a muscle cell at a neuromuscular junction.

Intrafusal Fibers:

  • Located in muscle spindles
  • Innervated by gamma motor neurons, Very Weak

Rigor Mortis: stiffening after death because ATP stops synthesizing and it takes ATP to break the actin-myosin bonds.

More synapses = smarter

        Form new synapses by novel experiences

  • Sir Charles Sherrington 1932

Nobel Prize for realizing spinal cord control of reflexes

SKELETAL MUSCLE

Flexor

        Makes the angle more acute

Extensor

        Makes the angle get closer to 180o

  • Most developed at mid-lifetime
  • Weak at birth and at death

Flexing bulges muscle up as the angle decreases and the muscle shortens. If the sun’s out, guns out.

  • Muscle fiber is innervated by ventral horn motor neurons
  • Muscle cells are nucleated individually when muscle cells fuse to form muscle fiber, then they are multinucleated cells
  • The spine is finished developing in the 1st trimester
  • Pain synapses at the motor neuron long before arriving at the brain

Innervation Ratio:

Always 1 alpha motor neuron to any number of muscle fibers

  • Eye muscle is 1:3 for extra fine control

Isometric Movement:

Not actually moving, just holding posture

Isotonic Movement:

Gives flexion or extension movement. If a flexor contracts, the extensor must relax.

“Going for the Gold!” (heavy weight)

  • Recruit big guys and little guys in the motor neuron pool
  • Fire all motor neurons at maximum frequency

FYI: lie detectors work by measuring resting muscle tone, which is greater under stress.

STAGES: Excitation of Muscle

  1. Alpha motor neuron fires an AP
  2. ACh released at NMJ (NeuroMuscular Junction)
  3. ACh binds to nicotinic receptors on the muscle
  4. Nicotinic channels open
  5. Na+ enters through sarcolemma, causing an EPP (End Plate Potential)
  6. EPP depolarizes the sarcolemma enough to cause and AP (Action Potential)

Depolarization moves Ca++ plug:

  1. AP sweeps down sarcolemma, through the T tubules
  2. Voltage-gated Ca++ channels in the T tubules open
  3. Ca++ spills out of the sarcoplasmic reticulum

No summation required, just 1 AP

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