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WSU / Psychology / PSY 1010 / information being encoded or retrieved is kept in a short-term storeho

information being encoded or retrieved is kept in a short-term storeho

information being encoded or retrieved is kept in a short-term storeho

Description

School: Wayne State University
Department: Psychology
Course: Introductory Psychology
Professor: Fischer
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: psy, memory, thinking, and forgetting
Cost: 50
Name: Study guide for Exam 3
Description: This study guide covers the chapters that will be covered for the exam, for those of you who don't know it's 7, 10 and 8
Uploaded: 03/27/2017
30 Pages 179 Views 0 Unlocks
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What was the name of that actor in that one movie?




We as humans forget a lot of different things, but why do we?




us too because our selective attention allows us to focus on the show and nothing else so we can recall more of it at a later time when a friend asks,” how was the show?



Study guide for Exam # for Intro to PSY This exam will be based on chapters 7, 8, and 10 I wish you all the best of luck and if you need anything my email is fe1863@wayne.edu ChaptIf you want to learn more check out internal validity psych
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er 7 (7.1, 7.2, 7.3,7.4)  7.1 the Nature of Memory Memory: learning that persists over time, and memory is important because it  allows us to learn from our mistakes and when we encounter that situation again  we can recall that moment and learn it the right way; without it, we would have no past or future. Remember that memory is a variety of different things, but this is the  specific definition. Memory can be called as a gigantic library, or a video recorder, but  as we should know our memories are not exact recordings of events. Remember we  only pay attention to a small fraction of the information we’re exposed to each day.  Memory is a constructive process: when we actively organize and shape information  as it is being encoded, stored, and retrieved. The section mentions the serial position effect which states the first and last words in the list are more easy to remember than  this in the middle, and it also mentions distinctiveness if you recalled artichoke, and if  you remembered honey the reason behind that is it was repeated too times(make sure  to know the difference between serial position and distinctiveness). Repeated material  are more easily encoded, stored, and recalled. Encoding, Storage, and Retrieval (ESR) Model The encoding, storage, and retrieval (ESR) model; the information we process  everyday goes through three basic operations (encoding, storage, and retrieval) if you  think about how a computer processes information our processing is kind of similar. In  the first step, which is encoding, we process information into our brain’s initial memory  system. Data we enter on a keyboard is encoded in a way that the computer can  understand and use. See it's a bit similar to how we intake information. In the second  step, which is storage, we store the info in our brain, just like a hard drive does for the  computer. The third step is retrieval, at a later time, we can recover and “view” stored  info in our brain. Files on the computer allows us to retrieve our information. Our brains  encode sensory information (sound, visual images, and other senses) into a neural  code(language) it can understand and use. To successfully encode, we use selective  attention which allows us to focus our attention on information that we want to  remember. We then use a deep level of processing to get to the successful part of  encoding. Before we move on I want to describe “a deep level of processing it is  basically a deeper level of processing which leads to improved encoding, storage, and  retrieval. And now we know why we shouldn't use cell phones in class, because our  teachers know that distraction interferes with our selective attention which should be  turned toward our lecture and not our phones. In this section of can photos impair our  memories, it actually states that photos are not a good thing to rely on if you are going  to see a show or a vacation, because just by taking pictures we are not getting the full  enjoyment of being on vacation or watching the show, think of when you go to the  theatre, and the people say “no flash photography” that’s for the actors, but it also helps us too because our selective attention allows us to focus on the show and nothing else  so we can recall more of it at a later time when a friend asks,” how was the show?”  Think of when you are acting in a show, you would be fully focused on your part, and  not the show itself, brain storm on that!   Once information is encoded, it must be stored! We store information in our brains of  course! We can't put flash drives into our heads ( imagine yuck!) Last, but not least  information must be retrieved, or taken out of storage. We retrieve stored info by going  into “files” in our brain. Throughout this chapter we are going to discuss ways to improve memory!  Three­staged Memory Model: similar to the ESR model, the three stage memory  model has been compared to a computer, with input, process, and output, but what  makes it different for ESR is the three different storage “boxes” or memory stages all  store and process info, but each has a different purpose, duration, and capacity.  Sensory Memory  Everything we see, hear, touch, taste, and smell must enter our sensory memory. After entering, the information remains in sensory memory just long enough for our brains to  locate relevant bits of data and transfer it on the next stage of memory. Visual  information aka iconic memory, the visual image (icon) stays in sensory memory only  about one­half a second before it rapidly fades away. Auditory stimuli (what we hear) is  temporary, but a weaker echo, (aka echoic memory), of this auditory input lingers for up  to four seconds. As we looked at in earlier chapters our brain cannot process all incoming stimuli, so other sections of the brain “decide” if the info is important enough to promote to conscious awareness. Think of something that stays in your mind and you recall it at a snap, like a friend's birthday perhaps?   Visual images –iconic memory: an example of this you could do is to swing a light in a  dark room. Because the image, or icon, lingers for a fraction of a second after the  flashlight is moved, you see the light as a continuous stream.   Auditory stimuli­ echoic memory   Think back to a time when someone asked you a question while you were deeply  absorbed in a task. Did you ask “What?” And then answered without hearing the  question? That's an example of the weaker “echo” which is only available for up to four  seconds.   Short term memory   Short term temporarily stores and processes sensory stimuli. If the info is important  STM organizes it and sends it along to long term (LTM), if it's not the info decays and is  lost. STM also retrieves stored memories from LTM  Improving STM   The capacity of STM is limited to 5 to 9 bits of information and the duration to less than  30 seconds. To extend it use a technique called chunking; what you do is you group  separate pieces of info into larger, more manageable units, think of your soc number, your cell phone number, you can recall those can’t you? The reason is that it's easier to  remember numbers in chunks rather than as a string of single digits. Also you can  extend your duration of you STM think of it as juggling, but it is called maintenance  rehearsal; you use this technique when you repeat numbers to yourself over and  over again, think of actors learning a monologue! They use this method to extend the duration of the STM so it will be easier for the actor to recall the words of his  or her monologue.  Working Memory  Our conscious thinking occurs in this “working memory” and the manipulation of info  that occurs here helps explain some of the memory errors and false constructions  described in this chapter. Remember STM is active or working!   Long Term Memory (LTM)   Serves as a storehouse for info that must be kept for long periods, for example an actor  studying his/her lines or a song for a show that needs to be long term so that the actor  can use it on the night of the performance, and when we need the info it is sent back to  the STM for conscious use. Long term memory has relatively unlimited capacity and  duration, but the better we label and arrange our memories, the more readily we’ll be  able to retrieve them. Refer to figure 7.5 for a better explanation. Explicit/declarative  memory refers to intentional learning or conscious knowledge. If asked your phone  number or your mother’s name you easily state ( declare) the answers directly. The two  parts that explicit/declarative memory are Semantic memory; which is memory for general knowledge such as rules, facts, events, and specific info. The second is  Episodic memory; a mental diary. It records the major events (episodes) in our  lives. ( for example I can easily recall the time I first met my fiancé like it was yesterday  and it's been two years since we first met, it's a major episode because that moment  brought us together) (read the PSY and you section)  Implicit/non declarative memory: refers to unintentional learning or unconscious  knowledge. This type of memory consists of procedural motor skills, like tying shoes or  riding a bike, as well as classically conditioned emotional responses (CERs). Also  includes priming: which exposure to previously stored info predisposes (or primes)  one’s response to related stimuli(Cesario, 2014; Clark et al., 2016)   Rehearsal  Like organization, rehearsal improves encoding for both STM and LTM. We discussed  how to hold information in STM, but for LTM you need a deeper level of processing,  called elaborative rehearsal. The goal is to understand – not to memorize. This  type of rehearsal involves forming a number of different connections of new material,  and linking them to previously stored information. Encoding­specificity principle: we  are able to remember better when we attempt to recall information in the same  context in which we learned it. One last trick for a recall boost is mnemonic:  devices to encode items in a special way. These devices take time and practice of course, but give yourself the time and you'll get better in time!  Quiz 1. Information in _____ lasts only a few seconds or less and has a relatively large  (but not unlimited) storage capacity   c. Sensory memory   2. Chunking is the process of grouping separate pieces of information into a single  unit   3. In answering this question, the correct multiple­choice option may serve as a ___  for recalling accurate information from your long­term memory.   C. Retrieval cue         4. The encoding­specificity principle says that information retrieval is improved when C. Conditions of recovery are similar to encoding conditions   7.2 Forgetting  Why we forget the reason is described in five theories of how and why forget.  These key theories are Decay, Interference, Motivated Forgetting, Encoding Failure,  and Retrieval Failure. We as humans forget a lot of different things, but why do we?  Well to start off forgetting is the inability to remember information that was previously  available. Misplaced something? What was the name of that actor in that one movie?  The common forgetting we do. Thank goodness we do not remember everything we  ever saw, heard or read, because if we did our poor minds would be overwhelmed with  useless info.   Ebbinghaus’s Forgetting CurveIn this research it reveals that forgetting occurs soon after we learn something, and then gradually tapers off, that's why college students don't typically remember their pervious  classes, because they go through new classes each semester and they old classes  slowly taper off, but if you are required to take math as a gen Ed, then recall can  happen, it's possible! I believe that's how I passed my math class my first year at  Wayne.  Refer to figure 7.7 for the curve.   Theories of Forgetting The ability to forget is essential to the proper functioning of memory( make sure  to store that in the LTM), and now we are going to cover the five theories I mentioned  earlier, also refer to figure 7.8 (more detail). In decay theory: memory is processed and stored in a physical form; this theory explains why skills and memory degrade if they go  unused. Interference theory: forgetting is caused by two competing memories,  particularly memories with similar qualities. Retroactive and proactive are two types  of interference. Retroactive interference: when new info disrupts the recall of old aka  acting forward in time. Proactive interference: acting forward in time; old information  (like the math you learned in high school) may interfere with your ability to  learn and remember material from your new college math class. Motivated  forgetting theory: we forget some info for a reason, people forget  unpleasant info either consciously or unconsciously.  Encoding failure theory: our sensory memory receives the info and passes it to STM, but during STM, we may overlook precise details, and may not fullyencode it, which results in a failure to pass along a complete memory for  proper storage in LTM.  Retrieval failure theory: memories stored in LTM aren't forgotten. They’re  just momentarily inaccessible.  Tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) phenomenon: the feeling that a word or an  event you are trying to remember will pop out at any second, this is known  to result from interference, faulty cues, and high emotional arousal  Factors involved in Forgetting Misinformation effect: misleading info that occurs after an event  may further alter and revise those constructions.  Serial-position effect: we tend to recall items at the beginning  (primacy effect) and the end (recency effect) better than those in  the middle of the list.  Source amnesia: forgetting the origin of a previously stored memory Spacing of practice: distributed practice: studying is broken up into  a number of short sessions spaced out over time to allow numerous  opportunities for “drill and practice” (very best tool for students)  Massed practice: cramming; less effective than distributed practice.  Culture: cultural roles can play a role in memory by knowing how  well people remember what they learn. For example telling stories to children will allow them to have better memories for information  that is relayed through these stories Quiz  2. According to the Decay theory of forgetting, memory is processed and  stored in a physical form, and the connections between neurons  deteriorate over time.  3. The interference theory suggests that forgetting is caused by two  competing memories, particularly memories with similar qualities.  4. Which of the following is not one of the six factors that contribute to  forgetting outlined in the text?  Answer: consolidation  5. Distributed practice is a learning technique in which  Answer: learning periods alternate with non learning rest periods  7.3 Biological Bases of Memory  Now we are going to explore the biological bases of memory- the  synaptic and neurotransmitter changes, the effects of emotional  arousal, where memories are stored, and the biological factors in  memory loss. Painkillers may be more useful than we think, and they  could protect against Alzheimer's disease.  Synaptic and Neurotransmitter changes Think of a sport you love, when learning it you repeated the practice of that sport and that practice builds specific neural pathways that make  it progressively easier for you to get the ball over the net or into the  basket depending on the sport. Long-term potentiation (LTP): they  happen in at least two ways. First, repeated stimulation further results  in more synapses and receptor sites, along with increased sensitivity.  Second, when learning and memory occur, there is a measurable  change in the amount of neurotransmitter released, which thereby  increases the neuron efficiency in message transmission. Refer to how  the sea slug learns and remembers.  Emotional Arousal and Memory When stressed or excited situations occur we naturally produce  neurotransmitters and horoscopes that arouse the body, epinephrine  and cortisol (ex) these chemicals affect the amygdala(a brain structure involved in emotion), and other parts of the brain, the hippocampus  and cerebral cortex (important for memory) these chemicals can  interfere with encoding, storing, and retrieving our memories, does this cause Alzheimer's? hmm that's interesting that pornography can  disrupt memory, but emotional arousal can sometimes lead to memory enhancement. Flashbulb memories (FBMs): vivid, detailed, and near  permanent memories of emotionally significant moments or events  (Brown & Kulik, 1977). Historical events or significant events bring about our minds ability to create FBMs(college graduation, weddings,  meeting someone that could be the one for the first time (lots of  emotion in that moment). The flood of cortisol that happens during  these events has been a contributor to long lasting memories, and to  addition to these chemical changes, we actively replay these memories in our minds again and again, which further encourages stronger and  more lasting memories.  Where memories are located  Researchers believed that memory was localized, or stored in a  particular brain area, later info states memory tends to be localized not in a single area, but in many separate areas throughout the brain.  Refer to figure 7.15  Traumatic brain injury  Men and women who play sports, get in accidents or even gun shot  wounds may have memory loss. TBI happens when the skull suddenly  collides with another object. Compression, twisting, and distortion of  the brain inside the skull all cause serious and sometimes permanent  damage to the brain. The frontal and temporal lobes often take the  heaviest hit because they directly collide with the bony ridges inside  the skull. Football players and any person involved in sports should always wear helmets or head gear and avoid getting repeated blows to the head.  Amnesia  You've seen how amnesia affects people in movies, well in real life it's  much different, because for one it doesn't cause a specific loss of self  identity, instead the individual typically has trouble retrieving more  widespread and general old memories or forming new ones, that's sad  isn't it? Two forms of amnesia are..  Retrograde: after an accident or other brain injury, individuals have no  trouble forming new memories, but they do experience loss of memory for segments of the past-old “retro” memories are lost. (Normally  temporary, and somewhat common)  Anterograde: individuals with this have no trouble recovering old  memories, but they do experience amnesia (cannot form new  memories) after an accident or other brain injury. (Relatively rare, and  permanent)  Consolidation: a certain amount of time for these neural changes to  become fixed and stable in long term memory  Alzheimer's disease TBIs cause amnesia, various diseases can alter the brain and nervous  system and that could disrupt memory processes. Alzheimer's disease: a progressive mental deterioration that occurs most commonly in old  age. Disturbances in memory could become worse until the final stage  where the individual fails to recognize loved ones, needs nursing, and  is heading towards death, or dies. It doesn't attack all types of memory equally.  Quiz  6. The long lasting increase in neural excitability believed to be a  biological mechanism for learning and memory is called  Answer: long-term potentiation  7. Your vivid memory of what you were doing when you were first  informed about your parent’s impending divorce is an example of  Answer: a flashbulb memory  8. Ralph can't remember anything that happened to him before he fell  through the floor of his tree house. His lack of memory of events before his fall is called _____ amnesia.  Answer: retrograde  9. A progressive mental deterioration characterized by severe memory  loss that occurs most commonly in elderly people is called Answer: Alzheimer's disease  7.4 Memory Distortions and Improvement  Basically what to recall for this section is that people shape, rearrange,  and distort their memories in order to create logic, consistency, and  efficiency. Despite all their problems and biases, our memories are  normally fairly accurate, and usually serve us well.  When memory errors occur in the cortex of the criminal justice system, they can have serious legal and social consequences. Problems with  eye witness testimony are so well established that judges often allow  expert testimony on the unreliability of eye witness, can you recall  your last visit to court? Or were you a witness?  False memories are well established, which are common and easy to  create. However, memory repression(especially or childhood sexual  abuse is a complex and controversial topic.  Here are some tips and recalling issues to help improve our memory,  under encoding, pay attention and reduce interference, strive for a  deeper level of processing, and counteract the serial-position effect.  During storage, use chunking, it will extend the STM and help you  remember more, but remember to stud pay in the distributed practice,  “take it one day at a time”. During retrieval, practice test taking, remember the encoding specificity principle, and final,y employ self monitoring and over learning.  Quiz  10.Problems with eye witness recollections are so well established and  important that judges now  Answer: allow expert testimony on the unreliability of eye witness  testimony, and routinely instruct jurors on the limits and  unreliability of eye witness recollections, (both A&B)  11.Researchers have demonstrated that it is relatively easy to create false memories  12.Dave was told the same childhood story of his father saving his  neighbor for a fire so many times that he is now sure it is not true, but  all the evidence proves it never happened, this is an example of  Answer: a false memory  13.Repressed memories are related to anxiety-provoking thoughts or  events that are supposedly prevented from reaching consciousness.  Chapter 10 (10.1,10.2,10.3,10.4) Chapter 10.2 MY NOTES  Motivation and behavior  Have you ever asked yourself how you got into a dangerous situation?  Behavior results from  many motives  Hunger and eating   Do you know what motivates hunger? Is it food that makes our stomach grumble?   The stomach We believe that the stomach controlled hunger, by contracting to send hunger signals when it  was empty. Sadly it's more complicated. You know what liquid diets are correct? If not they are  people who drink water or other liquids to help keep them full, but they are going to be  disappointed to discover sensory input from an empty stomach is not essential for feeling  hungry. Humans and animals still feel hungry without stomachs. But there is still a connection  between the stomach and feeling hungry. Receptors in the stomach and intestines detect levels  of nutrients, and specialized pressure receptors in the stomach walls signal feelings or either  emptiness or fullness (satiety) we all know weight gain is a huge issue in America. The video  tells about PPY.   Biochemistry This section basically is saying there are more areas of the body that produce Neurotransmitters and they affect hunger and fullness. Fun fact thermogenesis is the heat generated in response  to food ingestion.   The brain  This is a response to the stomach section, and it states that the brain has similar structures that  influences hunger and eating, and that is where the hypothalamus is mentioned and that is the area that regulates eating, drinking, and body temp. In that area the lateral hypothalamus  stimulates eating, while the ventromedial hypothalamus creates feelings of satiation which tells  the animal to stop eating. Damage to the VHM leads to severe weight gain, and picky eating.   Psychological factors:  This section touches on one of the questions about why we overeat, and it is due to the fact that if we see a delicious dessert or notice the time that it would be lunchtime these factors are  stimuli related to hunger and eating, and even looking at pictures of cake or cookies would  increase the cravings of hunger for sweet savory foods. Keep in mind that psychosocial  influence on when, what, where, and why we eat is called cultural conditioning. Of course we  know that in America we tend to eat dinner around 6 o clock, and in Spain they dine at 10pm.  Refer to the figure in the book, it will help explain any confusions you might have about these  factors.   Eating problems and disorders  The biopsychosocial forces that explain hunger and eating also play a vital role in four serious  eating problems and disorders; obesity, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge­eating  disorder.   Obesity It is said that most Americans are considered to be overweight, and another third are  considered to be medically obese; it could also be considered a disease. Obesity: sadly we  heard so many rumors and falsehoods about obesity, but it is the measure of weight status is  body mass index (BMI), this is a single numerical value that calculates height in relation to  weight. We as American's are bombarded with so many disgusting advertisements that promotefattening foods and sweet things that we tend to overeat a lot more than other cultures do and it  is just sad. Think about not getting a big gulp or that extra size of dessert, but you certainly  cannot deprive yourself of those things, but you can't eat them all the time either.   Eating Disorders The three major eating disorders are serious and are no laughing matter, they are anorexia  nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge­eating disorder­ are found in all classes and genders. They say they are common in women and yet it is true. Anorexia nervosa: is characterized by an  overwhelming fear of becoming obese, a need for control, the use of dangerous weight­loss  measures, and body image that is so distorted that even a skeletal body is perceived as fat.  This could cause dangerous loss of brain tissue, bone fractures, and an interruption of  menstruation in women. This also means that anorexic people make food decisions based on  low fat foods. People with this disorder will exercise to the point where their lives could be in  danger. Bulimia nervosa: individuals who go recurrent eating binges and then purge by self induced vomiting or the use of laxatives. People with bulimia not only eat they could pick up  other habits such as excessive shopping or even theft. Binge­eating disorder: recurrent  episodes of consuming large amounts of food in a discrete period of time, while feeling a lack of  control over eating, but no purging occurs. Individuals with this disorder eat more rapidly than  normal, and they eat until they are uncomfortably full and eat when not feeling hungry: they also eat alone because the feel embarrassed from the amount of food they consume that could lead  to depression, and guilt.   Achievement Motivation Achievement motivation: a high need for achievement. Intrinsic motivation and extrinsic  motivation which are the key features of motivation. We have little control of our childhood and  culture. Growth mindset: the key to achievement. Grit: The most significant predictors of  success in both work and academic settings.   Extrinsic Vs Intrinsic Motivation   Extrinsic motivation: this motivation is based on external rewards or punishments  Intrinsic motivation: internal , personal satisfaction, from a task or activity. Refer to figure 10.9  Sex and Motivation  Strong motivation equals a strong behavior in sex. Not just for reproduction sex fulfills needs  such as connection, intimacy, pleasure, and the release of sexual tension. Sexual response  cycle: bodily changes during the states of non arousal­ to orgasm and back to non arousal.  Figure 10.10 explains it better. Sexual orientation: what leads people to be sexually interested  in members of their own sex, opposite sex or both sexes. Sexual prejudice: a negative attitude  directed toward an individual because of his or her sexual orientation.   Quiz   14.Maria appears to be starving herself and has obviously lost a lot of weight in just a few  months. What is she suffering from?   Answer: anorexia nervosa  15.The desire to excel, especially in competition with others, is known as   Achievement motivation 16._______ is a term for negative attitudes toward someone based on his or her sexual  orientation   Sexual prejudice  17.A high school began paying students $5 for each day they attended school. Overall rates of attendance increased in the first few weeks and then fell below the original starting  point. The most likely reason is that  Extrinsic rewards decreased the intrinsic value of attending school   10.3 Components and theories of emotion  As we all know emotions play an important role in our lives but more than just crying they  provide color for dreams; memories and perceptions.   Three Components of Emotion   These are biological, cognitive, and behavioral   Biological (Arousal) Component  Internal physical changes occur in our bodies whenever we experience an emotion.  Biological reactions are controlled by certain brain structures and by the autonomic branch  of the nervous system (ANS)  The amygdala plays a key role in emotion especially fear.     Emotional arousal sometimes occurs without our conscious awareness. The thalamus  receives sensory inputs, and it sends separate messages up to the cortex, which "thinks"  about the stimulus, and to the amygdala, which activates the body's alarm system, but it may lead to a false alarm. The brain is important as well, but it is the autonomic nervous  system that produces the obvious signs of arousal.   Cognitive (Thinking) Component Emotional reactions are very individual and personal; what you experience could be boring  to others ( likes and dislikes) to perform studies on this subject surveys and interviews are  the best way to approach, but of course to any approach there can be flaws and this flaw  would be people sometimes don't remember the emotional state they were in.   Behavioral (Expressive) Component  Emotional expression is a powerful form of communication, and facial expressions may be  our most important form of emotional communication. The two most expressions to keep in  mind are the social smile and the Duchenne smile. Social smile is when our cheeks are  pulled back, but our eyes are un­smiling. Smiles of real pleasure, on the other hand, use the muscles not only around the cheeks, but also around the eyes. Duchenne smiles will  cause a positive response from strangers. It's important to note that there are obvious  limits to the power of nonverbal cues.   Three Major Theories of Emotion The process diagram 10.2 describes each theory in great detail, but each theory is listed in  the text. James­Lange theory: felt emotions begin with physiological arousal of the ANS.  Cannon­Barb Theory: proposes that arousal and emotion occur separately but  simultaneously. The Two Factor Theory: suggests that emotions depend on two factors –  physiological arousal and a cognitive labeling of that arousal.  Facial feedback hypothesis: facial movements produce and/or intensify emotions. Quiz for 10.3   18.The three components of emotion are..   Cognitive, biological, behavioral  19.According to the _______, emotions and physiological changes occur simultaneously  Cannon­Bard theory   10.4 Experiencing emotions   Culture and emotion can be very different, think of how we show emotion in the U.S, how  about in Italy, that's quite different isn't it? Some researchers believe that all our feelings can be condensed into 6 to 12 culturally universal emotions. Fear, anger, joy, disgust, surprise,  shame, contempt, sadness, interest, guilt, acceptance, distress, that's mostly all the same  emotions around the world, but different cultures express them in different ways refer to the  figures in the chapter. Polygraph: aka the lie detector, a machine that measures  physiological indicators to detect emotional arousal which reflects whether or not you're  lying.   Quiz   20.The _____ suggests that we look to external rather than internal cues to understand  emotions   Two­Factor Theory  21.The polygraph measures...  Physiological component of emotions  Chapter 8 Thinking   In this chapter we will discuss cognition: the mental activities, storing, retrieving, and using knowledge, but mostly we will touch on thinking which the fact of what it is  and where it's located.   Cognitive building blocks   A mental image is a presentation of a previously stored sensory experience using all five senses which are referred as visual, auditory, olfactory, tactile, motor, and  gustatory imagery. Adding onto mental images our thinking includes forming concepts:  or mental representations of a group or category. Concepts can be concrete(like  concert) or abstract( think of art since it is beautiful and it has intelligence behind it  because the artwork is mostly related to something in history). These concepts are  essential to thinking and communication because they simplify and organize  information. Think about when you see metal boxes driving to get to work everyday, and you know those boxes are cars, but how do we know that? Well, it's simple really they  develop through environmental interactions of three major building blocks­ prototypes,  artificial concepts, and hierarchies1).   Prototypes: When initially learning about the world, a young child develops a  general, natural concept based on a typical representative, or prototype. Artificial concepts: We create formal concepts from logical rules or definitions  also defined as when an example doesn't fit a prototype. (a good example would be a  bird verse a penguin because what we know about birds is they can fly, have wings, anflay eggs. Penguins don't fly, but they do lay eggs and have wings so because of the  knowledge we know about birds a penguin must be a bird!  Hierarchies: subcategories within broader concepts, helps us with learning new  material quickly and easily. Important thing­ we tend to begin with basic level concepts  when we first learn something.   Problem Solving  We all know our lives are filled with problems some simple and some  difficult. Problem solving requires moving from a given state(the problem) to a  goal state( the end result) and this requires three steps; preparation, production,  and evaluation. In the preparation stage, we identify and separate relevant from  irrelevant facts, and define the ultimate goal. Next in the production stage, we  generate possible solutions, called hypotheses, by using algorithms and  heuristics. Algorithms: logical step­by­step procedures that if followed correctly  will always lead to an eventual solution, but they are not practical in many  situations. Heuristics: simplified rules based on experience, much faster, but do  not guarantee a solution. Finally, during the evaluation stage we judge the  hypotheses generated during the production stage against the criteria  established in the preparation stage. Refer back to the tables they explain  algorithms and heuristics more clearly. You may have seen in the video that Arun pushed aside his problem and then he mentioned a sudden insight and that does happen to us sometimes. Keep in mind that these 'aha' moments and sudden understanding often lead to more accurate solutions. Insight is somewhat  unconscious and automatic so it can't be rushed, and when stumped it  sometimes helps to mentally set our problem aside just like Arun did; it's called  an incubation period, and the solution may then come to mind without further  conscious thought. There are barriers that we face to problem solving as well,  you life it can mess up our plans in a flash. Mental sets: approaching new  problems that we used in the past it may not work. Functional fixedness: the  tendency to see only the traditional uses for objects. Confirmation bias: The  tendency to hear or see what fits in with our desires or beliefs, while ignoring  contradictory info. Availability heuristic: judging the likelihood of an event based  on how easily we can recall examples of that happening.  Representativeness  Heuristic: what hinders us in problem solving because we make assumptions  based on how well the circumstances match our expectations. Make sure to  study these well!   Feeling overwhelmed yet?  Creativity­ creative ways to solve problems like for example placing a book on the chair for a booster for a child. Three characteristics associated with this is  originality(musicians use this for songs they write), fluency, and flexibility.   Originality­ seeing unique or different solutions to a problem  Fluency­ generating a large number of possible solutions Flexibility­ shifting with ease from one type of problem­solving strategy to  another   Divergent thinking­ a type of thinking in which we develop many  possibilities from a single starting point  Convergent thinking­ which seeks the single­best solution to a problem,  divergent thinking is open­ended and focused on generating multiple, novel  solutions,    Quiz!   1. The mental activities involved in acquiring, storing, retrieving, and using  knowledge are collectively known as  Cognition  2.  Rosa is shopping in a new supermarket and wants to find a standard  type of mustard. Which problem­solving strategy would be most efficient?   Heuristic   3.    __An algorithm ____ is a logical step­by­step procedure that, if  followed, will always produce the solution.   4.  __Creativity____ is the ability to produce valued outcomes in a novel  way.    8.2 Language   Language enables us to mentally manipulate symbols, thereby expanding our  thinking. To produce language we first build words using phonemes and morphemes. Then we string words into sentences using rules of grammar, such as syntax and  semantics.   Quiz   22.___Grammar_______ is the set of rules that (syntax and semantics) used to  create language and communication.   23.What are the three building blocks of language?  Grammar, phonemes, and morphemes  24.According to Chomsky, the innate mechanism that enables a child to analyze  language is known as a(n) (LAD) language acquisition device  25.Human language differs from the communication of nonhuman animals in  that it  Option A: All of the choices are correct. - this is the correct choice!  Option B: has more rules.  Option C: is more complex.  Option D: is used more creatively.  8.3 Intelligence  The global capacity to think rationally, act purposefully, profit from experience, and  deal effectively with the environment  The Nature of Intelligence  General intelligence:  Fluid intelligence: the ability to think speedily and abstractly, and to solve novel problems. Independent of education and experience, declines with age.  Crystallized intelligence: The store of knowledge and skills gained through  experience and education, tends to increase over the lifespan. Measuring Intelligence  The Stanford- Binet intelligence scale: based on the first IQ tests developed in  France around the turn of the twentieth century. In the U.S. Lewis Terman developed the Stanford-Binet to test the intellectual ability of U.S. born children ages 3 to 16.  The test consists of tasks such as copying geometric designs, identifying  similarities, and repeating number sequences.  Normal distribution: scores are presented in this form which forms a bell-shaped  curve  Mental age (MA): refers to an individual's level of mental development relative to  that of others.  Intelligence quotient (IQ): to figure out IQ mental age is divided by the child's  chronological age( actual age in years) and multiplied by 100.  The Wechsler Adult Intelligence scale (WAIS) by David Wechsler: yielded an overall  intelligence score the separate areas were verbal comprehension, perceptual  reasoning, working memory, and processing speed.  Quiz  26. The definition of intelligence in this book stresses the global capacity to:   think rationally, act purposefully, profit from experience, and deal effectively  with the environment.  27.Which is the most widely used intelligence test?  The Wechsler Adult intelligence scale  8.4 Intelligence Controversies  Both nature and nurture are interacting influences on intelligence. Intelligence has  focused on brain functioning, not size, and it indicates that intelligent people's  brains respond especially quickly and efficiently. Gardner and Sternberg, believe  that intelligence is a collection of many separate specific abilities. Emotional  intelligence: the ability to empathize and manage our emotions and relationships, is just as important as any other kind of intelligence.  Quiz!   The development of uniform procedures for administering and scoring a test is  called:  Standardization   _____Gardner _____ suggested that people differ in their “profiles of intelligence”  and that each person shows a unique pattern of strengths and weaknesses.

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