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UMB / Biological Sciences Program / BSCI 160 / What is the explanation of Endosymbiotic Theory?

What is the explanation of Endosymbiotic Theory?

What is the explanation of Endosymbiotic Theory?

Description

School: University of Maryland
Department: Biological Sciences Program
Course: Principles of Ecology and Evolution
Professor: Alexa bely
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Biology: Ecology and Evolution
Cost: 25
Name: Week 8 Lecture Notes
Description: Eukaryotes Prokaryotes
Uploaded: 03/31/2017
6 Pages 222 Views 0 Unlocks
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Eukaryotes and Plant EvolutionIf you want to learn more check out What does taboo refer to?

- 3.8 billion years ago ~ prokaryote fossil (earliest fossil) found cyanobacteria

                                ⤷ found in stromatolites

        - earliest metabolism (glycolysis anaerobic) → photosynthesisIf you want to learn more check out What does a mercury represents?

[parsimony - less changes occur during evolution]

Hyphoth: Photosynthesis evolved once. (can be lost)

We also discuss several other topics like netbene

Evo=tinkerer:                 taking what is already thereDon't forget about the age old question of How does survival of offspring happen?

1) Pathways for production of ATP in aerobic respiration

        ⤷ borrowed / shared with photosynthesisIf you want to learn more check out How is the ternary form expanded?

2) Anaerobic origins of photosynthesis apparent even in modern plantsIf you want to learn more check out What is a collection of elements with 0-based indexes?

        Photorespiration                                ★ much of plants production (50%)

Rubisco = evolutionary relic                                lost this way

⤷ Most abundant enzyme / protein in wild

Eukaryotes

- began 2.1 billion years ago

- Protists ~ most unicellular

- plants, animal, fungi

⤷ multicellular

Tree

Non-protists

(Photosynthesizing neut (vertebrae) Chlorophyll within)

Endosymbiosis - solar sea slug and algae

  • Sucks out chloroplasts

Arabidopsis Thaliana - mouse-ear cress 18% genome known

        ⤷ Approximately 4500 genes are of cyanobacterial origin

        ⤷ 1st plant genome sea in 200

Ch.20

Endosymbiosis Theory

Lynn Margolis (1986)

  • Networking of life (not combat)

Prokaryote (ancestral, non photosynthesizing, anaerobic)

                                ⤷takes in aerobic bacteria/incorporate and keeps that energy

One species living inside another and benefited it (oxygen)

Chloroplasts and mitochondria

Evidence:

Mitochondria form monophyletic group

  • Traced back to single ancestor
  • Has its own DNA.

Secondary Endosymbiosis

Heterotrophic protist takes in

Vascular Plants

Chapter 21: Evolution of Plants

  • Closest relative - green algae - chlorophyll a and b

⤷ Charophytes                - cellulose cell ua

⤷ stoneworts                - starch as primary reserve

⤷ volvox

Cyanobacteria Algae

Plants and Green Algae

     1. Same proteins in plasma membrane for synthesizing cellulose

     2. Share anti-photorespiration enzymes in organelles - peroxisomes

     3. Similar structure with flagellated sperm

     4. Similar microtubules during cell division

Why leave water?

  • Limiting nutrients? - pollution
  •  for photosynthesis
  • Closer to sunlight

Land = harsh

  • Land plants must conserve water (cuticle) protect vulnerable life stages
  • Transport nutrients and gametes
  • Withstand graviton

Alternation of Generations:

     • Sporophytes → spores (by meiosis: 2n →n) diploid        ⤺

     • Gametophyte → gametes (mitosis n → n) haploid                ⤻

     • may look identical (ulva algae), similar in size (Mosses), different (conifer)

4 successive radiation if land plants:

  • nonvascular (bryophytes, MLH), ferns, gymnosperm, angiosperm

1. Nonvascular Plants

  • Mosses, liverworts, hornworts - moist habitats, tundra
  • Sporophyte (short lived)
  • Comes out of gametophyte
  • Adaptation ⟶ 1) cuticle (keeps plant from drying)

                       ⟶         2) protected embryo (inside plant)

  • Limits
  • No vascular tissue
  • Reliance on water

2. Ferns ~ first vascular plant        

  • Horsetails and ferns; lycophytes (club mosses)        (there were fern forests paleozoic)
  • Xylem and phloem                        (☆ sporophyte is predominant (what you see))

Limit:

  • gametophyte = fragil (separates and small)
  • Needs moisture

Breakthru

  • Vascular tissue
  • Lighten → allows height
  • Distribution by xylem and phloem

Beginning of leaves, competition for light

3. Gymnosperm - seeds “naked overie”

  • Tall
  • Less than 1200 species remain

Breakthru

  • Seeds - embryo packed with food, protected, can be easily dispersed (wind/animal)
  • Gametophytes is reduced - male can be carried by wind
  • heterospory

Limit

  • Inefficient needs lot of pollen

4. Angiosperm - flowering plants

     ★ Efficient ★

        1. Flowers

        2. Plants

Multicellular

     Bacteria

     Archaea

     Eukarya

Fungi

(fungi and animals share common ancestor)

                                ⤷ protist

~ Heterotrophs ~                [plants = phototrophs]

~ Chitin ~

Fungi ⇝ more closely related to animals

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