Exam 3 Review Guide
• Label the flower! (sepals, petals, stamen, anther, filament, stigma, style, ovary, pistil) • Define fertilization: fusion of egg + sperm to produce zygote – fertilized. Occurs through pollination
• Define pollination: transfer of pollen from stamen to stigma of same or distant flower of same species
• Describe double fertilization: it is a unique process. Sperm #1 fuses with egg to produce zygote. Sperm #2 fuses with polar cell in embryonic sac to produce endosperm • What is endosperm?: nutritive material for embryonic plant
• Describe the different types of pollination:
wind (~19.6%); inefficient but common; produce copious amounts of pollen; lack scent/nectar; inconspicuous flowers
water: (~0.4%); rate; submerged flowers
organisms (~80%); insects are the most common pollinators; brightly colored flowers and strong odors to attract pollinators; animals (hummingbirds: red flowers; bats: large sturdy flowers)
• What is a fruit and what is its function: fruits develop from a fertilized ovary. Their function is to protect developing seeds, seed dispersal (squirrels ‘plant’ nuts, animals ingest and ‘move’ the seeds)
• Define the parts of the fruit:
endocarp: innermost layer, surround seeds
mesocarp: middle layer, usually fleshy
exocarp: outermost layer, “skin”
• Be able to pick out an example of all of the different types of fruit
pome: apples and pears
drupe: (pit, seed within) peaches and plums
berry: tomatoes and blueberries
hesperidium: citrus fruits (lemons, oranges, etc)
pepo: squash, melons, cucumbers, etc
multiple fruits: pineapple, mulberry
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aggregate fruits: strawberry and raspberry
• Know specific differences between Mitosis and Meiosis We also discuss several other topics like What is strontium hydroxide?
Mitosis: somatic cells; type of nuclear division resulting in 2 genetically identical daughter cells. Type of division used in growth; diploid;
Meiosis: sex cells; specialized type of nuclear division which results in 4 genetically different daughter cells with half the number of chromosomes as the mother (original) cell; haploid difference: Mitosis produces two diploid daughter cells that are genetically identical. Meiosis produces four haploid daughter cells, each daughter has a random mix of chromosomes • Know each stage of Mitosis including Interphase If you want to learn more check out What is the deindividuation?
interphase: phase of the cell cycle during which the chromosomes are uncondensed and found in the nucleus; many proteins are made; NDA replicates (1) G1 growth; (2) S synthesis; (3) G2 changes to center
Prophase: chromosomes condense into highly compacted structures, nuclear membrane begins
to break apart, spindle begins to form
Metaphase: sister chromatids aligned along a plane (metaphase plate) halfway between the poles, organized into a single row, when this alignment is complete the cell is in metaphase Anaphase: connections between the pairs of sister chromatids are broken, each chromatid is linked to one pole, spindle tubules shorten (pull chromosomes toward the poles) Telophase: chromosomes have reached their respective poles and decondense, nuclear membranes now reform to produce two separate nuclei
Cytokinesis (cell division): two nuclei are segregated into separate daughter cells, process of cytokinesis is different in animals and plants (animals – cleavage furrow constricts like a drawstring; plants – cell plate forms between two daughter cells)
• What happens in crossing over in Meiosis I, and why is it important? separates homologous chromosomes. Prophase I: chromosomes condense and bivalents form. Metaphase I: tetrads organized along metaphase plate as double row. Anaphase I: separation of chromatid pairs occurs (connections between tetrads break, each pair of chromatids migrates to one pole, other pair moves to the opposite pole). Telophase I: sister chromatids have reached their respective poles and decondense; nuclear membranes form We also discuss several other topics like What are the mental imagery tasks?
• Define autotrophs: make organic molecules from inorganic sources (green plants, algae, cyanobacteria)
• Know the photosynthesis equation (raw ingredient and products). 6CO2 + 12H2O + light energy = C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6H2O
• What are photons and how are wavelengths proportionate to the amount of energy that it contains. Photons: ?, Wavelength: shorter wavelength = higher energy
• How do pigments work (in general): pigments absorb some light energy and reflect others. Leaves are green because they reflect green wavelengths
• Label a chloroplast. ?
• What colors are the accessory pigments, what is Vitamin A: Accessory pigments: ?, Vitamin A: split a carotene pigment molecule in ½, get 2 molecules of Vit. A. Good for eyes, teeth, and bones
• What are the two reactions in photosynthesis; know what generally occurs in each (which stage is water split, which stage is water released, which stage is ATP synthesized, which stage is glucose produced, etc.).
light reaction: converts light energy into ATP, ATP used in next set of reactions to produce glucose molecules, oxygen is released into the atmosphere NEED TO KNOW STAGES calvin cycle: ATP and NADPH used to make carbohydrates. Involves a series of steps occurring in a metabolic cycle. Carbon from atmospheric CO2 is incorporated into carbohydrates We also discuss several other topics like What are the causes of the russian revolution?
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Below this point are things we walk about on Monday, so there are no concrete answers yet
• Equation for cellular respiration (raw ingredients and products). C6H12O2 + O2 = CO2 + H2O + ATP
• Know the main stages of cellular respiration: glucose metabolism: glycolysis, citric acid cycle, electron transport
• Where does cellular respiration begin and end.
• The general differences between anaerobic and aerobic respiration. • What are biofuels and biodiesel? What are some drawbacks to producing each?