Study guide for Exam # for Intro to PSY This exam will be based on chapters 7, 8, and 10 I wish you all the best of luck and if you need anything my email is firstname.lastname@example.org ChaptIf you want to learn more check out internal validity psych
Don't forget about the age old question of ■ Effort expectancies: how much effort does goal require?
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er 7 (7.1, 7.2, 7.3,7.4) 7.1 the Nature of Memory Memory: learning that persists over time, and memory is important because it allows us to learn from our mistakes and when we encounter that situation again we can recall that moment and learn it the right way; without it, we would have no past or future. Remember that memory is a variety of different things, but this is the specific definition. Memory can be called as a gigantic library, or a video recorder, but as we should know our memories are not exact recordings of events. Remember we only pay attention to a small fraction of the information we’re exposed to each day. Memory is a constructive process: when we actively organize and shape information as it is being encoded, stored, and retrieved. The section mentions the serial position effect which states the first and last words in the list are more easy to remember than this in the middle, and it also mentions distinctiveness if you recalled artichoke, and if you remembered honey the reason behind that is it was repeated too times(make sure to know the difference between serial position and distinctiveness). Repeated material are more easily encoded, stored, and recalled. Encoding, Storage, and Retrieval (ESR) Model The encoding, storage, and retrieval (ESR) model; the information we process everyday goes through three basic operations (encoding, storage, and retrieval) if you think about how a computer processes information our processing is kind of similar. In the first step, which is encoding, we process information into our brain’s initial memory system. Data we enter on a keyboard is encoded in a way that the computer can understand and use. See it's a bit similar to how we intake information. In the second step, which is storage, we store the info in our brain, just like a hard drive does for the computer. The third step is retrieval, at a later time, we can recover and “view” stored info in our brain. Files on the computer allows us to retrieve our information. Our brains encode sensory information (sound, visual images, and other senses) into a neural code(language) it can understand and use. To successfully encode, we use selective attention which allows us to focus our attention on information that we want to remember. We then use a deep level of processing to get to the successful part of encoding. Before we move on I want to describe “a deep level of processing it is basically a deeper level of processing which leads to improved encoding, storage, and retrieval. And now we know why we shouldn't use cell phones in class, because our teachers know that distraction interferes with our selective attention which should be turned toward our lecture and not our phones. In this section of can photos impair our memories, it actually states that photos are not a good thing to rely on if you are going to see a show or a vacation, because just by taking pictures we are not getting the full enjoyment of being on vacation or watching the show, think of when you go to the theatre, and the people say “no flash photography” that’s for the actors, but it also helps us too because our selective attention allows us to focus on the show and nothing else so we can recall more of it at a later time when a friend asks,” how was the show?” Think of when you are acting in a show, you would be fully focused on your part, and not the show itself, brain storm on that! Once information is encoded, it must be stored! We store information in our brains of course! We can't put flash drives into our heads ( imagine yuck!) Last, but not least information must be retrieved, or taken out of storage. We retrieve stored info by going into “files” in our brain. Throughout this chapter we are going to discuss ways to improve memory! Threestaged Memory Model: similar to the ESR model, the three stage memory model has been compared to a computer, with input, process, and output, but what makes it different for ESR is the three different storage “boxes” or memory stages all store and process info, but each has a different purpose, duration, and capacity. Sensory Memory Everything we see, hear, touch, taste, and smell must enter our sensory memory. After entering, the information remains in sensory memory just long enough for our brains to locate relevant bits of data and transfer it on the next stage of memory. Visual information aka iconic memory, the visual image (icon) stays in sensory memory only about onehalf a second before it rapidly fades away. Auditory stimuli (what we hear) is temporary, but a weaker echo, (aka echoic memory), of this auditory input lingers for up to four seconds. As we looked at in earlier chapters our brain cannot process all incoming stimuli, so other sections of the brain “decide” if the info is important enough to promote to conscious awareness. Think of something that stays in your mind and you recall it at a snap, like a friend's birthday perhaps? Visual images –iconic memory: an example of this you could do is to swing a light in a dark room. Because the image, or icon, lingers for a fraction of a second after the flashlight is moved, you see the light as a continuous stream. Auditory stimuli echoic memory Think back to a time when someone asked you a question while you were deeply absorbed in a task. Did you ask “What?” And then answered without hearing the question? That's an example of the weaker “echo” which is only available for up to four seconds. Short term memory Short term temporarily stores and processes sensory stimuli. If the info is important STM organizes it and sends it along to long term (LTM), if it's not the info decays and is lost. STM also retrieves stored memories from LTM Improving STM The capacity of STM is limited to 5 to 9 bits of information and the duration to less than 30 seconds. To extend it use a technique called chunking; what you do is you group separate pieces of info into larger, more manageable units, think of your soc number, your cell phone number, you can recall those can’t you? The reason is that it's easier to remember numbers in chunks rather than as a string of single digits. Also you can extend your duration of you STM think of it as juggling, but it is called maintenance rehearsal; you use this technique when you repeat numbers to yourself over and over again, think of actors learning a monologue! They use this method to extend the duration of the STM so it will be easier for the actor to recall the words of his or her monologue. Working Memory Our conscious thinking occurs in this “working memory” and the manipulation of info that occurs here helps explain some of the memory errors and false constructions described in this chapter. Remember STM is active or working! Long Term Memory (LTM) Serves as a storehouse for info that must be kept for long periods, for example an actor studying his/her lines or a song for a show that needs to be long term so that the actor can use it on the night of the performance, and when we need the info it is sent back to the STM for conscious use. Long term memory has relatively unlimited capacity and duration, but the better we label and arrange our memories, the more readily we’ll be able to retrieve them. Refer to figure 7.5 for a better explanation. Explicit/declarative memory refers to intentional learning or conscious knowledge. If asked your phone number or your mother’s name you easily state ( declare) the answers directly. The two parts that explicit/declarative memory are Semantic memory; which is memory for general knowledge such as rules, facts, events, and specific info. The second is Episodic memory; a mental diary. It records the major events (episodes) in our lives. ( for example I can easily recall the time I first met my fiancé like it was yesterday and it's been two years since we first met, it's a major episode because that moment brought us together) (read the PSY and you section) Implicit/non declarative memory: refers to unintentional learning or unconscious knowledge. This type of memory consists of procedural motor skills, like tying shoes or riding a bike, as well as classically conditioned emotional responses (CERs). Also includes priming: which exposure to previously stored info predisposes (or primes) one’s response to related stimuli(Cesario, 2014; Clark et al., 2016) Rehearsal Like organization, rehearsal improves encoding for both STM and LTM. We discussed how to hold information in STM, but for LTM you need a deeper level of processing, called elaborative rehearsal. The goal is to understand – not to memorize. This type of rehearsal involves forming a number of different connections of new material, and linking them to previously stored information. Encodingspecificity principle: we are able to remember better when we attempt to recall information in the same context in which we learned it. One last trick for a recall boost is mnemonic: devices to encode items in a special way. These devices take time and practice of course, but give yourself the time and you'll get better in time! Quiz 1. Information in _____ lasts only a few seconds or less and has a relatively large (but not unlimited) storage capacity c. Sensory memory 2. Chunking is the process of grouping separate pieces of information into a single unit 3. In answering this question, the correct multiplechoice option may serve as a ___ for recalling accurate information from your longterm memory. C. Retrieval cue 4. The encodingspecificity principle says that information retrieval is improved when C. Conditions of recovery are similar to encoding conditions 7.2 Forgetting Why we forget the reason is described in five theories of how and why forget. These key theories are Decay, Interference, Motivated Forgetting, Encoding Failure, and Retrieval Failure. We as humans forget a lot of different things, but why do we? Well to start off forgetting is the inability to remember information that was previously available. Misplaced something? What was the name of that actor in that one movie? The common forgetting we do. Thank goodness we do not remember everything we ever saw, heard or read, because if we did our poor minds would be overwhelmed with useless info. Ebbinghaus’s Forgetting CurveIn this research it reveals that forgetting occurs soon after we learn something, and then gradually tapers off, that's why college students don't typically remember their pervious classes, because they go through new classes each semester and they old classes slowly taper off, but if you are required to take math as a gen Ed, then recall can happen, it's possible! I believe that's how I passed my math class my first year at Wayne. Refer to figure 7.7 for the curve. Theories of Forgetting The ability to forget is essential to the proper functioning of memory( make sure to store that in the LTM), and now we are going to cover the five theories I mentioned earlier, also refer to figure 7.8 (more detail). In decay theory: memory is processed and stored in a physical form; this theory explains why skills and memory degrade if they go unused. Interference theory: forgetting is caused by two competing memories, particularly memories with similar qualities. Retroactive and proactive are two types of interference. Retroactive interference: when new info disrupts the recall of old aka acting forward in time. Proactive interference: acting forward in time; old information (like the math you learned in high school) may interfere with your ability to learn and remember material from your new college math class. Motivated forgetting theory: we forget some info for a reason, people forget unpleasant info either consciously or unconsciously. Encoding failure theory: our sensory memory receives the info and passes it to STM, but during STM, we may overlook precise details, and may not fullyencode it, which results in a failure to pass along a complete memory for proper storage in LTM. Retrieval failure theory: memories stored in LTM aren't forgotten. They’re just momentarily inaccessible. Tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) phenomenon: the feeling that a word or an event you are trying to remember will pop out at any second, this is known to result from interference, faulty cues, and high emotional arousal Factors involved in Forgetting Misinformation effect: misleading info that occurs after an event may further alter and revise those constructions. Serial-position effect: we tend to recall items at the beginning (primacy effect) and the end (recency effect) better than those in the middle of the list. Source amnesia: forgetting the origin of a previously stored memory Spacing of practice: distributed practice: studying is broken up into a number of short sessions spaced out over time to allow numerous opportunities for “drill and practice” (very best tool for students) Massed practice: cramming; less effective than distributed practice. Culture: cultural roles can play a role in memory by knowing how well people remember what they learn. For example telling stories to children will allow them to have better memories for information that is relayed through these stories Quiz 2. According to the Decay theory of forgetting, memory is processed and stored in a physical form, and the connections between neurons deteriorate over time. 3. The interference theory suggests that forgetting is caused by two competing memories, particularly memories with similar qualities. 4. Which of the following is not one of the six factors that contribute to forgetting outlined in the text? Answer: consolidation 5. Distributed practice is a learning technique in which Answer: learning periods alternate with non learning rest periods 7.3 Biological Bases of Memory Now we are going to explore the biological bases of memory- the synaptic and neurotransmitter changes, the effects of emotional arousal, where memories are stored, and the biological factors in memory loss. Painkillers may be more useful than we think, and they could protect against Alzheimer's disease. Synaptic and Neurotransmitter changes Think of a sport you love, when learning it you repeated the practice of that sport and that practice builds specific neural pathways that make it progressively easier for you to get the ball over the net or into the basket depending on the sport. Long-term potentiation (LTP): they happen in at least two ways. First, repeated stimulation further results in more synapses and receptor sites, along with increased sensitivity. Second, when learning and memory occur, there is a measurable change in the amount of neurotransmitter released, which thereby increases the neuron efficiency in message transmission. Refer to how the sea slug learns and remembers. Emotional Arousal and Memory When stressed or excited situations occur we naturally produce neurotransmitters and horoscopes that arouse the body, epinephrine and cortisol (ex) these chemicals affect the amygdala(a brain structure involved in emotion), and other parts of the brain, the hippocampus and cerebral cortex (important for memory) these chemicals can interfere with encoding, storing, and retrieving our memories, does this cause Alzheimer's? hmm that's interesting that pornography can disrupt memory, but emotional arousal can sometimes lead to memory enhancement. Flashbulb memories (FBMs): vivid, detailed, and near permanent memories of emotionally significant moments or events (Brown & Kulik, 1977). Historical events or significant events bring about our minds ability to create FBMs(college graduation, weddings, meeting someone that could be the one for the first time (lots of emotion in that moment). The flood of cortisol that happens during these events has been a contributor to long lasting memories, and to addition to these chemical changes, we actively replay these memories in our minds again and again, which further encourages stronger and more lasting memories. Where memories are located Researchers believed that memory was localized, or stored in a particular brain area, later info states memory tends to be localized not in a single area, but in many separate areas throughout the brain. Refer to figure 7.15 Traumatic brain injury Men and women who play sports, get in accidents or even gun shot wounds may have memory loss. TBI happens when the skull suddenly collides with another object. Compression, twisting, and distortion of the brain inside the skull all cause serious and sometimes permanent damage to the brain. The frontal and temporal lobes often take the heaviest hit because they directly collide with the bony ridges inside the skull. Football players and any person involved in sports should always wear helmets or head gear and avoid getting repeated blows to the head. Amnesia You've seen how amnesia affects people in movies, well in real life it's much different, because for one it doesn't cause a specific loss of self identity, instead the individual typically has trouble retrieving more widespread and general old memories or forming new ones, that's sad isn't it? Two forms of amnesia are.. Retrograde: after an accident or other brain injury, individuals have no trouble forming new memories, but they do experience loss of memory for segments of the past-old “retro” memories are lost. (Normally temporary, and somewhat common) Anterograde: individuals with this have no trouble recovering old memories, but they do experience amnesia (cannot form new memories) after an accident or other brain injury. (Relatively rare, and permanent) Consolidation: a certain amount of time for these neural changes to become fixed and stable in long term memory Alzheimer's disease TBIs cause amnesia, various diseases can alter the brain and nervous system and that could disrupt memory processes. Alzheimer's disease: a progressive mental deterioration that occurs most commonly in old age. Disturbances in memory could become worse until the final stage where the individual fails to recognize loved ones, needs nursing, and is heading towards death, or dies. It doesn't attack all types of memory equally. Quiz 6. The long lasting increase in neural excitability believed to be a biological mechanism for learning and memory is called Answer: long-term potentiation 7. Your vivid memory of what you were doing when you were first informed about your parent’s impending divorce is an example of Answer: a flashbulb memory 8. Ralph can't remember anything that happened to him before he fell through the floor of his tree house. His lack of memory of events before his fall is called _____ amnesia. Answer: retrograde 9. A progressive mental deterioration characterized by severe memory loss that occurs most commonly in elderly people is called Answer: Alzheimer's disease 7.4 Memory Distortions and Improvement Basically what to recall for this section is that people shape, rearrange, and distort their memories in order to create logic, consistency, and efficiency. Despite all their problems and biases, our memories are normally fairly accurate, and usually serve us well. When memory errors occur in the cortex of the criminal justice system, they can have serious legal and social consequences. Problems with eye witness testimony are so well established that judges often allow expert testimony on the unreliability of eye witness, can you recall your last visit to court? Or were you a witness? False memories are well established, which are common and easy to create. However, memory repression(especially or childhood sexual abuse is a complex and controversial topic. Here are some tips and recalling issues to help improve our memory, under encoding, pay attention and reduce interference, strive for a deeper level of processing, and counteract the serial-position effect. During storage, use chunking, it will extend the STM and help you remember more, but remember to stud pay in the distributed practice, “take it one day at a time”. During retrieval, practice test taking, remember the encoding specificity principle, and final,y employ self monitoring and over learning. Quiz 10.Problems with eye witness recollections are so well established and important that judges now Answer: allow expert testimony on the unreliability of eye witness testimony, and routinely instruct jurors on the limits and unreliability of eye witness recollections, (both A&B) 11.Researchers have demonstrated that it is relatively easy to create false memories 12.Dave was told the same childhood story of his father saving his neighbor for a fire so many times that he is now sure it is not true, but all the evidence proves it never happened, this is an example of Answer: a false memory 13.Repressed memories are related to anxiety-provoking thoughts or events that are supposedly prevented from reaching consciousness. Chapter 10 (10.1,10.2,10.3,10.4) Chapter 10.2 MY NOTES Motivation and behavior Have you ever asked yourself how you got into a dangerous situation? Behavior results from many motives Hunger and eating Do you know what motivates hunger? Is it food that makes our stomach grumble? The stomach We believe that the stomach controlled hunger, by contracting to send hunger signals when it was empty. Sadly it's more complicated. You know what liquid diets are correct? If not they are people who drink water or other liquids to help keep them full, but they are going to be disappointed to discover sensory input from an empty stomach is not essential for feeling hungry. Humans and animals still feel hungry without stomachs. But there is still a connection between the stomach and feeling hungry. Receptors in the stomach and intestines detect levels of nutrients, and specialized pressure receptors in the stomach walls signal feelings or either emptiness or fullness (satiety) we all know weight gain is a huge issue in America. The video tells about PPY. Biochemistry This section basically is saying there are more areas of the body that produce Neurotransmitters and they affect hunger and fullness. Fun fact thermogenesis is the heat generated in response to food ingestion. The brain This is a response to the stomach section, and it states that the brain has similar structures that influences hunger and eating, and that is where the hypothalamus is mentioned and that is the area that regulates eating, drinking, and body temp. In that area the lateral hypothalamus stimulates eating, while the ventromedial hypothalamus creates feelings of satiation which tells the animal to stop eating. Damage to the VHM leads to severe weight gain, and picky eating. Psychological factors: This section touches on one of the questions about why we overeat, and it is due to the fact that if we see a delicious dessert or notice the time that it would be lunchtime these factors are stimuli related to hunger and eating, and even looking at pictures of cake or cookies would increase the cravings of hunger for sweet savory foods. Keep in mind that psychosocial influence on when, what, where, and why we eat is called cultural conditioning. Of course we know that in America we tend to eat dinner around 6 o clock, and in Spain they dine at 10pm. Refer to the figure in the book, it will help explain any confusions you might have about these factors. Eating problems and disorders The biopsychosocial forces that explain hunger and eating also play a vital role in four serious eating problems and disorders; obesity, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and bingeeating disorder. Obesity It is said that most Americans are considered to be overweight, and another third are considered to be medically obese; it could also be considered a disease. Obesity: sadly we heard so many rumors and falsehoods about obesity, but it is the measure of weight status is body mass index (BMI), this is a single numerical value that calculates height in relation to weight. We as American's are bombarded with so many disgusting advertisements that promotefattening foods and sweet things that we tend to overeat a lot more than other cultures do and it is just sad. Think about not getting a big gulp or that extra size of dessert, but you certainly cannot deprive yourself of those things, but you can't eat them all the time either. Eating Disorders The three major eating disorders are serious and are no laughing matter, they are anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, bingeeating disorder are found in all classes and genders. They say they are common in women and yet it is true. Anorexia nervosa: is characterized by an overwhelming fear of becoming obese, a need for control, the use of dangerous weightloss measures, and body image that is so distorted that even a skeletal body is perceived as fat. This could cause dangerous loss of brain tissue, bone fractures, and an interruption of menstruation in women. This also means that anorexic people make food decisions based on low fat foods. People with this disorder will exercise to the point where their lives could be in danger. Bulimia nervosa: individuals who go recurrent eating binges and then purge by self induced vomiting or the use of laxatives. People with bulimia not only eat they could pick up other habits such as excessive shopping or even theft. Bingeeating disorder: recurrent episodes of consuming large amounts of food in a discrete period of time, while feeling a lack of control over eating, but no purging occurs. Individuals with this disorder eat more rapidly than normal, and they eat until they are uncomfortably full and eat when not feeling hungry: they also eat alone because the feel embarrassed from the amount of food they consume that could lead to depression, and guilt. Achievement Motivation Achievement motivation: a high need for achievement. Intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation which are the key features of motivation. We have little control of our childhood and culture. Growth mindset: the key to achievement. Grit: The most significant predictors of success in both work and academic settings. Extrinsic Vs Intrinsic Motivation Extrinsic motivation: this motivation is based on external rewards or punishments Intrinsic motivation: internal , personal satisfaction, from a task or activity. Refer to figure 10.9 Sex and Motivation Strong motivation equals a strong behavior in sex. Not just for reproduction sex fulfills needs such as connection, intimacy, pleasure, and the release of sexual tension. Sexual response cycle: bodily changes during the states of non arousal to orgasm and back to non arousal. Figure 10.10 explains it better. Sexual orientation: what leads people to be sexually interested in members of their own sex, opposite sex or both sexes. Sexual prejudice: a negative attitude directed toward an individual because of his or her sexual orientation. Quiz 14.Maria appears to be starving herself and has obviously lost a lot of weight in just a few months. What is she suffering from? Answer: anorexia nervosa 15.The desire to excel, especially in competition with others, is known as Achievement motivation 16._______ is a term for negative attitudes toward someone based on his or her sexual orientation Sexual prejudice 17.A high school began paying students $5 for each day they attended school. Overall rates of attendance increased in the first few weeks and then fell below the original starting point. The most likely reason is that Extrinsic rewards decreased the intrinsic value of attending school 10.3 Components and theories of emotion As we all know emotions play an important role in our lives but more than just crying they provide color for dreams; memories and perceptions. Three Components of Emotion These are biological, cognitive, and behavioral Biological (Arousal) Component Internal physical changes occur in our bodies whenever we experience an emotion. Biological reactions are controlled by certain brain structures and by the autonomic branch of the nervous system (ANS) The amygdala plays a key role in emotion especially fear. Emotional arousal sometimes occurs without our conscious awareness. The thalamus receives sensory inputs, and it sends separate messages up to the cortex, which "thinks" about the stimulus, and to the amygdala, which activates the body's alarm system, but it may lead to a false alarm. The brain is important as well, but it is the autonomic nervous system that produces the obvious signs of arousal. Cognitive (Thinking) Component Emotional reactions are very individual and personal; what you experience could be boring to others ( likes and dislikes) to perform studies on this subject surveys and interviews are the best way to approach, but of course to any approach there can be flaws and this flaw would be people sometimes don't remember the emotional state they were in. Behavioral (Expressive) Component Emotional expression is a powerful form of communication, and facial expressions may be our most important form of emotional communication. The two most expressions to keep in mind are the social smile and the Duchenne smile. Social smile is when our cheeks are pulled back, but our eyes are unsmiling. Smiles of real pleasure, on the other hand, use the muscles not only around the cheeks, but also around the eyes. Duchenne smiles will cause a positive response from strangers. It's important to note that there are obvious limits to the power of nonverbal cues. Three Major Theories of Emotion The process diagram 10.2 describes each theory in great detail, but each theory is listed in the text. JamesLange theory: felt emotions begin with physiological arousal of the ANS. CannonBarb Theory: proposes that arousal and emotion occur separately but simultaneously. The Two Factor Theory: suggests that emotions depend on two factors – physiological arousal and a cognitive labeling of that arousal. Facial feedback hypothesis: facial movements produce and/or intensify emotions. Quiz for 10.3 18.The three components of emotion are.. Cognitive, biological, behavioral 19.According to the _______, emotions and physiological changes occur simultaneously CannonBard theory 10.4 Experiencing emotions Culture and emotion can be very different, think of how we show emotion in the U.S, how about in Italy, that's quite different isn't it? Some researchers believe that all our feelings can be condensed into 6 to 12 culturally universal emotions. Fear, anger, joy, disgust, surprise, shame, contempt, sadness, interest, guilt, acceptance, distress, that's mostly all the same emotions around the world, but different cultures express them in different ways refer to the figures in the chapter. Polygraph: aka the lie detector, a machine that measures physiological indicators to detect emotional arousal which reflects whether or not you're lying. Quiz 20.The _____ suggests that we look to external rather than internal cues to understand emotions TwoFactor Theory 21.The polygraph measures... Physiological component of emotions Chapter 8 Thinking In this chapter we will discuss cognition: the mental activities, storing, retrieving, and using knowledge, but mostly we will touch on thinking which the fact of what it is and where it's located. Cognitive building blocks A mental image is a presentation of a previously stored sensory experience using all five senses which are referred as visual, auditory, olfactory, tactile, motor, and gustatory imagery. Adding onto mental images our thinking includes forming concepts: or mental representations of a group or category. Concepts can be concrete(like concert) or abstract( think of art since it is beautiful and it has intelligence behind it because the artwork is mostly related to something in history). These concepts are essential to thinking and communication because they simplify and organize information. Think about when you see metal boxes driving to get to work everyday, and you know those boxes are cars, but how do we know that? Well, it's simple really they develop through environmental interactions of three major building blocks prototypes, artificial concepts, and hierarchies1). Prototypes: When initially learning about the world, a young child develops a general, natural concept based on a typical representative, or prototype. Artificial concepts: We create formal concepts from logical rules or definitions also defined as when an example doesn't fit a prototype. (a good example would be a bird verse a penguin because what we know about birds is they can fly, have wings, anflay eggs. Penguins don't fly, but they do lay eggs and have wings so because of the knowledge we know about birds a penguin must be a bird! Hierarchies: subcategories within broader concepts, helps us with learning new material quickly and easily. Important thing we tend to begin with basic level concepts when we first learn something. Problem Solving We all know our lives are filled with problems some simple and some difficult. Problem solving requires moving from a given state(the problem) to a goal state( the end result) and this requires three steps; preparation, production, and evaluation. In the preparation stage, we identify and separate relevant from irrelevant facts, and define the ultimate goal. Next in the production stage, we generate possible solutions, called hypotheses, by using algorithms and heuristics. Algorithms: logical stepbystep procedures that if followed correctly will always lead to an eventual solution, but they are not practical in many situations. Heuristics: simplified rules based on experience, much faster, but do not guarantee a solution. Finally, during the evaluation stage we judge the hypotheses generated during the production stage against the criteria established in the preparation stage. Refer back to the tables they explain algorithms and heuristics more clearly. You may have seen in the video that Arun pushed aside his problem and then he mentioned a sudden insight and that does happen to us sometimes. Keep in mind that these 'aha' moments and sudden understanding often lead to more accurate solutions. Insight is somewhat unconscious and automatic so it can't be rushed, and when stumped it sometimes helps to mentally set our problem aside just like Arun did; it's called an incubation period, and the solution may then come to mind without further conscious thought. There are barriers that we face to problem solving as well, you life it can mess up our plans in a flash. Mental sets: approaching new problems that we used in the past it may not work. Functional fixedness: the tendency to see only the traditional uses for objects. Confirmation bias: The tendency to hear or see what fits in with our desires or beliefs, while ignoring contradictory info. Availability heuristic: judging the likelihood of an event based on how easily we can recall examples of that happening. Representativeness Heuristic: what hinders us in problem solving because we make assumptions based on how well the circumstances match our expectations. Make sure to study these well! Feeling overwhelmed yet? Creativity creative ways to solve problems like for example placing a book on the chair for a booster for a child. Three characteristics associated with this is originality(musicians use this for songs they write), fluency, and flexibility. Originality seeing unique or different solutions to a problem Fluency generating a large number of possible solutions Flexibility shifting with ease from one type of problemsolving strategy to another Divergent thinking a type of thinking in which we develop many possibilities from a single starting point Convergent thinking which seeks the singlebest solution to a problem, divergent thinking is openended and focused on generating multiple, novel solutions, Quiz! 1. The mental activities involved in acquiring, storing, retrieving, and using knowledge are collectively known as Cognition 2. Rosa is shopping in a new supermarket and wants to find a standard type of mustard. Which problemsolving strategy would be most efficient? Heuristic 3. __An algorithm ____ is a logical stepbystep procedure that, if followed, will always produce the solution. 4. __Creativity____ is the ability to produce valued outcomes in a novel way. 8.2 Language Language enables us to mentally manipulate symbols, thereby expanding our thinking. To produce language we first build words using phonemes and morphemes. Then we string words into sentences using rules of grammar, such as syntax and semantics. Quiz 22.___Grammar_______ is the set of rules that (syntax and semantics) used to create language and communication. 23.What are the three building blocks of language? Grammar, phonemes, and morphemes 24.According to Chomsky, the innate mechanism that enables a child to analyze language is known as a(n) (LAD) language acquisition device 25.Human language differs from the communication of nonhuman animals in that it Option A: All of the choices are correct. - this is the correct choice! Option B: has more rules. Option C: is more complex. Option D: is used more creatively. 8.3 Intelligence The global capacity to think rationally, act purposefully, profit from experience, and deal effectively with the environment The Nature of Intelligence General intelligence: Fluid intelligence: the ability to think speedily and abstractly, and to solve novel problems. Independent of education and experience, declines with age. Crystallized intelligence: The store of knowledge and skills gained through experience and education, tends to increase over the lifespan. Measuring Intelligence The Stanford- Binet intelligence scale: based on the first IQ tests developed in France around the turn of the twentieth century. In the U.S. Lewis Terman developed the Stanford-Binet to test the intellectual ability of U.S. born children ages 3 to 16. The test consists of tasks such as copying geometric designs, identifying similarities, and repeating number sequences. Normal distribution: scores are presented in this form which forms a bell-shaped curve Mental age (MA): refers to an individual's level of mental development relative to that of others. Intelligence quotient (IQ): to figure out IQ mental age is divided by the child's chronological age( actual age in years) and multiplied by 100. The Wechsler Adult Intelligence scale (WAIS) by David Wechsler: yielded an overall intelligence score the separate areas were verbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning, working memory, and processing speed. Quiz 26. The definition of intelligence in this book stresses the global capacity to: think rationally, act purposefully, profit from experience, and deal effectively with the environment. 27.Which is the most widely used intelligence test? The Wechsler Adult intelligence scale 8.4 Intelligence Controversies Both nature and nurture are interacting influences on intelligence. Intelligence has focused on brain functioning, not size, and it indicates that intelligent people's brains respond especially quickly and efficiently. Gardner and Sternberg, believe that intelligence is a collection of many separate specific abilities. Emotional intelligence: the ability to empathize and manage our emotions and relationships, is just as important as any other kind of intelligence. Quiz! The development of uniform procedures for administering and scoring a test is called: Standardization _____Gardner _____ suggested that people differ in their “profiles of intelligence” and that each person shows a unique pattern of strengths and weaknesses.