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UH - MANA 3335 - Management Exam 3 Study Guide - Study Guide

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UH - MANA 3335 - Management Exam 3 Study Guide - Study Guide

School: University of Houston
Department: Business Management
Course: Introduction to Management and Organizational Behavior
Professor: Richard Defrank
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: Management
Name: Management Exam 3 Study Guide
Description: Ignore the "A Basic Model of Work Motivation and Performance" chart for Chapter 13 and the Normative Decision Theory in Chapter 14.
Uploaded: 03/31/2017
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background image   MANA 3335 (UH BAUER)    Chap M13  Chapter 13 Review: Motivation    BASICS OF MOTIVATION  Motivation is the set of forces that initiates, directs, and makes people persist in their efforts to accomplish a 
goal. 
  Initiation of effort is concerned with the choices that people make about how much effort to put forth in  their jobs.    Direction of effort is concerned with choices that people make in deciding where to put forth efforts in  their jobs.    Persistence of effort is concerned with the choices that people make about how long they will put forth  effort in their jobs before reducing or eliminating these efforts.  Initiation, direction, and persistence are the heart of motivation.  Effort and performance  𝑱𝒐𝒃 𝑷𝒆𝒓𝒇𝒐𝒓𝒎𝒂𝒏𝒄𝒆 = 𝑴𝒐𝒕𝒊𝒗𝒂𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏  × 𝑨𝒃𝒊𝒍𝒊𝒕𝒚  × 𝑺𝒊𝒕𝒖𝒂𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏𝒂𝒍 𝑪𝒐𝒏𝒔𝒕𝒓𝒂𝒊𝒕𝒔  Job performance is how well someone performs the requirements of the job.    Motivation is the degree to which someone works hard to do the job well.    Ability is the degree to which workers possess the knowledge, skills, and talent needed to do a job well.  Situational constraints are factors beyond the control of individual employees, such as tools, policies, 
and resources that have an effect on job performance. 
  Since job performance is a multiplication function of motivation times ability times situational  constraints, job performance will suffer if any of these components is weak.  Need satisfaction  Needs are the physical or psychological requirements that must be met to ensure survival and well-being.    A person’s unmet need creates an uncomfortable, internal state of tension that must be resolved.     
background image   MANA 3335 (UH BAUER)    Chap M13  Three well known needs theories.    Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs suggests that people are motivated by  ›  Psychological (food and water)  ›  Safety (physical and economic)  ›  Belongingness (friendship, love, social interaction)  ›  Esteem (achievement and recognition)  ›  Self-actualization (realizing your full potential)    According to Maslow, needs are arranged in a hierarchy from low (psychological) to  high (self-actualization). Within this hierarchy, people are motivated by their lowest 
unsatisfied need. As each need is met, they work their way up the hierarchy from 
psychological to self-actualization needs. 
  Alderfer’s ERG Theory collapses Maslow’s five needs into three  ›  Existence (safety and psychological needs)  ›  Relatedness (belongingness)  ›  Growth (esteem and self-actualization)    Alderfer says that people can be motivated by more than one need at a time.  Furthermore, he suggests that people are just as likely to move down the needs 
hierarchy as up, particularly when they are unable to achieve satisfaction at the next 
higher need level. 
  McClelland’s Learned Needs Theory suggests that people are motivated by the needs for  ›  Affiliation (to be linked and accepted)  ›  Achievement (to accomplish challenging goals)  ›  Power (to influence others)    McClelland argues that the degree to which particular needs motivate varies  tremendously from person to person, with some people being motivated primarily by 
achievement and others by power or affiliation. 
  McClelland says that needs are learned, not innate.  Lower-order needs are concerned with safety and with psychological and existence requirements.  Higher-order needs are concerned with relationships (belongingness, relatedness, and affiliation), and 
influence (power). 
  Studies generally show that higher-order needs will not motivate people as long as lower-order  needs remain unsatisfied.     
background image   MANA 3335 (UH BAUER)    Chap M13  Extrinsic and Intrinsic Rewards  Two kinds of rewards:  Extrinsic rewards are tangible and visible to others and are given to employees contingent on the 
performance of specific tasks or behaviors. 
External agents (managers, for example) determine and control the distribution, frequency, and 
amount of extrinsic rewards such as pay, company stock, benefits, and promotions. 
Companies use extrinsic rewards to motivate people to perform four basic behaviors: join the 
organization, regularly attend their jobs, perform their tasks well, and stay with the 
organization. 
  Intrinsic rewards are the natural rewards associated with performing a task or activity for its own sake.  Examples of intrinsic rewards include a sense of accomplishment or achievement, a feeling of 
responsibility, the chance to learn something new or interact with others, or simply the fun that 
comes from performing interesting, challenging, and engaging tasks. 
  What types of rewards are most important to workers in general?  Good benefits and health insurance, job security, a week or more of vacation (all extrinsic 
rewards), interesting work, the opportunity to learn new skills, and independent work situations 
(all intrinsic rewards). 
Motivating with the basics  What practical steps can managers take to motivate employees to increase their effort?  1.  Start by asking people what their needs are:  Motivating employees is finding out what they like and then giving them the rewards they want.  2.  Satisfy lower-orders needs first:  Provide the equipment, training, knowledge to create a safe workplace free of physical risks, 
paying employees well enough to provide financial security, and offering a benefits package that 
will protect employees and their families through good medical coverage and health and 
disability insurance. 
3.  Expect people’s need to change:  As some needs are satisfied or situations change, what motivated people before may not motivate 
them now. 
4.  As needs change and lower-order needs are satisfied, create opportunities for employees to satisfy  higher-order needs  One way for managers to meet employees’ higher-order needs is to create opportunities for 
employees to experience intrinsic rewards by providing challenging work, encouraging 
employees to take greater responsibility for their work, and giving employees the freedom to 
pursue tasks and projects they find naturally interesting. 
   
background image   MANA 3335 (UH BAUER)    Chap M13  EQUITY THEORY  Equity theory says that people will be motivated at work when they perceive that they are being treated fairly.  Component of Equity Theory  The basic components of equity theory are inputs, outcomes, and referents.  ›  Inputs: the contributions employees make to the organization.  o  They include education and training, intelligence, experience, effort, number of hours  worked, and ability.  ›  Outcomes: what employees receive in exchange for their contributions to the organization.  o  They include pay, fringe benefits, status symbols, and job titles and assignments.  ›  Referents: other people with whom people compare themselves to determine if they have been  treated fairly.  o  The referent can be a single person, a generalized other, or even yourself over time.  According to the equity theory, employees compare their outcomes (rewards they receive from the 
organization) with their inputs (their contributions to the organization). This comparison of outcomes with 
inputs is called outcome/input (O/I) ratio. After an internal comparison in which they compare their 
outcomes with their inputs, employees then make an external comparison in which they compare their O/I 
ratio with the O/I ratio of a referent. 
  When they perceive that their O/I ratio   referent’s O/I, they conclude that they are being treated  fairly.    When people perceive that their O/I ratio   referent’s O/I, they conclude that they have been  treated inequitably or unfairly.  Inequity can take two forms:    Under-reward: when a referent’s O/I ratio is better than your O/I ratio (you are getting fewer  outcomes relative to your inputs than the referent you compare yourself with is getting).  -  When people perceive that they are under-rewarded, they tend to experience anger and  frustration.    Over-reward: when a referent’s O/I ratio is worse than your O/I ratio (you are getting more  outcomes relative to your inputs than your referent is).  -  When people perceive that they have been over-rewarded, they experience guilt.  How people react to perceived inequity  Under-rewarding and over-rewarding leads to tension, and strong action must be taken to restore equity in 
some way. 
When people perceive that they have been under-rewarded, they may try to restore equity by:    Decreasing or withholding their inputs (that is, effort). 
  Increasing outcomes 
o  This might include asking for a raise or pointing out the inequity to the boss and hoping he or  she takes care of it. 
background image   MANA 3335 (UH BAUER)    Chap M13  o  Employees may go to external organizations such as labor unions, federal agencies, or the  courts for help in increasing outcomes to restore equity.    Rationalize or distort inputs or outcomes  o  Employees restore equity by making mental or emotional adjustments in their I/O ratios or  the I/O ratios of their referents.    Changing the referent  Motivating with Equity Theory  What practical steps can managers take to use equity theory to motivate employees?    Start by looking for and correcting major inequities  o  It is critical that managers do their best to take care of major inequities that can energize  employees to take disruptive, costly, or harmful actions such as decreasing inputs or leaving.    Reduce employees’ inputs  o  Identify and eliminate jobs that does not increase productivity or add value for customers.  o  Eliminate company-imposed requirements that really are not critical to performance of  managers, employees, or the company.    Make sure decision making processes are fair  o  Distributive justice: perceived degree to which outcomes and rewards are fairly distributed or  allocated.  o  Procedural justice: the perceived fairness of the procedures used to make reward allocation  decisions.     

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School: University of Houston
Department: Business Management
Course: Introduction to Management and Organizational Behavior
Professor: Richard Defrank
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: Management
Name: Management Exam 3 Study Guide
Description: Ignore the "A Basic Model of Work Motivation and Performance" chart for Chapter 13 and the Normative Decision Theory in Chapter 14.
Uploaded: 03/31/2017
25 Pages 111 Views 88 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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