Final Study Guide
Final Study Guide CJ 100
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Matt Owens on Friday April 24, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CJ 100 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Douglas Klutz in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 484 views. For similar materials see Intro to Criminal Justice in Criminal Justice at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 04/24/15
Matt Owens Intro To Criminal Justice 42415 Final Study Guide Corrections Corrections Refers to ALL programs services facilities and organizations responsible for the management of the accused and convicted Prisons jails probation parole halfway houses education and work release programs community service etc o Prisons and Iails only make up 30 of correctional landscape 0 70 is dominated by community corrections History of Corrections in the US Penitentiary prison An institution intended to punish criminals by isolating them from society so they can re ect on their crimes and reform o Focuses on incapacitation The Pennsylvania System Pennsylvania System Separate Confinement Criminals could best be reformed if they were placed in penitentiaries Separate Confinement solitary confinement Inmates held in isolation from other inmates All activities including craft work took place in cells and in isolation Solitary confinement would prevent further corruption inside prison Offenders would re ect on their past transgressions and repent The New York System Rival to Pennsylvania s concept of separate confinement Congregate System Prisoners were held in isolation at night but worked with other prisoners in shops during the day Prisoners worked under a rule of silence and were forbidden from even looking at each other Industrial efficiency should be the purpose of prison Contract Labor System Labor sold on a contractual basis to private employers Private employers provided the equipment and inmates made products to sell Strict discipline obedience was key Cincinnati 1870 Recidivism rate around 7080 Advocated a new design for the penitentiary system Reform should be rewarded by release Indeterminate sentencing guidelines instead of fixed sentences Where the idea of parole originated Corrections in the US Each level of government has some responsibility for corrections local state and federal State and local governments pay about 90 of the cost of all correctional activities in the nation Iail Local Prisons State Federal Prisons Federal Models of Incarceration Custodial Model Emphasizes security discipline and order assumes purpose of incapacitation deterrence or retribution o The majority of prisons conform to the custodial model Rehabilitation Model Emphasizes treatment programs drug courts Reintegration Model Emphasizes tires to family and community community corrections Federal Bureau of Prisons Created by Congress in 1930 Facilities and inmates are classified by security range Level 1 least secure camptype settings Level 5 the most secure super maxquot penitentiary at Florence Colorado ADX Florence Alcatraz of the Rockiesquot only Super max federal prison in US State Correctional Systems Forty states have created prisons that exceed maximum security super max About 20000 inmates are currently held in these super maxquot prisons California s Pelican Bay Private Prisons Response to prison and jail overcrowding and rising costs Argue that private enterprise can build and run prisons as effectively as government but at a lower cost to the taxpayers Private facilities hold approximately 6 of all state prisons and 15 of all federal prisoners Guaranteed occupancy rate Private prisons come to an area if they re promised there is a constant percentage of their prison filled Iails are used for detention and shortterm incarceration less than one year Local facilities used to detain people awaiting trial Also serve as a holding facility for social misfitsquot junkies disturbers of public order prostitutes etc The Contemporary jail Approximately 3400 jails in the US Because of constant inmate turnover correctional services are usually lacking in jails The mixture of offenders of differing ages and criminal histories is also a major problem Community Corrections Community corrections seeks to build stability and success for offenders through the community Finding employment opportunities is an important component of community corrections Based on the goal of finding the least restrictive alternativequot 0 Simpson Former football star the juicequot Elected into pro football hall of fame is 1985 actor and football star 0 Simpson Murder Trial criminal trial 1 People of the state of California v Orenthal Iames Simpson November 2nd 1994 jury sworn to verdict on October 3rd 1995 0 Simpson charged with two counts of first degree murder Murders On June 13th 1994 Nicole Brown Simpson and Ronald Goldman were found murdered outside Nicole s condo 1210am 0 and Nicole had divorced 2 years earlier Nicole stabbed multiple times in the head and neck with defense wounds on her hands Movie Detective Mark Furman was the first detective on the scene and finds a spec of blood on the bronco Splatters of blood on O Simpson s socks that were Nicole s Key Evidence History of abuse Warrant issued for arrest 0 goes on the famous car chase leaves apparent suicide note holds gun to his head Bronco had blood in it Lefthanded glove at scene of crime covered in blood Nicole Brown s house 0 Simpson s house righthanded glove covered in blood found on Bronco cocks soaked in Nicole s blood at foot of 01 s bed 0 traveled to Chicago late that same night gets called back by police left hand is injuredbleeding inconsistencies in story Evidence in his favor Blood on Nicole s nails not 01s Suspected Injuries not there EDTA in blood 9 not natural Did someone plant that quot Conclusion to the 0 Simpson Trial How the Crime Scene was Mishandled 0 Going in between the different crime scenes cross contaminations ie held dog and got into car EDTA Evidence preservative to prevent blood from blotting doesn t occur naturally was found in the socks only in the blood and some on the bronco Marc Forman Asserts his 5th amendment right to any questions about falsifying a police report planting any evidence in the case the prosecutor s star witness 0 He was also known or racial profiling and saying negative things One lead detective had all 3 blood types with him at the crime scene The jury found 0 not guilty New evidence at the civil trial says he doesn t own the Bruno Marco expensive and rare shoes But there was a newspaper picture wearing them The civil court determined he was guilty and preponderance of evidence After all of that he robbed a casino and is now in prison Casey Anthony Verdict 0 First degree murder premeditated9 not guilty 0 Child Abuse 9 not guilty 0 Aggravated man slaughter could be accidental9 not guilty 0 Providing false information to police multiple accounts 9 guilty Case 0 Took 31 days to report daughter missing 0 She was living the good lifequot during those 31 days wild party photos etc 0 She lied about so much and said she worked at Orlando studios when she didn t 0 Huge trial by media case 0 24 hour news case 0 Criminal trial must be proven beyond reasonable doubt 0 Nancy Grace 9 former prosecutor didn t like Casey Anthony I Not right that Casey Anthony isn t in jail I devil is dancingquot somewhere 0 People who were in the court screamed and yelled when she was not guilty 0 Main players in case I Casey Anthony mom I Caleigh Anthony victim I George and Cindy Anthony Casey Anthony s parents I Cindy Anthony many people thought she was trying to cover for her daughter I George Anthony tried to cover it up according to prosecution I lose Bias defense attorney I Prosecution they said that she premeditated this and killed her own child I Prosecution threw in another charge to cover all bases not smart to do 0 Press Conference I Baby s bones fount o 2 year old child is dead 0 Mother partied when child was missing 0 Dr Ian doctor in charge of autopsy O O 00 0000 808 PM I Panicked 911 call I Grandmother Cindy calls police and says child is missing June 2008 according to Cindy I Casey goes to Jacksonville for work I Takes Caleigh with her I July 15th 2008 Grandparents find Casey s car in Orlando when they re supposed to be in Jacksonville George finds bag of trash in car even though it smelled like a dead body Casey tells grandfather that baby was missing for 30 days Cindy calls 911 and Casey gets on the phone and sounds calm Casey claims that the babysitter took the baby Visit to home of nanny I When police get there nannybabysitter is gone I People think maybe the babysitter never existed I Casey Anthony threw a random name in there and she then lost her job and house all because of Casey Anthony I This fictitious nanny is suing Casey Anthony in civil court Casey is a liar She said she was an event planner at universal studios and it was a lie Casey never left Orlando the entire month that she said she was in Jacksonville All Casey talked about was new boyfriend Tons of party pictures went on the web Hundreds of people came out and searched for her October 2008 I Missing for 4 months I Vehicle was forensic tested High levels of chloroform Hair decomposition found in car Investigators believe that she s dead and at some point the dead body was in the trunk 22 year old Casey Anthony is charged with daughters murder I 1St degree murder I Child abuse I Aggravated manslaughter I 4 counts of ling to police Skeleton found could be Caleigh Anthony I Near home of Casey Anthony I Game changer Forensic evidence I Baby blanket shirt shorts and little bones found I Body of child had to have been placed out there for months I Child was just dumped in the woods 0 Child had duct tape over lower face 0 Teeth still in place and jaw still attached to skull nothing that keeps it together when you decompose o Duct tape told us it was put there before she started decomposing o No traumatic injury to skull 0 Roots growing into bone bone has to be totally decomposed before that happens Prosecution 0 Very little physical evidence 0 Delay in recovering Caylee s remains o Built Case around Casey s moral character party lifestyle liar etc o Liar murderer Casey Anthony Case Prosecution theory 0 1St Degree Murder I Premeditation o Potentially Sentenced to death 0 Aggravated manslaughter I Could be accidental o Problematic to have to very different charges Defense Theory 0 Accidental death 0 George Anthony covered up crime scene 0 Abused Casey Anthony mind control to control her to lie Mistakes by the prosecution o Overcharging I Tried to go for multiple charges 1St Degree Murder Aggravated Manslaughter I Made it a capital case with death punishment and made it too large I Must be careful with cases with little physical evidence and no official cause of death 0 Over trying I Fantasy forensics The forensic techniques were not legitimate New Evidence 0 Searched her family s computer I Looked at internet browser Internet Explorer Mozilla Firefox 0 In court they forgot to bring the Firefox internet history I In Firefox history Search for Foolproof suffocation methodsquot Then immediately logged into Casey Anthony s MySpace account 0 Could have changed the entire course of the case 0 Could have incriminated Casey Anthony Video Diary Casey s Video after criminal trial she has to serve no jail time she already served time in jail leading up to the trial 0 She decides to create video blog which really only has one entry 0 She laughs and says she s trying to figure out how to work her new computer and keeps talking about it 0 She s quotexcitedquot she ll be able to Skype and keep a video log and finally call hers Long time since she s been able to call something hers She s keeps talking about things that are hers Saying she s leaving next year Brie y mentions probation She said this has been such a blessing in so many waysquot She s talking about a dog she adopted She s like mesmerized by the camera Its quotsurrealquot how things changed since July and how things haven t changed She says things are starting to look up and change in a good way 0 She doesn t mention Caylee s death at all 00000000 0 Casey Anthony Civil Trial Criminal vs Civil Court Proof beyond a reasonable doubt vs Preponderance of evidence 0 Proof beyond a reasonable doubt that Casey Anthony was a liar I Lied about a fictitious nanny that kidnapped Kaley Anthony Zenaida FernandezGonzalez o Brought Casey Anthony to civil court Defamation term for any statement that hurts somebody s reputation Not a crime but it is a tort 0 Written Defamation Libel o Spoken Defamation Slander Missing children s firm took Anthony to Civil Court too 0 Dedicated a lot of resources to find Caylee Anthony based on Casey s lie 0 Wanted money back from her but she is broke so they didn t get anything Juvenile Crimes Most juvenile crimes are committed by young men Only about 30 of the arrestees younger than 18 are female After rising from 1988 through 1994 juveniles arrest started to decrease Theories Behind Decrease Environmental factors involving drugs especially crack cocaine Deteriorating social and economical situations recession of 1987 Age demographics History of US Juvenile System Originated in the US during the social reform period of the late 1800s Philosophy that the state shared act as a parent in advancing the interest of the child 0 The Juvenile Court Period 18991960 0 Reformers during this period wanted a separate juvenile court system that could be more exible than the adult court system 0 Banish entirely all thought of crime and punishment 0 3 Specific Elements I A separate court for dependent and neglected children I Special legal procedures that were less adversarial than those in the adult system I Separation of children from adults in all portions of the Justice System 0 The Juvenile Rights Period 19601980 0 Limited the power of the juvenile justice officials o In Re Gault 1967 Afforded juveniles many of the same de process rights as adults right to legal counsel to confront and examine accusers notices of charges etc o In Re Winship 1970 The standard of proof beyond reasonable doubt still applies to juvenile delinquency proceedings 0 Status offenders were taken out of correctional institution ie skipping school crime for kids not adults 0 The Crime Control Period 19802005 0 The public demanded a crack down on crime 0 Greater attention to repeat offenders 0 Overall a decrease in juvenile rights compared to the juvenile rights period 0 Kids Are Different 2005present o Roper V Simmons 2005 I He s the beginning of a new movement If you commit a crime under the age of 18 you cannot be sentenced to the death penalty capital punishment I Recognizes developmental differences in teens maturity impulsiveness etc I Treatment programs and laws are now being designed to treat juveniles and adults differently Classifications of Iuveniles o Delinquency Delinquents are children who have committed acts that are criminal in the adult world 0 Status Offenders Acts that are not illegal if committed by an adult only juveniles skipping school 0 Neglect A neglected child is receiving inadequate care because of some action or inaction of their parents WorldCom Scandal Murray Waldron and William Rector started LDDS Long distance phone service Bernie Ebbers Invested and eventually became CEO 1988 WorldCom merged with MCI and by 1993 it was the 4th largest company in the world From 19882002 70 mergers and acquisitions purchased 30 companies Provided investors with 573 returns WorldCom s accounting falsely reported the Line costsquot which caused the companies revenue to in ate by 1 billion
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