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planet streams

planet streams


School: Michigan State University
Department: Interdisciplinary Studies
Course: Global Change
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: global and change
Cost: 50
Name: ISP203A Study guide #3
Description: Study guide #3
Uploaded: 03/31/2017
14 Pages 173 Views 0 Unlocks

What affects the steepness of the Rising Limb?

How do stream/ rivers change from headwater to mouth?

How would you describe the “health” of rivers in the UNited States?

Study Guide SP 203A Notes #11 March 13, 2017 Modification of Groundwater 2. Lowering of the water table Waukesha, Wisconsin 3. Subsidence Combination of excessive withdrawal and poorly consolidated sediment 1925-1977 San Joaquin, CA 4. Contamination ● Surface runoff ● Leaky storage tanks/landfillIf you want to learn more check out psyc2030
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s ● Industrial discharge to surface water ● Underground… 1,4 dioxane Surface Water ● Total withdrawals 355 Billion gallons per day ● 86% of withdrawals from freshwater ● Surface water supplied …. Surface water: water on the surface of the planet (streams, rivers, lakes, wetlands, oceans) Watershed--area of land where all of the water that is under it or drains off of it goes into the same place Streams and rivers ● Lotic ecosystems: flowing water ● Beginin at a high elevation point (mountain, hill) and flow to lower elevation points. ● Drain to the ocean or some inland..Watersheds are nested​: Red Cedar River is a tributary to the Upper Grand River Upper Grand River is a tribu… to Grand River The Grand River flows into Lake Michigan St. Lawrence River flows to the Atlantic Ocean Stream Classification: -Flow conditions 1. Ephemeral (short lived):.... 2. Perennial: flow throughout the year. Well connected to ground water 3. Intermittent: share characteristics of both perennial and ephemeral streams. -Stream Order: 1-12 Strahler’s Method--based on the joining of tributaries. Tributaries: a stream that joins another stream reach Two sam order streams join to form a higher order stream Example: Two 2nd order streams join to form a 3rd order stream When two different order streams join, you keep the higher number. ISP203A Notes #12 March 15, 2017 How would you describe the “health” of rivers in the UNited States? ● Dissolved oxygen levels ● pH scale ● Water color The Cuyahoga River In 1940 the river would catch fire because of all the oil in it. Same thing in the 50s and the 60s. It empties out into lakeSummary of the Clean Water Act 1948-- Federal water pollution control act First US law to address water pollution 1972--Amended and became known as the Clean Water Act ● Established the basic structure for regulating pollutants discharges into US waters (point source pollution) ● Gave EPA authority to implement control programs (ex. Setting wastewater standards) ● Made it unlawful to discharge pollutants from a point … Point Source​: can trace the type and source of a pollutant (ex. sewage) Non-point source​: polluted runoff (motor oil, fertilizer, etc.) Monitoring water quality ● Healthy water bodies have ecological integrity ○ A natural or undisturbed state ● Ecological integrity is comprised of ○ Physical integrity ○ Chemical integrity ○ Biological integrity Surface Water How do stream/ rivers change from headwater to mouth?Slope (rise/run) Channel Width Channel Depth Discharge (Q) Sediment size (rocks get smaller as you go down stream) Increases downstream: Q Channel width Channel depth Sediment storage Decreases downstream: Slope Sediment size Stream Functional Zones (sediment): ● Productive zone ○ Production of sediment ● Transport zone ○ Transfer of sediment ● Deposition zone ○ Deposition and storage of sediment River Continuum Concept(RCC)--Vannote et al. 1980 ● Conceptual model that relates physical and biological changes along the longitudinal profile of a river ○ Energy ■ Autochthonous ■ Allochthonous ○ Macroinvertebrates 1. Autochthonous (produced in stream reach) organic matter ● Autotrophs: organism capable of synthesizing its own food from inorganic substances (using light or chemical energy) ● In lotic systems ○ Benthic algae ○ Macrophytes ○ Phytoplankton2. Allochthonous (produced outside of stream reach) organic matter ● CPOM--coarse particulate organic matter ○ Leaves, twigs, (>1mm) ● FPOM--fine particulate organic matter (0.5mm - 1mm) Autochthonous vs. Allochthonous organic matter 1. Stream orders 1-3: Allochthonous OM Tree cover is the source and also blocks sunlight 2. Stream orders 4-6: Autochthonous OM Less tree cover allows sunlight penetration 3. Stream orders >6: Mostly Allochthonous OM Sediment and depth of river limit benthic algae but there exist phytoplankton in these reaches as well Macroinvertebrates ● Macro--visible without the aid of microscope ● Invertebrate--lack vertebrae (backbone) ● Importance: they are the link between organic matter resources of a stream and other organisms (FFGs) Biological Integrity and Bioassessment ● Assessing biological integrity (bioassessment) ○ Algae ○ Fish { Methods of assessing alae and fish exist but on we will focus Macroinvertebrates ○ Macroinvertebrates Macroinvertebrates as indicator species ● They are affected by physical, chemical, and biological conditions of a stream ● They are critical components of a stream’s food web ● They community reflects cumulative impacts of pollution ● They are sensitive to varying degrees... For example:Physical Substrate size--boulder, cobbles, sand Chemical … For example: Some species require multiple years in their larval habitat before emerging as adults. Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Hexapod--6 legs 1 claw per leg usually 3 terminal filaments gills along side of abdomen Plecoptera(stoneflies) Hexapod--6 legs 2 claws per leg Usually 2 terminal… Odonata (dragonflies and Damselflies) ISP203A Notes #13 March 20, 2017 Coleoptera (beetles) Diptera (true flies) Macroinvertebrates as indicator species ● They are affected... Tolerance Values and Biotic INdex ● Tolerance values (TV) reflect and invertebrates tolerance of organic pollutants ● TV range from 1-10 ● The higher the TV the more pollution tolerant the invertebrate ● TV are used with NUMBER of each TYPE of invertebrate to determine a stream Biotic Index BI = Sigma(n)(a) / N n = # of individuals per type of invert in a sample a = TV for type of macroinvertebrate N = total # of individuals in a sampleOther Metrics 1. Taxa Richness = number of different taxa (species, genera, family) counted in a sample 2. % EPT = percentage of sample comprised of organisms in the Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera 3. Diversity = incorporates richness and evenness Diversity ● Which community seems more diverse? ○ Community 1: more diversity in trees ● Both communities have a richness of 4 ● Simpson’s Diversity Index, where S = richness and Pi =proportion of the ith taxa Other Metrics 1. % Functional Feeding Group (FFG) Functional Feeding Groups --Merritt and Cummins ● Macroinvertebrates are characterized by the behavioral mechanism of food acquisition ● Useful in conjunction with RCC ○ Scrapers (Grazers) ○ Shredders ○ Collectors ■ Gatherers ■ Filterers ○ Predators Scrapers(grazers)--autochthonous organic matter Shredders --allochthonous organic matter --CPOM Filtering-collectors (FPOM) ● Specializations ○ Setaw ○ Mouth Brushes○ Nets ○ Cephalic fans Predators: consumers of animal prey Dragonflies Beetles Stoneflies FCC --Functional feeding group assemblage Stream orders 1-3: Shredders Collectors (gathering and filtering) Stream orders 1-6: Scrappers Collectors (gathering and filtering) Stream orders >6: Collectors​ (gathering and filtering) Hydrograph Discharge (Q): the volume of water passing a location along a stream over some time interval (for example, cubic meters per second (cms) USGS river discharge ● River discharge (Q) periodically measured (during… USGS plot of stage height vs. discharge ● Can interpolate (estimate) discharge at various stage heights (For ex: Q at 3.3ft stage height = 40..) Storm runoff represent increase to.. The rising limb represents the increase in discharge What affects the steepness of the Rising Limb? (list two factors) Recharge Types of vegetation Steepness of the banksRain The peak of the hydroge… The Recession Limb .. Lag to peak or lag time represents time between peak rainfall and peak discharge How does impervious cover (urbanization) affect the shape of the hydrograph? The lag time may decrease Impervious = impermeability = not allowing fluid to pass through (roads, buildings, sidewalks, etc) Impervious cover results in: Increase runoff Decreased infiltration to groundwater The hydrograph is also impacted by impervious cover: Lag time decreases Peak flow increases Slope of rising limb What does this mean for a river? A quicker and bigger pulse if water through the stream channel (flashy) Impacts from a flashier hydrograph? ISP203A Notes #14 March 27, 2017 Iowa’s LArgest City Sues Over Farm Fertilizer Runoff in Rivers --article BioGeoChemical Cycles (N, P) Matter can neither be created nor destroyed Periodic Table of Elements ● Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass● Matter is made up of elements ● …. ● Elements are used over and over (cycle) ● BioGeoChemical cycles include the exchange of elements (nutrients) between organisms (organic) and their environment (inorganic) Nutrient: elements that are required for growth and maintenance of life Cycling: elements…. Nutrient cycles involve both storage and transfer Nutrient Pools​ (storage): amount of nutrient stored Nutrient flux​ (transfer): movement of nutrients between pools Nutrient sink:​ a pool where a nutrient is absorbed faster than it is released Nutrient source​: a pool where a nutrient is released faster than it is absorbed Phosphorus Cycle-- importance of life Cell Membranes ATP DNA and RNA Largest pools: marine sediments, mineral deposits Become available primarily via weathering of rocks Absorbed by plants and recycled within ecosystem Land to ocean via rivers Recycled within ecosystem Waste--Inorganic phosphorus Phosphorus Cycle Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire Phosphorus Budget: measured inputs and exports (1963-1975) If P cycling budget was “perfect” what would you expect the ratio of exports to inputs to be? A: 1 Phosphorus Cycle Gains and losses of P to Bear Brook (1974-1975)Greatest gains during leaf fall Greatest losses during rain storms or snowmelt Phosphorus Cycle Anthropogenic effects on P cycle Phosphorus exports increases as land use intensifies Nitrogen Cycle ● Amino Acids--proteins ● DNA and RNA ● Hemoglobin ● Largest pool: Atmosphere--78% N2 ● However, few organisms can use it … ● N2 must be “fixed” by organisms ○ Nitrogen Fixation: N2 to NH3 (ammonia) 1. Cyanobacteria 2. Free-living soil bacteria 3. Symbiotic bacteria on legumes 4. Symbiotic bacteria on woody plants Nitrogen Cycle ● Once fixed, nitrogen becomes available to other organisms and is recycled within the ecosystem ● Nitrogen exists (is transferred) the organic matter pool through denitrification ● NO3 (nitrate to N2 by bacteria Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in new Hampshire Effect of deforestation​ on N Nitrogen Cycle ● Nitrate loss from the forest was much higher after deforestation ● Anthropogenic effects on N cycle ● Nitrogen enrichment: 1. Air pollution from burning fossil fuels (leads to acid rain) 2. Land pollution from application of fertilizers 3. Water pollution from sewage disposal, agriculture, and deforestationLentic Ecosystems: standing or relatively still water Lake classification--based on ability to support life Oligotrophic--’oligo’ = few​, ‘trophic’ = relating to nutrition Generally deep and clear Little aquatic plant growth Sufficient dissolved… Eutrophic-- ‘eu’ = true​, ‘trophic’ = nutrition Poor water clarity Abundant aquatic plants Little to no dissolved oxygen (hypoxia < 2mg/L) Mesotrophic --’meso’ = middle​, ‘trophic’ =nutrition Eutrophication (lake aging): process by where a lake receives nutrients (Phosphorus, Nitrogen) and sediments from the surrounding watershed and becomes… Cultural Eutrophication: human induced eutrophication 3/29/17 ● Cultural eutrophication o Human induced eutrophication o EPA changed the name to nutrient pollution ● Where does nutrient pollution come from o Fossil fuels o Agriculture o Urban sources o Industry ● How does nutrient build up kill a lake/river? o First step = nutrient load up ▪ Excessive nutrients from fertilizers are flushed from the land into rivers or lakes by rainwater o Second step = plant flourish ▪ These pollutants cause aquatic plant growth of algae duckweed and other plants o Third step = algae blooms and oxygen is depleted ▪ Algae blooms preventing sunlight reaching other plants, the plants die and oxygen in the water is depleted o Fourth step= decomposition further depletes oxygen▪ Dead plants are broken down by bacteria decomposers using up even more oxygen in the water o Fifth step = death of the ecosystem ▪ Oxygen levels reach a point where no life is possible, fish and other organisms die Energy ● What is energy o The ability to do work o It is in everything there are different forms of energy that can be placed into two general categories ▪ Potential energy ▪ Kinetic energy ● Potential energy o Stored energy and the energy of position ▪ ex = chemical energy – energy stored in bonds or atoms and molecules ● Kinetic energy o Energy of motion ▪ ex = thermal energy – (heat) movement of atoms and molecules within substances ▪ ex = radiant energy – electromagnetic energy that travels in waves (light energy) ● Laws of thermodynamics o First law – energy is neither created nor destroyed it changes from one form to another o Second law – energy transformations are not 100% efficient ● U.S. energy consumption by source 2015 o Non-renewable energy sources: once consumed are no longer available for future use ▪ Petroleum = 36.2% ▪ Natural gas = 29% ▪ Coal = 16.1% ▪ Uranium = 8.5% o Renewable energy sources: continually replenished or replenished on a human timescale ▪ Biomass = 4.8% ▪ Hydropower = 2.4% ▪ Geothermal = 0.2% ▪ Wind = 1.9% ▪ Solar = 0.5% ● Primary vs. Secondary energy sources o Primary energy = energy contained in natural resources ▪ Coal oil sunlight wind uranium o Secondary energy = when primary energy is converted ▪ Electricity● What is electricity? o The movement of electrons between atoms ● Electric generators essentially convert kinetic energy into electrical energy ● Steam turbine o Turned by pressurized steam that can be generated from several sources

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