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OleMiss - CHEM 105 - Geol105Exam2StudyGuide.pdf - Study Guide

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OleMiss - CHEM 105 - Geol105Exam2StudyGuide.pdf - Study Guide

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background image Geol 105 Exam 2 Study Guide  Exam 2 will be given on April 4th.  This study guide includes topics/answers that are on the 
checklist the professor gave us March 28th.   It will include information from chapters 13-16. 
Chapter 13 
Global water cycle
​: evaporation (water goes up into atmosphere), precipitation (water goes  down in the form of rain), transpiration (loss of water due to plants), surface runoff (as it rains, 
water moves from high elevation to low elevation), subsurface groundwater flow (movement of 
water under Earth’s surface) 
Drainage basin
​-aka watershed, an area of land which puts in water to a certain stream or river  Drainage divide ​-boundary between two drainage basins that are next to each other   
Groundwater profile 
● Vadose zone- ​the earth material above the water table, serves as early warning area for  potential pollution to groundwater (GW) resources  ● Zone of saturation ​-under vadose zone, infiltrated by water that seeps down from earth’s  surface; where true GW flow occurs 
*upper surface of zone of saturation=
water table​=boundary between the 2 zones    Aquifer- ​earth material capable of supplying GW at a useful rate  Unconfined aquifer- ​has no confining layer restricting upper surface of zone of saturation  Confined aquifer- ​if confining layer is present   Artesian well- ​created by water rising up from rocks due to pressure   
Recharge zone-
​any process which adds water to an aquifer (Ex: precipitation)  Discharge zone- ​any process which removes GW from an aquifer (Ex: natural discharge from a  spring) 
Influent stream-
​above the water table, only flow in response to precipitation   Effluent stream - perennial​; flow all year   
Cone of depression-
​occurs when water is pumped from a well; can alter the direction of GW  movement within an area 
Cone of ascension-
​formed by extensive pumping in coastal areas can cause salt water to rise  into wells  
Hydraulic conductivity-
​ability of a material to allow water to move through it  Porosity- ​percentage of void/empty space in sediment or rock 
background image  
​ have high hydraulic conductivity and can be an aquifer.  ​GW moves fast  through sand but slow through clay. 
​ has low hydraulic conductivity and can be an aquitard.   
Probs caused by overdraft of GW: 
​Reduce stream flow, lower lake level, reduce water in  wetlands 
Probs caused by overuse of surface water: 
​deplete GW resources   
Karst topography -
​surface land with thin bed of limestone underneath  Problems (pollution transportation):  ● Water pollution occurs where sinkholes have been used for waste disposal 
● Cavern systems prone to collapse, making sinkholes 
● Springs aren’t receiving as much GW flow due to mining 
3 types of water use: 
​using water that has been removed or diverted from its source  Consumptive- ​type of offstream use; water does not return to the stream or GW resource  immediately after use 
​water used that is not removed from its source   
Water Management: 
​linkages between surface and groundwater must be understood  To be considered: alternative water supplies, better protecting, managing (conserving) existing 
supplies, and controlling population growth 
Wetlands and Ecosystems 
Wetlands greatly affected by water resources developments (building dams, canals, etc) 
Effects of water resources developments
​: loss of land, migrating fish unable to move upstream,  foreign sediment being trapped, reducing water storage capacity, river/coastal erosion    Chapter 14 
​any substance that is known to be harmful to desirable living organisms  Common pollutants:  ● BOD indicates (Biochemical Oxygen Demand)- ​ high BOD means lots of  decaying organic matter in the water  ● Fecal coliform indicates- ​biological pollution 
background image ● Nutrients (N and P)- ​nitrogen and phosphorous; used in fertilizers,  detergents, etc; causes cultural eutrophication  ○ Cultural eutrophication- ​natural process characterized by rapid  increase in abundance of plant life, mostly algae  ■ The algae block sunlight to plants below, those plants  eventually die  ■ Algae also takes out more oxygen in the water, negatively  impacting other organisms  ○ Case history of summer of “dead zone”  ■ Shore of Louisiana  
■ Low concentration of oxygen in water kills shellfish and crabs 
■ Supposedly caused by Mississippi River 
● Oil- ​oil spill in Gulf of Mexico (Deepwater Horizon) was worst oil disaster  in US history; marine life, sea birds, other organisms harmed  ● Toxic waste  ○ Synthetic organic compounds- ​organic compounds have carbon that  is produced naturally or synthetically; many uses (pest control)   ○ MTBE- ​methyl tert-butyl ether; added to gasoline to increase oxygen  level and decrease CO2 emissions  ○ Heavy metals- ​include lead, mercury and zinc; dangerous pollutants  usually deposited with natural sediment in bottoms of streams, 
pollutes ecosystems, toxic to animals and humans 
● Sediments as pollutants- ​greatest water pollutant , depletes soil, reduces  quality of water, deposits undesirable materials on useful land   
Point source pollution-
​discrete and confined, controlled by onsite treatments or  disposal (sources: pipes which empty into streams or rivers from 
industrial/municipal sites) 
Nonpoint source pollution-
​diffuse and intermittent; difficult to control contains  multiple types of pollutants (sources: runoff from streets or fields, agriculture, 
forestry or mining) 

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School: University of Mississippi
Department: Chemistry
Course: Environmental Geology
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: geol and Geology
Name: Geol105Exam2StudyGuide.pdf
Description: Answers/information coming from checklist (study sheet) we were given Tuesday for Exam 2
Uploaded: 03/31/2017
7 Pages 55 Views 44 Unlocks
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