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FSU / Mechanical Engineering / ME 4843 / parvocellular is to magnocellular as quizlet

parvocellular is to magnocellular as quizlet

parvocellular is to magnocellular as quizlet

Description

School: Florida State University
Department: Mechanical Engineering
Course: Fundamentals of Neuroscience
Term: Summer 2015
Tags: retina, eye, and visual
Cost: Free
Name: The Eye Overview and The Retina
Description: This includes vocabulary and questions from lecture 12 and 13 for PCB4843 which corresponds to chapter 9 and 10 in the textbook.
Uploaded: 03/27/2017
3 Pages 94 Views 7 Unlocks
Reviews



How is info synapsed on the LGN?




LGN receptive fields are almost identical to what?




What parts of vision are oss if areas are cut?



3. Lecture 14 Eye (Retina) The Retina (Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain Chapter 10)Study online at quizlet.com/_39uoty 1. Based on retinotopy, perception is based on..? 2. Be able to draw the eyes, visual hemifields, and optic connections. Perception is based on the brain's interpretation of patterns and not on a literal map. Info does not show reality exactly. What parts of vision are oss if areas are cut? 15. Koniocellular LGN layers Where? Description? Which ganglion cell type innervates them? 16. Koniocellular LGN project into what layers of the striate Between each layer. Innervated by nonM-nonP cells. 1 and 3 3. Binocular visual field central portion of both visual hemifields viewed by BOTH retinas cortex? 17. The LGN only gets information from the False. The LGN gets its information frm 4. Cell that make long distance connections in the striate cortex. 5. Cell that makes local connections in the striate cortex. 6. Color opponency in cells. Pyramidal cells spiny stellate cells Response to one color in the receptive field center is canceled by another color in the receptive field surround. retina. (true or false) 18. LGN receptive fields are almost identical to what? 19. Magnocellular LGN layers Where? Description? Which ganglion cell type innervates them? the retina AND other brain systems. Ganglion cells that feed the LGN information. Layers 1 and 2 Larger neurons. Innervated by M-cells. 7. Cytochrome oxidase mitochondrial enzyme used for cell metabolism. 20. Magnocellular LGN projects into what 4C alpha 8. cytochrome oxidase blobs 9. Describe the response of magnocellular LGN neurons. 10. Describe the response of parvocellular LGN neurons. 11. Do not have spines, or cortical layers. Form local connections in the striate cortex. 12. How is info synapsed on the LGN? cytochrome oxidase stained pillars in the striate cortex Large center-surround receptive fields with transient response. Small center- surround receptive fields with sustained response. inhibitory neurons Ipsilateral (same sides) are synapsed on layers 2,3, and 5. layer of the striate cortex. 21. Midbrain superior colliculus 22. Name the 3 types of ganglion cells. 23. Name the three cell types found in the striate cortex. 24. Ocular dominance columns - command eye and head movements - superior = VISUAL P cells M cells NonM-NonP cells spiny stellate pyramidal cells inhibitory neurons Left and right eye inputs are laid out in alternative bands lik sebra stripes. 13. How is input from the two eyes arranged in the LGN? 14. Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) Contralateral (opposite sides) are synapsed on later 1,4, and 6. Info from the two eyes are kept separate in the LGN. - Ganglion cells that use melanopsin as a photopigment. - they are photoreceptors that depolarize to light - they sync behavior to circadian rhythms. 25. Optic chiasm The place where the right and left optic nerves converge and partially cross to form the optic tracts. 26. Optic nerve Bundle of ganglion cell axons that pass from the eye to the optic chiasm. 27. Optic radiation projection from LGN to the primary visual cortex 28. Optic tract - connects to the thalamus 29. Parallel Processing simultaneous input from two eyes which determines depth and distance of an object. 30. Parvocellular LGN layers Layers 3-6 Smaller neurons. Innervated by P-cells. 44. Where is the LGN located? In the dorsal thalamus arranged in 6 layers of cells. Where? Description? Which ganglion cell type innervates them? 31. Parvocellular LGN projects into what layers of the striate cortex? 32. Receptive Fields at LGN 33. The retina does not pass info about patterns of light and dark, but instead...? 4C beta Study the potential discharged of geniculate neurons in response to visual stimuli and map the receptive field. extracts info about differences in brightness and color. 45. Which ganglion cell type does not have color opponency? M ganglion cells34. Retinofugal projection a neural pathway that carries information away from the eye. 35. Retinotopy The topographic organization of visual pathways where neighboring cells on the retina send information to neighboring cells in the target structure. 36. What are the 3 different spatial comparisons that are sent to the brain from ganglion cells? 37. What are the two types of color opponency? 38. What is the name of the primary visual cortex? Where is it located? 39. What is the ration of photoreceptors to ganglion cells? 40. What is the structural difference between M and P cell? 41. What mediates conscious visual perception? 42. What results in perception? 43. Where does information from the retina go? light vs dark red vs green blue vs green Red+ Green Blue+ Yellow- + = center depolarization - = surround hyperpolarization Striate cortex in the occipital lobe which is posterior on the brain. 100 million photoreceptors : 1 million ganglion cells P cells are smaller and more numerous then M cells. Retinofugal projections form eye to LGN to visual cortex. Neural processing To the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) 3. Lecture 12: Vision The Eye (Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain Chapter 9) Study online at quizlet.com/_37zg17 1. Cataract a clouding of the lens. Found often in elderly people. 2. Conjunctiva A membrane that folds back from the inside of the eyelids and attached to the schlera 3. Cornea Glassy, transparent external surface of the eye. 19. Retina - Part of the central nervous system. - Detects differences in the intensity of light. Not a faithful reproduction. 20. sclera Cornea is a glassy transparent surface. 21. Strabismus imbalance in the extraocular muscles of the eyes. Leads to misalignment of lack of coordination between the two eyes. 4. Esotropia A form of strabismus. - the directions of gaze cross (cross eyed). 5. Exotropia A form of strabismus. - Directions of gaze diverge (wall eyed). 6. Fovea - dark spot - used as a point to locate areas in the eye like a landmark for researchers 7. Glaucoma a progressive loss in vision 22. A wave of energy has... Wavelength. Frequency. Amplitude. 8. How many pairs of extraocular muscles are there? 9. How much of the human cerebral cortex is involved on analyzing the visual world? three parts 1/3 10. Iris pigmentation that gives the eyes its color. Has two muscles in it. 11. Light Visible electromagnetic energy in the form of waves. 12. Macula - middle of retina, yellowish, central vision. - no large blood vesicles there which allows better quality of vision. 13. Name the 3 major visual pieces in order or image transfer. 1. Optic nerves. 2. Lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) 3. Visual Cortex 14. ophthalmoscope a tool that allows one to look into the eye through the pupil 15. Optic nerve bundle of axons from the retina. 16. Optics study of light rays and their interactions. 17. Photoreceptors Convert light energy into neural activity. 18. Pupil opening where light enters the eye. (black spot)

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