1. Name the three key institutions that made up the Bretton Woods system and define their roles
● International Monetary Fund (IMF) To ensure stable exchange regime and assistance to countries with balance of payment
● World bank Facilitate private investment and reconstructuring
● General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs (GATT)Trade liberalization
2. Why the Bretton Woods system break down?
● The system changed in 1971 because
○ Europe began to catch up Competitiveness of US products declined
○ East Asian miracle cause divergence from gold standard.
3. How did Bretton Woods’s institutions evolve during the postwar years? In what ways have they become obsolete or counterproductive today?( what are criticisms to IMF)
The gathering of policymakers at Bretton Woods was set up to prevent a second Great Depression from happening, in order to effectively prevent it, the IMF, World Bank, and GATT were created, years later the system changed to become more competitive since Europe began catching up. The international monetary system also went through a change, in 1971, the government announced that it would no longer convert dollars to gold at $35 a per ounce. It also announced that a 10 per cent surcharge would be imposed on import duties. This lead to high inflation, which is why I believe this system is counterproductive because in order for stagflation to end we can’t keep doing the same thing expecting it to magically get better.
4. What is Washington Consensus? Which institution uses these measures and why? ● It is a term during the late 80’s used to imply that Neoliberal policies were mainly a reflection of US interests.
Don't forget about the age old question of What is the difference between reserves and deposits?
● Their ideology was:
Liberalization – maximum possible freedom of market interactions
Stabilization – balanced state budgets, limits on government spending
Privatization – selling off public enterprises to private owners
● The institutions of IMF and the World Bank operated on these ideologies so that power could be balanced between the global capital and the state
5. Describe the three traditional approaches to IPE.
● Liberal tradition Free trade around the world is possible and the free movement of capital would shape government policies and economic actors. Order would be achieved by the “invisible hand” of competition in the global marketplace. If you want to learn more check out What are the pathways of precipitation?
● Mercantilist tradition the arena is one of interstate competition, in the world economy each state seeks to maximize their wealth. Order is achieved only through balance of power or Hegemony (similar to realism)
● Marxian tradition The world economy is a competition in which classes (capitalists and workers) and social groups are in constant conflict. Capitalists are driven by profits, and order is achieved only where they succeed in exacting the submission of all others.
6. Are you more persuaded by the Liberal, Mercantilist or Marxian tradition of IPE? Why? I believe the Mercantilist approach is the best because international freetrade seems unlikely, and while the idea of order in the economic arena is not impossible, I believe it’s much more easily achieved through balance of power than by actions of an “invisible hand”
7. Are institutions more powerful than states?
Before the 1970’s, the most powerful actor in the world’s economic arena were the intergovernmental organizations, and the weaker actors were the TNCs and the international NGO’s which were considered low politics. But this has changed because Globalization gave more power to NGOs and TNCs. As a result, the power between state and institutions shifted. Now, they are equal, high and low politics are no longer used to describe how much influence an actor has in the economic global arena. (more on page 254) We also discuss several other topics like What is the process of matched pairs design?
8. What are the three ‘new’ approaches to IPE? Which is best suited to explaining our global world?
● Social constructivism this approach pays more attention to how governments, states, and other actors construct their preferences, while highlighting the role of identities, beliefs, traditions, and values. If you want to learn more check out What are the methods of measuring unconscious minds?
● Institutionalism apply rational choice to states in their own interaction with states in order to explain international cooperation in economic affairs.
● Rational Choice explains outcomes in IPE as the result of actors’ choice which are assumed always to be rationally power or utility maximizing within given particular incentives and institutional constraints
1. Define 'feminism' and gender
○ An academic discipline grew out of feminist movements of 1960’s and 70’s. ○ The movement aims to have EQUAL political, social, and economic rights ○ The discipline aims to explain reasons for women's subordination
● Genderis socially and culturally characteristics about power, autonomy, rationality etc. It does not signify sex, which is the biological sex one is born with.
2. What is Islamic feminism?
They’re people who use the Quran to justify that men and women are equal. They use islamic categories like the notion of ijtihad. The tools can be different like linguistic methodology or historicizing, but the frame should be within Islam, not another foreign country. Don't forget about the age old question of What happens in the process of single-pass protein synthesis?
3. Name four of the six types of feminist theory covered in this chapter.
● Liberal feminism is the most commonsenselike version. It looks at the roles women play in world politics. How are women excluded from power, ask the Liberal Feminists? Liberal Feminists want the same rights men enjoy extended to women.
● Marxist/socialist feminism focuses on the international capitalist system. Marxist feminists see the oppression of women as a result of capitalism, whereas socialist feminists see both capitalism and patriarchy as the structures to be overcome. We also discuss several other topics like Fitting the product of service to one or more segments of the broad market in such a way as to set it apart from the competition is called what?
● Critical feminism applies Robert Cox’s approach but with a focus on women. Puts much emphasis on the ideas men and women attach to their relationships and where those ideas come from.
● Feminist Constructivism also focuses on ideational elements of world politics. Challenge Neorealist notions of states as unitary actors.
● Postmodernist feminists are concerned with examining how societies shape masculinity and femininity (and how these differ over time and between societies) especially through language. ● Postcolonial feminism are concerned with racial stereotypes, being especially critical of the domination of feminism by white western women.
4. What is the "myth of protection"?
● Protected/protector protection myth
● Military training is masculine
● Example: one of the reason for US invasion of Afghanistan was due to protection of “Helpless” Afghan women.
● Women are seen as helpless mothers, wives, sisters
● They may take untraditional roles in extraordinary times but they are expected to return to their traditional roles
5. Give two examples of the masculine characterization of world politics.
● Power. This is typically conceived as "powerover" in most IR theory: the ability of A to get B to do something B would not otherwise have done. But, say feminist IR theorists, this rests on the malecentered assumption that autonomy equals being free from the direct influence of others.
○ An alternative view of power is to focus on the ways in which the rules of the game are organized in advance of 'powerover'. Power is then a much broader and more significant thing altogether in feminist IR theory.
● Rationality. Realists argue that instrumental reasoning is central to IR. This is when thinking is a means to an end and therefore where relationships are also means to an end. In IR, this means that international cooperation and collaboration is always just a means to an end for Realists.
○ Feminist IR theorists respond by arguing that this version of rationality is gendered. Rationality here is a disembodied and detached masculine way of seeing the world that abstracts from historical context and the human relationships which women are responsible for maintaining. But the world isn't like this, say the feminists.
● War. militaries work hard to turn their boys into soldiers who must go into combat. Military training depends on the denigration of all things considered effeminate
6. What is the UN Gender Development Index?
7. Briefly explain the 'double burden'.
The lifestyle of a woman who has an independent life as a worker, but is also a fulltime mother. Career plus housework. This can be displayed in many ways. Currently, the image of an american mother with double burden is a woman who is always rushing to make sure the kids are fed and are at school/daycare, but then cares just as much about her job, whether it be for financial or selfgrowth reasons. Although, as discussed during lecture, the situation could be worse, in many third world countries, mothers do not have access to childcare and must often take them to work, whether that be inside an airconditioned building or outside on a plantation.
8. How would you argue against feminist theory? Use specific examples and theoretical arguments as much as possible.
Men are more biologically capable than women, so that must mean that they’re able to do anything better than them, everything except taking care of the children. Men could never be able to do this seeing as how it is impossible for them to have motherly instinct. Because women are physically weak, they’re not suited to work hard labor and must therefore stay at home cooking and cleaning. This creates a separation between the two genders, since they don’t interact, women would not know how to deal with other men outside of the home, and virtually all of the international arena is controlled by men, women would have no place there.