Final Exam Study Guide
Final Exam Study Guide CH 101
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Candace Brooks on Saturday April 25, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CH 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Paul Rupar in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 542 views.
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Date Created: 04/25/15
Chemistry 101 Final Study Guide The amplitude is the height of the wave 0 The distance from node to crest The wavelength is a measure of the distance covered y the wave 0 The distance from one crest to the next The frequency v is the number of waves that pass a point in a given period of time o The number of wavesnumber of cyces The speed of light c 300x108 ms The energy of each photon is determined by its frequency 0 Ehv I hPanck s constant which is 6626x103934 JxS I vfrequency in Hz Scientists use the Schodinger Equation one of the fundamental equations of quantum mechanics to calculate orbitals Principal quantum Number n characterizes the energy of the electron in a particular orbital N can be any integer greater than or less than 1 0 En 218x103918 1n2 Angular Momentum Quantum Number I the angular momentum quantum number determines the shape of the orbital I can have integer values from 0 to n1 0 Each value of l is called by a particular letter that designates the shape of the orbital I Os orbitals I l1p orbitals I l2d orbitals I l3f orbitals I lgt3 is not usually encounter Magnetic Quantum Number m the magnetic quantum number is an integer that specifies the orientation of the orbital 0 Values are integers from 1 to 1 The energy of a photon can calculated by subtracting the energy of the initial state from the energy of the final state 0 hcwavelengthEphoton 218x1039181n na21ninitia2 Pauli Exclusion Principle The Pauli exclusion principle is the quantum mechanical principle that states that two identical fermions particles with halfinteger spin cannot occupy the same quantum state simultaneously Aufbau Principle The Aufbau Principle postulates a hypothetical process in which an atom is built up by progressively adding electrons Hund s Rule An observational rule which states that a greater total spin state usually makes the atom more stable Accordingly it can be taken that if two or more orbitals of equal energy are available electrons will occupy them singly before filling them in pairs The electrons in all the sublevels with the highest principal energy shell are called the valence electrons Cations form when the atom loses electrons from the valence shell Anions form when the atom gain electrons in the valence shell The effective nuclear charge is the net positive charge that is attracting a particular electron O Zeffective 2395 Molecular compounds those in which elements share electrons via covalent bonds Ionic compounds a chemical compound in which ions are held together in a structure by electrostatic forces termed by ionic bonds Determining the number of valence electrons in an Atom the column number on the periodic table will tell you how many valence electrons a main group atom has Octet Rule when atoms bond they tend to gain lose or share electrons to result in 8 valence electrons The sharing of valence electrons is called covalent bonding When two atoms share one pair of electrons it is called a single covalent bond When two atoms share two pairs of electrons the result is called a double covalent bond When two atoms share three pairs of electrons the result is called a triple covalent bond Naming Compound Practice 0 NaO sodium oxide 0 FeC2 iron II chloride 0 CuCl copper I chloride 0 NH4OH ammonium hydroxide What is the unit formula for 0 Sodium phosphate Na3PO4 0 Calcium hypobromiteCaBr2 Patterns of Polyatomic ons 0 ate ion ex chlorate 0 ate ion 1 0 quot9 same charge perprefix ex Perchlorate 0 ate ion 1 O 9same charge ite suffix ex Chlorite 0 ate ion 2 05 same charge hypoprefix ite suffix ex Hypochlorite What is a mole 602x1023 The Molar Mass of a compound is equal to the sums of the atomic masses of its constituent elements 0 Molar mass of atoms of 1St element in formula x atomic mass of 1St element of atoms of 2quot l element in formula x atomic mass of 2quot l element Mass number of moles x molar mass m n x mm Percent Composition 0 Percentage part whole x 100 0 Mass element mass of element x in 1 mol mass of 1 mol compound Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory VSEPR Electron groups around the central atom want to be as far apart as possible Linear Electron Geometry I Two electron groups AXZ Trigonal Planar Electron Geometry I Three electron groups AX3 Tetrahedral electron Groups I Four electron groups AX4 Trigonal Bipyramidal Electron Geometry I Five electron groups AX5 I The positions above and below the central atom are called the axial positions I The positions in the same base plane as the central atom are called the eguatorial positions Octahedral Electron Geometry I Six electron groups AX6 I Shape of two square base pyramids that are basetobase with the central atom in the center of the shared bases Trigonal Planar Derivatives Bent Shape AXzE I Three electron groups around central atom o 2 bonded atoms 0 1 lone pair 0 Ex S02 Tetrahedral Derivatives Pyramidal Molecular Geometries AX3E I Three electron groups around central atom o 3 bonded atoms 0 1 lone pair 0 Ex NH3 Tetrahedral Derivatives Bent Geometries AXzEz I Four electron groups around central atom o 2 bonded atoms 0 2 lone pair 0 Ex H20 Trigonal Bipyramidal Derivatives Seesaw geometry Ax I Five electron groups around central atom o 4 bonded atoms 0 1 lone pair 0 Ex SF4 Trigonal Bipyramidal Derivatives Tshape AX3E2 I Five electron groups around central atom o 3 bonded atoms 0 2 lone pair 0 Ex CF3 Trigonal Bipyramidal Derivaties Linear AX2E3 I Five electrons groups around the central atom o 2 bonded atoms 0 3 lone pair 0 Ex Xer o Octahedral Derivatives Square Pyramidal AXEE I Six electron groups around the central atom o 5 bonded atoms 0 1 lone pair 0 Ex BrF5 o Octahedral Derivatives square Planar AX Egl I Six electron groups around the central atom o 4 bonded atoms 0 2 lone pair 0 Ex XeF4 Covalent bonding between unlike atoms results in unequal sharing of the electrons This result is a polar covalent bond The ability of an atom to attract bonding electrons to itself is called electronegativity o The larger the difference in electronegativity the more polar the bond A sigma bond results when the interacting atomic orbitals point along the axis connecting the two bonding nuclei 0 Overlap between a hybrid or nonhybrid on one atom with a hybrid or nonhybrid atom results in a sigma bond A pi bond results when the bonding atomic orbitals are parallel to each other and perpendicular the axis connecting the two bonding nuclei 0 Overlap between unhybridized p orbitals on bonded atoms results in a pi bond How to Balance Reactions Write a skeletal equation Balance atoms in complex substances first Balance free elements by adjusting coefficient in front of free element 0000 If fractional coefficients multiply through by denominator 0 Double check Theoretical Yield o Is the maximum amount of product that can form based on the limiting reagent Actual and Percent Yield 0 The actual yield is the amount of product produced in a reaction 0 Percent yield 100 x actual yield theoretical yield Molarity shows the relationship between the moles of solute and liters of solution 0 MolarityM amount of solute in moles amount of solvent in L Compounds that dissolve in a solvent are said to be solubleI whereas those that do not are said to be insoluble Soluble ons Compounds containing the following ions Exceptions when combined with ions on are generally soluble the left the compound is insoluble Li Na K NH4 None N03 C2H302 none cr Br39 I39 Ag Hg22 Pb2 504239 Ag Ca2 Sr Ba Pb2 Insoluble ons Compounds containing the following ions Exceptions when combined with ions on are generally insoluble the left the compound is soluble or slightly soluble OH39 Li Na K NH4 Ca2 Sr2 Ba2 5239 c032 Po4339 Equations that describe the chemicals put into the water and the product molecules formed are called molecular equations Equations that describe the material s structure when dissolved are called complete ionic eguations ons that are both reactants and products are called spectator ions An ionic equation in which the spectator ions are removed is called a net ionic equation Often in the lab a solution s concentration is determined by reacting it with another material and using stoichiometry this process is called titration is the exchange of thermal energy between the system and surroundings Temperature is the measure of the amount of thermal energy with in a sample of matter The proportionally constant is called the heat capacityc 0 Units of c are JC or JK I Q c x AT The specific heat capacity is the amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of on gram of a substance So we can calculate the quantity of heat absorbed by an object if we know the mass the specific heat and the temperature change of the object o Heatmass x specific heat x temperature 39 Q M X Cs X A T Esyslt0 Esurrgt0 EsysEcozEcoz What about the reverse 0 Esysgt0 o Esurrlt0 Energy is exchanged between the system and surrounding through heat and work 0 Qheat thermal energy 0 Wwork energy I Eqw The energy of the universe is constant o Euniverse 0 o Esystem Esurrounding Euniverse0 When energy flows out of a systemAEsystemlt0 When energy flows into the surroundings Esurroundingsgt0 o Esystem Esurr When energy flows into a system Esystem is gt0 When energy flows out of the surroundings Esurroundings is lt0 0 Esystem Esurroundings is lt0 Thermochemistry 0 My is the anything that has the capacity to do work 0 m is a force acting over a distance 0 is the flow of energy caused by a difference in temperature Kinetic Energy the energy of motion Potential Energy stored energy due to the position of an object chemical potential energy Some forms of energy 0 Electrical 0 Heat or thermal 0 Light or radiant 0 Nuclear 0 Chemical Bomb calorimeter is used to measure E because it is a constant volume system The enthalpy change H of a reactions is the heat evolved in a reaction at constant pressure Gaes are composed of particles that are flying around very fast in their containers Boyle s Law 0 P1V1P2V2 Charles Law 0 T1V1 T2 V2
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