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UA - PSYCH 101 - Psych 101 Exam 3 Study Guide - Study Guide

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UA - PSYCH 101 - Psych 101 Exam 3 Study Guide - Study Guide

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background image Psych Exam #3 Study Guide    Society and Culture    1. Stanford Prison Experiment  ● performed by Dr. Zimbardo 
● wanted to see what would happen when you take away someone’s identity  
● took college guys & assigned them to 2 groups: guards & prisoners  
● at first it was uneventful, but the guards began to use psychological tactics on 
them  ● on the second day prisoners began to revolt 
● The experiment was supposed to last 2 weeks but it only lasted 6 days bc it was so 
unethical   ○ this experiment demonstrates that humans love power 
○ Shows us that people take on the roles that they are told to do 
 
2. Abu Ghraib
​- Prison in Iraq  ● Americans took it over & turned it into a military prison  
● reports came out saying that the officers tortured the prisoners 
● 17 soldiers were arrested  
 
Explanations: 
● The more people that come together, the quicker they are to violate norms 
● Zimbardo testified for the soldiers, said that people take on the roles they think are 
expected of them    3. Milgram’s Obedience Experiment  ● There was a “teacher” and a “learner” 
● Volunteer’s were told to shock the person behind the screen when they got the 
answer wrong  ● The more they got it wrong they had to increase the shocks  
● most people obeyed even when they were extremely distressed 
● They continued even when the “learner” stopped responding 
 
What makes them less likely to obey? 
● The participant was more likely to obey when the experimenter left the room 
● Also less likely to obey if they were in the same room as the learner 
● When two experimenters give conflicting demands 
background image ● Less likely to obey when they perceive the person giving them orders as an equal  to them  ● Participant worked with peers to rebel   
4. Social Norms 
● Social Norms- rules that regulate social life 
● We are socialized to believe that there are punishments and rewards for engaging in the 
behaviors we do.  ● We like social norms because it makes our social interactions predictable  
● If we see others violate a social norm, we are more likely to do it 
  5. Social Roles  ● A social position that is governed by our social norms  ○ (Boys play with trucks & girls play with dolls)    ● Shaped by culture  ○ Ex. gender roles, student vs. professor roles    ● Culture: shared rules that govern behavior of people in a community and values,  beliefs, and customs shared by most people in the community      Social Cognition    
-how social forces impact whats going on internally 
 
Attribution Theory
​- we want to be able to explain behaviors  Situational Attribution ​- due to situational factors   
Dispositional Attribution
​- due to who they are    
Fundamental Attribution Error
​- we tend to look at as when we do something wrong its bc of  the situation, but when someone else does something wrong it is bc who they are as a person 
 
Cognitive biases 
● We flatter ourselves 
● Think we’re better than average  
● The world is just and fair  
 
background image Attitudes 
- our beliefs about something 
 
Explicit
​- attitudes that we own   
Implicit
​- attitudes that we are not aware of, lie just below the surface   
-when the explicit bias IS socially acceptable, it is MORE likely to be congruent with the 
implicit bias 
-when the explicit bis IS NOT socially acceptable, it is LESS likely to  be congruent with the 
implicit bias 
 
Familiarity Effect
​- the tendency for people to have more positive feelings about something, that  is familiar to them  
 
Validity Effect- 
​the idea that the more we hear something, the more likely we are to believe it to  be true. (how propaganda is created) 
 
The Bystander Effect
​- the idea that when people see something happening, when others are  around they don’t feel as responsible to intervene  ● The responsibility is diffused between the group of people 
● People assume someone else will take care of it 
 
Conformity-
​ an action or an attitude that we adapt to others based on real or perceived  pressures. We conform for 2 reasons:  ● Need for social acceptance 
● Need for information - we always think other people know more than us 
 
Diffusion of Responsibility: 
● Bystander Effect ​- Kitty was an American in the 1960’s outside of her apartment  complex  ● Deindividuation ​- the idea that when we are in groups, we shed some of our individuality  and conform to the group  ○ Group Identity - we can create an “us vs. them” mentality  
○ Deindividuation also happens when we are removed from the group. (social 
media, wearing a gorilla suit)  ■ This allows us to do things we wouldn’t normally do   
Ethnocentrism
​- the belief that your own culture, nation or religion is superior to others 

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School: University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa
Department: Psychology
Course: Intro to Psychology
Professor: Tba
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Intro to Psychology
Name: Psych 101 Exam 3 Study Guide
Description: Professor: Cox
Uploaded: 03/31/2017
10 Pages 60 Views 48 Unlocks
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