Final Exam Study Guide
Final Exam Study Guide BUSMHR 4221
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Abigail Grable on Saturday April 25, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BUSMHR 4221 at Ohio State University taught by Jeffrey Ford in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 163 views. For similar materials see Concepts and Competencies for Managing People in Business, management at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 04/25/15
Success is based upon credibility trust and reputation Integrity is the act process of managing agreements recording them and having closure conversations whether they are kept or not kept Accountability relational phenomenon that means that you are answerable for something or some topic or project Always accountable to someone else for something We should hold people accountable to what they agreed to do not to something else that we think they should do Are you willing to be answerable for something Are you willing to own a working relationship 0 If you don t own the relationship you re a victim to it o Likely leads to uncommitted complaining 0 Instead own the relationship create clean agreements confront and follow up when necessary It is not fair game to stop investing in the relationship and then complain about how poor it is In The Devil Wears Prada Andie realized that she had to begin taking more accountability for her job namely her relationship with Miranda 0 Nigel called her to account when she complained and voiced her feelings of victimization Accounting for the Issue of Authority Is a leader merely anyone who holds a position of authority Is leadership merely what anyone in that position does America is a very individualistic culture that places much emphasis and focus upon individual leaders 3 Primary Functions of a Viable Social System OrganizingStructuring must be a wellorganized system Social integration humans are social creatures AdaptationInnovation responding to changes in the world surrounding the system 0 Bringing about new and improved ways of doing things gt No one individual can do all of these things Leadership amp Management No single individual is proficient in both of these areas Leadership is evenly distributed since multiple people engage in leading at a given time in a given organization The Issue of Followers Far more critical than the leader it turns out First follow is an underestimated form of leadership in itself Movement must be public in order to show the fact that it has followers New followers emulate the existing followers not the leader Is leadership overglorified 0 First follower experiences the highest risk tells subsequent followers what to do and makes the experience safer for other followers The opportunity for genuine followership opens up when you are willing to be accountable for a working relationship 0 Thus followership is very powerful Not choosing to follow is NOT a function of the leader s inability to lead instead followership is a choice Leaderfollower relationship often misplaces the emphasis on the leader Leader and follower are gender neutral Selfserving following can occur Romance of leadership is prevalent in American culture Different Types of Followers Isolate cares little for the leader and does not particularly respond to him her Bystander disengaged and almost like an observer with passive participation Participant cares about the organization and tries to make an impact Activist feels more strongly about the organization and leader and acts accordingly when supportive he she is eager energetic and engaged Die Hard passionate about an idea a person or both and will give all for itthem dedicated to Partnerships complementary antagonistic or selfserving Complementary partnerships are those relationships that work Primary reason why people get disengaged at work OR leave their jobs the boss Types of Bosses Abusive rude inconsiderate unfair Disengaged doesn t acknowledge good work You and your boss each have a particular way of working modus operandi or MO and those don t always match up However the ability to work with your boss the primary key to success Initiating Structure extent to which we provide structure for other people task oriented Consideration extent to which we are considerate thoughtful of other people and their well being relationshiporiented If your boss utilizes an Initiating Structure orientation and you utilize a Consideration orientation you ll be upset that your boss doesn t treat you the way you d like to be treated If your boss utilizes a Consideration orientation and you utilize an Initiating Structure orientation you ll be frustrated that your boss doesn t provide sufficient direction Find out what your boss is actually accountable for and how he she is measured in terms of success Can help you determine what you can do to make your boss successful thus helping yourself become successful in turn This builds a partnership between the two of you Worth the effort to make it work Perceptual and Functional Constraints Perceptual Constraints impact what you see and hear your reality Physical Perceptual Constraints in uence how the brain works Functional Constraints impact how you react to what you see and hear limitations that guide your actions and decisions Perception is NOT equal to Reception We think that what we see and hear is exactly what s going on Article in The New Yorker The Itchquot When we have an itch we think something is going on with the body and if we scratch it we will take care of it However the brain puts the itch there it is a physical feeling phenomenon We see what our brain sees not what our eyes see 0 Visual sensations are largely constructed by the brain Memories get updated over time based on the context of memories surrounding each other We see through rosecolored glasses meaning that we don t always completely see what s really there but we aren t fully aware that those glasses exist Inattentional Blindness psychological lack of attention failing to recognize an unexpected stimulus in plain sight Change Blindness occurs when a change in a visual stimulus is introduced and the observer does not notice it Goal of vision is to make sense of the world around you Breakdown in deliverables In absence of a record we forget what exactly an agreement entailed This is due to change blindness Listening we also think that we hear exactly what people say exactly as they say it Levels of listening 0 Ignoring o Pretend listening 0 Selective listening 0 Attentive listening 0 Empathic listening mirroring Already Always Listening perceptual constraint upon which we draw conclusions created or inherited socially based upon our prior experience Affect how we interact with people Example gender stereotypes Yeah I already know thatquot Example regional stereotypes Most of us have never identified our stereotypic views and how they impact our thinking I m rightquot9listening from a rightwrong point of view 1 agree disagreequot Identify your biases as a first step to attentive and empathic listening Functional Constraints Two realities exist 1 What s going on 2 What we see what we think is going on The Ladder of Inference World of observable data and experience Data that we select notice focus on Add meanings make assumptions draw conclusions adopt beliefs Take actions based on one s beliefs 0 Data is NOT the source of what I m doing my beliefs ARE The re exive loop 0 Our beliefs affect what data we select next time 0 Already always listening Distinguishing Realities What s so 0 Temperature is 78 degrees Fahrenheit 0 Dow Jones declined 300 points today 0 Northwestern is ranked 24 and Ohio State is ranker 25 Interpretation 0 It s very hot and I can t breathe 0 We are going into a recession 0 The ranking system is awed Life occurs in what is actually happening NOT in the interpretations Separating Reality Interpretation 0 John is so biased and he never agrees to anything 0 Management has no idea what it s doing 0 This workplace is so bureaucratic I can t believe anything gets done What s so 0 John answered no to a request for more money 0 The VP declined by proposal 0 My request for travel reimbursement was sent back as quotincompletequot You are ALWAYS interacting with your interpretations When you change your interpretations different actions become possible Example Kate and Bryan a mother and her son Kate exhibits already always listening about Bryan She has a predetermined set of conclusions in which Bryan will say and do things that are consistent with an irresponsible troublemaking and disrespectful son Kate will NOT have an open mind Functional constraint of acting in accordance with her conclusions Bryan will have a different response to his mom getting on his case if he believes that she loves and cares about him System 1 Thinking what you normally do automatic and intuitive most of life is spent in this state of the brain System 2 Thinking rational thinking requires effort engagement and re ection Taking a test studying Framing functional constraint that sets up your thinking conclusions in a particular way Can be highly determinative in how people will react Situates the world in a particular way that makes you react accordingly Optimism too much of it is NOT good and this shows up in the issue of overconfidence bias 99 of people who are certain of their answers are actually wrong 40 of the time Disease of certainty is fatal to investigations 0 Tunnel vision about one conclusion 0 Ignores clues that might point them in another direction Cult of ignorance in the US according to Isaac Asimov 0 My ignorance is just as good as your knowledgequot 0 False notion of democracy Sunk Cost Fallacy pretense that misspent resources of the past will only be quotwastedquot if we stop misspending resources Often helps to defend that which was sacrificed Functional constraint that limits our ability to react by impeding our exibility Group Meetings Prime method by which work can get done in organizations 50 of attendees consider meetings to be a waste of time However people also get upset when they aren t included invited Meeting Ground Rules Make Teams Work How will decisions be made How will interactions be governed How will meetings be run Most meetings do NOT have ground rules or agendas Decision Making in GroupsMeetings Patterns to the way in which problems are addressedresolved and decisions are made Diverge converge diverge converge Diverge need ground rules so that everybody can talk and no ideas get discouraged Converge opportunity for disagreement as the group makes a choice 0 Usually the decision made is the one that pleases everyone the most but might not be the best choice Polarization in Decision Making occurs when you get a group of likeminded people together They tend to get extreme about whatever it is that they agree upontheir shared views Conservative shift Risky shift Groupthink start lining up on a particular answer and whoever disagrees gets ostracized Ground rules give you the basis by which you can address this issue Things to Establish via the Ground Rules Silence the leaders 0 People tend to gravitate toward the leader s proposals thus suppressing discussion and encouraging groupthink Silence the talkers 0 Point out the group agreement that outlines how everyone should work operate Test assumptions Agreement to debate 0 How do you structure a debate Con ict Most people do not enjoy it nor do they enjoy the process of discussing disagreements with others Faced with the choice between changing one s mind and proving that there is no need to do so almost everybody gets busy on the proofquot Iohn Kenneth Galbraith Types of Con ict Cognitive con ict disagreement over taskrelated issues how something will be accomplished the approach used 0 Related to integrity 0 We want high levels of cognitive con ict in order for groups to work well 0 Always refers back to the goal that the team is trying to accomplish Affective con ict personal disagreements 0 Related to affinity as it is a threat to affinity and personal relationships 0 Brings in emotions 0 As soon as it becomes personal we have a functional constraint to stop participating OR counterattack Need to be able to distinguish between these types of con ict and to address them accordingly via the ground rules Can establish a ground rule that prohibits personal attacks Rules of Delegation 1 Delegation works best when you focus on what you want delivered a What is to be delivered By when To whom 2 Works best when both you AND the other person record the agreements between you a The deliverable itself as well as the communications and meetings involved b How do you keep track of your agreements with people 3 Works best when both you AND the other person obey the Law of Accomplishment and schedule the work to be done a The Law of Accomplishment accomplishment of anything and everything requires a specific period of time in which to do so 4 Works best when you use productive conversations and get good promises a Avoid the trap of understanding by playing dumb and acting as if you don t already know what someone will want just to be sure b Utilize the request template which covers the accomplishment ingredients involved c Good promises i Are they clear on what you want ii Are they clear on when you want it iii Are they clear on why you want it iv Are they available to do the work v Do they have the resources vi Are they accepting your request d Your expectation is NOT someone else s promise 5 Works best when you build accountability and expand integrity a Integrity honoring your agreements through closure conversations b Integrity and accountability are closely intertwined c Affinity trumps integrity however You can build an affective structure for delegating and interacting with other people independent of your position or authority Foundation for building effective working relationships is the deliverables and agreements between you and those people Deliverables agreements in uence reputation and credibility Dependent on the willingness to communicate
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