Exam 3 Review Guide
• Label the flower! (sepals, petals, stamen, anther, filament, stigma, style, ovary, pistil) • Define fertilization: fusion of egg + sperm to produce zygote – fertilized. Occurs through pollination
• Define pollination: transfer of pollen from stamen to stigma of same or distant flower of same species
• Describe double fertilization: it is a unique process. Sperm #1 fuses with egg to produce zygote. Sperm #2 fuses with polar cell in embryonic sac to produce endosperm • What is endosperm?: nutritive material for embryonic plant
• Describe the different types of pollination:
wind (~19.6%); inefficient but common; produce copious amounts of pollen; lack scent/nectar; inconspicuous flowers
water: (~0.4%); rate; submerged flowers
organisms (~80%); insects are the most common pollinators; brightly colored flowers and strong odors to attract pollinators; animals (hummingbirds: red flowers; bats: large sturdy flowers)
• What is a fruit and what is its function: fruits develop from a fertilized ovary. Their function is to protect developing seeds, seed dispersal (squirrels ‘plant’ nuts, animals ingest and ‘move’ the seeds)
• Define the parts of the fruit:
endocarp: innermost layer, surround seeds
mesocarp: middle layer, usually fleshy If you want to learn more check out What is parasitism in plants?
exocarp: outermost layer, “skin”
• Be able to pick out an example of all of the different types of fruit
pome: apples and pears
drupe: (pit, seed within) peaches and plums
berry: tomatoes and blueberries
hesperidium: citrus fruits (lemons, oranges, etc)
pepo: squash, melons, cucumbers, etc
multiple fruits: pineapple, mulberry
aggregate fruits: strawberry and raspberry
• Know specific differences between Mitosis and Meiosis
Mitosis: somatic cells; type of nuclear division resulting in 2 genetically identical daughter cells. Type of division used in growth; diploid;
Meiosis: sex cells; specialized type of nuclear division which results in 4 genetically different daughter cells with half the number of chromosomes as the mother (original) cell; haploid difference: Mitosis produces two diploid daughter cells that are genetically identical. Meiosis produces four haploid daughter cells, each daughter has a random mix of chromosomes • Know each stage of Mitosis including Interphase
interphase: phase of the cell cycle during which the chromosomes are uncondensed and found in the nucleus; many proteins are made; NDA replicates (1) G1 growth; (2) S synthesis; (3) G2 changes to center
Prophase: chromosomes condense into highly compacted structures, nuclear membrane begins We also discuss several other topics like What is strontium hydroxide?
to break apart, spindle begins to form
Metaphase: sister chromatids aligned along a plane (metaphase plate) halfway between the poles, organized into a single row, when this alignment is complete the cell is in metaphase Anaphase: connections between the pairs of sister chromatids are broken, each chromatid is linked to one pole, spindle tubules shorten (pull chromosomes toward the poles) Telophase: chromosomes have reached their respective poles and decondense, nuclear membranes now reform to produce two separate nuclei
Cytokinesis (cell division): two nuclei are segregated into separate daughter cells, process of cytokinesis is different in animals and plants (animals – cleavage furrow constricts like a drawstring; plants – cell plate forms between two daughter cells)
• What happens in crossing over in Meiosis I, and why is it important? separates homologous chromosomes. Prophase I: chromosomes condense and bivalents form. Metaphase I: tetrads organized along metaphase plate as double row. Anaphase I: separation of chromatid pairs occurs (connections between tetrads break, each pair of chromatids migrates to one pole, other pair moves to the opposite pole). Telophase I: sister chromatids have reached their respective poles and decondense; nuclear membranes form We also discuss several other topics like What are the psychosexual stages?
• Define autotrophs: make organic molecules from inorganic sources (green plants, algae, cyanobacteria)
• Know the photosynthesis equation (raw ingredient and products). 6CO2 + 12H2O + light energy = C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6H2O
• What are photons and how are wavelengths proportionate to the amount of energy that it contains. Photons: ?, Wavelength: shorter wavelength = higher energy
• How do pigments work (in general): pigments absorb some light energy and reflect others. Leaves are green because they reflect green wavelengths
• Label a chloroplast. ?
• What colors are the accessory pigments, what is Vitamin A: Accessory pigments: ?, Vitamin A: split a carotene pigment molecule in ½, get 2 molecules of Vit. A. Good for eyes, teeth, and bones
• What are the two reactions in photosynthesis; know what generally occurs in each (which stage is water split, which stage is water released, which stage is ATP synthesized, which stage is glucose produced, etc.).
light reaction: converts light energy into ATP, ATP used in next set of reactions to produce glucose molecules, oxygen is released into the atmosphere NEED TO KNOW STAGES calvin cycle: ATP and NADPH used to make carbohydrates. Involves a series of steps occurring in a metabolic cycle. Carbon from atmospheric CO2 is incorporated into carbohydrates
Below this point are things we walk about on Monday, so there are no concrete answers yet If you want to learn more check out What is balint's syndrome?
Don't forget about the age old question of What are the roles of hormones?
• Equation for cellular respiration (raw ingredients and products). C6H12O2 + O2 = CO2 + H2O + ATP
• Know the main stages of cellular respiration: glucose metabolism: glycolysis, citric acid cycle, electron transport Don't forget about the age old question of What are the causes of the russian revolution?
• Where does cellular respiration begin and end.
• The general differences between anaerobic and aerobic respiration. • What are biofuels and biodiesel? What are some drawbacks to producing each?