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UND / Philosophy / PHIL 250 / What does absolute safety mean?

What does absolute safety mean?

What does absolute safety mean?

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question of <a href='https://studysoup.com/guide/2427595/what-is-social-aggregate'>What is social aggregate?</a><br>We also discuss several other topics like <a href='https://studysoup.com/guide/2427557/what-is-the-meaning-of-intentional-torts'>What is the meaning of intentional torts?</a><br>Don't forget about the age old question of <a href='https://studysoup.com/guide/2427481/what-are-the-different-stages-of-mitosis'>What are the four phases of mitosis?</a><br>If you want to learn more check out <a href='https://studysoup.com/guide/2427347/what-are-the-characteristics-of-game-playing'>What are the characteristics of game-playing?</a><br> "}.lst-kix_oo8s9fwgb6ls-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_oo8s9fwgb6ls-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_csn2f88ok8v6-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_dnaowvzbketu-6 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_e5ec0p83t6h-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_m519dajvfnbh-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_m519dajvfnbh-3 > li:before{content:"● 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  • Safety: People demand safe products to not be threatened by potential harm
  • Absolute safety: A degree of safety that satisfies all individuals. ★ Impossible ★
  • William Lowrance: "A thing is safe if its risks are judged to be acceptable"
  • Also said, safety must have some objective standard outside ourselves to determine safety of things
  • safety is the ABSENCE of risk!
  • Hazard: The potential that something harmful may happen in the future.
  • Risk: The probability of an undesirable event. (Quantifiable)
  • Uncertainty: We know the type of consequences, but cannot make probabilities to the outcomes
  • Ignorance: We don't know the existence of possible hazards
  • Frank Knight: RISK vs. Uncertainty “risk can be measured, uncertainty cannot”
  • Ambiguity Aversion - People prefer measurable risk to immeasurable uncertainty
  • When hazard high, outrage low, people underreact (kitchen bacteria)
  • When hazard low, outrage high people overreact (mad cow disease)
  • William Rowe: "A risk is acceptable when those affected are no longer apprehensive about it"
  • Cost Benefit Analysis: Comparing alternatives where the pros/cons of each option are weighed
  • Multiple Criteria Analysis: Importance of each value is found first. Doesn't need common units
  • Type I Errors: Thinking there is a risk when none exists. FALSE POSITIVES
  • Type II Errors: Thinking there is no rise when risk exists. FALSE NEGATIVES
  • Hierarchy Resp. Model: Those in highest position are held responsible 
  • Collective Resp. Model: Each member is held responsible for all other members
  • Individual Resp. Model: Each individual is held responsible in relation to his contribution
  • The Ethical Corporate Climate (ECC): A working environment that's conducive to moral conduct
  • Teamwork Virtues
  • Agency Loyalty: Doing everything at work for your paycheck (obligation under Professional Code)
  • Attitude Loyalty: Doing your job for your commitment to the company (It's a virtue) 
  • Executive Authority: Institutional right given to a person to exercise power
  • Expert Authority: Possession of special knowledge to perform tasks
  • Respect Authority: Possession of institutional responsibility to require others to perform tasks
  • Group Tension
  • Primary: Don't want to take risk cause they don't know each other
  • Secondary: Ideal kind Yields alternative solutions
  • Tertiary: Similar to secondary without ability to compromise

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