Early U.S. History: Study Guide for Test 2
There will be five possible terms on the exam. You will choose three. They will be worth 15 points each. Give the “who,” “what,” “where,” “when,” and “why it matters” for each one.
Marbury v. Madison: Before the Marbury v. Madison case and after Jefferson was elected president in 1800, Federalists decided to appoint several judges to the judicial branch so that they would still have some power. Marbury, however, was not given his commission before Jefferson and Madison enter office. Because of this, vice president Madison refused to give Marbury his commission. Marbury then decides to sue Madison, and he case goes to Judge Marshall of the supreme court. Marshal, who is a Federalist like Marbury, is conflicted as to what to do about the case. He knows if he orders Madison to give Marbury the commission, Madison and Jefferson can refuse, making the judicial branch seem as if it has no power. He also doesn’t want to tell Marbury to forget about getting the commission because he supports the Federalist’s cause. In the end, Marshal decided to declare Marbury’s commission unconstitutional. By doing so, he establishes the power and importance of the judicial branch by enacting the judicial review, which the Federalist would have power over.
Bacon’s Rebellion: Bacon’s Rebellion was a rebellion that happened in the 1770s. The rebellion began after a group of Native Americans raided an English settlement. The settlers went to the governor and asked for permission to kill the Indians that attacked their settlement. The governor refused, saying they needed the natives for trade purposes. Berkley, the governor, says he will build more forts to protect the farmers from the natives. Berkley builds the forts, but does not use them to protect the farmers like he promised. In result, Bacon, a second son, formed an opposition party against Berkley. Bacon tells his followers that they should attack the natives after some of his tenants are killed by the natives. Bacon asks Berkley for a commission to attack the natives once more, and Berkley refuses. Bacon and his men attack the Native Americans anyway. Bacon is then accused of treason, so he attacks Jamestown, which eventually results in his death. Bacon’s Rebellion is important because it resulted in the power of the elects being greatly reduced by Britain.
We also discuss several other topics like three wires meet at a junction. wire 1 has a current of 0.40 a into the junction. the current of wire 2 is 0.69 a out of the junction.
George Whitfield: George Whitfield was an Awakening preacher who was the celebrity of the evangelical world at the time. He toured up and down the east coast, sharing his sermons and messages with the crowd that gathered to hear him. He even had some of his messages publicized in print. Whitfield was important because he was a leader in the awakening movement who changed the way religion was practiced and viewed. Because of Whitfield’s sermons, people travelled great distances to witness his preaching. They were also able to read his sermons in newspapers. As a result, more revivals were inspired along the east coast.
French and Indian War: The French and Indian War, beginning in 1754 and lasting to 1763. France and Britain both had colonies in North America. The British wanted control over the Ohio River Valley so that they could trade with the Native Americans that lived there. The French built forts in the Ohio River Valley so that they could protect their trade with the natives. In 1754, George Washington led an attack on one of these French forts, but was defeated, signifying the beginning of the war. Afterward, Britain declared war on France to determine who would control the Ohio area. The Native Americans sided with the French because while they traded with them frequently, the French did not permanently settle on their land. At the end of the war, Britain emerged victorious. This war was important because it led to the British gaining the Ohio River Valley territory and because it would lead to further tensions with Native Americans. We also discuss several other topics like which of the following outer planets is known as the “windy” planet?
Paxton Boys: Paxton was a township, and their community had been raided by natives on several occasions. The people of Paxton were outraged by the raids. In result, the Paxton boys formed a small militia in order to fight the natives who were attacking them. The Paxton boys can’t find the natives who raided their town, but they do come across some natives who were Christian converts who were living in a Europeanstyle settlement. The Paxton boys kill several of the natives and burn their town. The surviving natives were able to escape to a Pennsylvania workhouse, but the Paxton boys then set the workhouse on fire. When the natives try to escape the burning workhouse, the Paxton boys kill them. The Paton Boys were an important group because they represented the internal conflicts and divisions that were in Pennsylvania during 1763.
Stamp Act: The Stamp Act of 1765 placed a tax on all documents by the British Parliament. The act included legal documents such as wills, deeds, playing cards, marriage licenses, etc. The purpose of this act was to bring as many colonists under taxation as possible. The Stamp Act was important because it resulted in several united responses from the colonists. The colonists believed the British parliament did not have the right to tax them without first representing them. To fight parliament, the colonists formed the Stamp Act Congress, which united the colonists and persuaded them to not pay their taxes and petitioned Parliament to change their laws of taxation. Don't forget about the age old question of mis 200
Common Sense: Common Sense was a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine in 1775. This pamphlet advocated for the independence of the American colonies from England. Written in a very persuasive way, Paine’s pamphlet clearly outlined the moral injustices done by Britain and empowered the common colonists to fight back. When the pamphlet was published, it was an immediate sensation and rallied the colonists to fight against Britain and the British Parliament.
Battle of Saratoga: In 1777, the Battle of Saratoga was a major turning point in the Revolutionary War. Before this battle, American troops had been very disorganized in their placement and support of troops. The Americans tried to gain the support of the French for wthe war, but the French were reluctant to offer their support because they believed the Americans didn’t have the means to win the war. When the Battle of Saratoga occurred, American troops defeated a British army, not German Hessians which the British had been sending to fight in their place. By defeating a British army, America gained the support of the French, who saw that the Americans were serious about winning the war and could actually win the war. We also discuss several other topics like a en 475 textbook notes
Elizabeth Freeman: Elizabeth Freeman was a slave who, in 1780, upon hearing a reading of the Massachusetts Bill of Rights and the phrase “all men are created equal” in the Declaration of Independence, decided to sue her master in order to gain her freedom. Elizabeth won her case and gained her freedom, giving herself the last name Freeman because of her newly won freedom. Elizabeth Freedom believed, according the Mass. Bill of Rights, her enslavement was unlawful and unconstitutional. By being the first African American woman to win her freedom, she inspired and challenged other slaves to take initiative and win their own freedoms.
Freeman’s case also challenged the “slave question” and what slavery meant under the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence.
Northwest Ordinance: The Northwest Ordinance of 1785 was a was enacted by Congress in order to establish an orderly way of making new states out of the Northwest Territory. The Northwest Ordinance was important because, according to the ordinance, slavery would be outlawed slavery in the Northwest Territory and a basis of free labor would be formed. Public education opportunities would also be offered to women and African Americans for one of the first times.
Threefifths Compromise: The threefifths compromise was the solution to the question of representation of slaves in southern states. According to the compromise, a slave would only count as threefifths of a person, population wise, when determining how many representatives a state would have. This compromise is important because it gave the south more representation in congress, the house of representatives, and the electoral college. If the compromise had not been enacted, the southern states would not have had as much representation. If you want to learn more check out addressing competition and driving growth
Louisiana Purchase: Thomas Jefferson, president at the time, wanted to purchase New Orleans so that Western states could ship goods down the Mississippi River. New Orleans originally belonged to the Spanish, and Jefferson knew he had no hopes in obtaining the land from them. After the French, under Napoleon’s rule, acquire New Orleans in the hope of recapturing Haiti. When Napoleon failed to obtain Haiti, American diplomats travelled to France in order to negotiate the buying of the land. Not only did Napoleon offer then the New Orleans area, but also much of the territory surrounding it. The American diplomats immediately accept the offer in 1803. However, the Louisiana Purchase faced Federalists opposition because the Federalists believed it was unconstitutional to buy land. Though Jefferson agreed it was unconstitutional, he believed his constitutional power to negotiate the buying of land and treaties was satisfactory enough to purchase the land. Don't forget about the age old question of emu-097
There will be two possible essay questions on the test. You will choose one to answer. It will be worth 55 points.
Essay #1: How did the American colonists move from protest, to revolution, to independence? Be sure to highlight the reasons for division between the colonies and Britain, how British attributes and policies toward the colonies changed from 1763 onward, and the ways in which the Americans responded and the reasons why they responded the way that they did.
1st Body Paragraph: Discuss the protests of the colonists. The Paxton Boys would be a good example to use. You may also discuss the anger of the people who did not receive any land after the French and Indian War. You may discuss the acts that were passed by the British Parliament and the revolts that followed them. For example, discuss the Boston Tea Party, the Continental Congress, and the hanging of the effigy of the stamp master).
2nd Body paragraph: Discuss the revolution. Talk about the divisions between the actual war. Discuss how unorganized the American army was at first (how they weren’t funded and how Joseph Plum Martin viewed the war). You could also discuss the Battle of Saratoga and the Battle of Yorktown, as both were very important to the winning of the revolution.
3rd Body Paragraph: Discuss independence. Talk about how the colonists wanted to set up their government after they win the revolution. Discuss how they did not want to make their new government like the British one they had just escaped from. Discuss the importance of the Declaration of Independence, Federalists, and Antifederalists.
Essay #2: What were the major issues regarding the federalist Constitution? Be sure to address the differences between Federalists and Republicans (antifederalists), the arguments for or against the Bill of Rights, the question of slavery and the representation in the Constitution.
1st Body Paragraph: Discuss the differences between Federalists and Republicans. For example, Federalists supported the constitution and wanted a strong central government. The Republicans opposed the constitution and wanted a central government that did not have a lot of power because they feared it would become a monarch like Britain.
2nd Body paragraph: Discuss the arguments for and against the Bill of Rights. The Republicans wanted the Bill of Rights because they believe it will protect the individual rights of citizens and is necessary for the country to prosper. Federalists did not believe the Bill of Rights was necessary because they believed the Constitution was a limiting document that only granted the federal government certain rights. They did not want to list out the rights the constitution can protect because they feared it would imply certain rights citizens did or did not have.
3rd Body Paragraph: Discuss the slave question and the representation given by the Constitution. For this, you may want to talk about the threefifths compromise and how it allowed slaves to count as only threefifths as a person and boosted the south’s representation in congress, the house of representatives, and the electoral college. You may also want to talk about Elizabeth Freeman and how she sued her master to gain freedom. You can discuss how the slave question was avoided though the declaration states “all men are created equal.”
Essay #3: What were the differences between the Federalists and the Democratic Republicans? Be sure to describe the differences in their view of the government, the nature of society, and towards foreign affairs, particularly British and the French affairs.
1st Body Paragraph: Discuss the differences in the view of government between the Federalists and DemocraticRepublicans. Discuss how Federalists wanted a strong central government and how the DemocraticRepublicans wanted a government that was not as strong. Discuss the opposition of the Constitution by the DemocraticRepublicans and how they wanted to add the Bill of Rights.
2nd Body Paragraph: Discuss how Federalists wanted a stable commerce, whereas DemocraticRepublicans, who were farmers and frontiersmen, did not see the need of a stable form of money that could be used everywhere. DemocraticRepublicans, though they don’t want a national commerce, want national armies. You could also discuss how the slave trade was reinvigorated in the south because of the invention of the cotton gin and how northerners didn’t really question the slavery because they thought it would fade away.
3rd Body Paragraph: Discuss how Federalists and DemocraticRepublicans differed in their views on foreign affairs. Talk about how the Federalists believed they should stay out of dealings with the French during the French Revolution because they believe it will influence Americans (the French were killing the elite in their society). The DemocraticRepublicans sympathized with the French because they felt as though they had gone through something similar when they fought the British in the revolution.