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UWM / Engineering / ARTHIST 102 / art 382 study guide

art 382 study guide

art 382 study guide

Description

School: University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee
Department: Engineering
Course: Renaissance to Modern Art and Architecture
Professor: Sarah schaefer
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: Art, Art History, uwm, milwaukee, goya, chiaroscuro, Baroque, and Protestant Reformation
Cost: 50
Name: Exam 2 Study Guide
Description: 6 pages of every painting you need to know about for exam 2.
Uploaded: 04/01/2017
6 Pages 122 Views 3 Unlocks
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o How is this displaying Counter Reformation ideas?




o How does this piece show Baroque ideals?




o How does this piece display mannerism?



Lecture 7; Italy in the Late 16th Century Mannerism and the Counter- Reformation • Protestant Reformation- Martin Luther publishes his 95 Theses in 1517 o Grievances against Catholic Church o Indulgences  o Sinful behavior  o Misuse of images  • Council of Trent (1545-63) o One of the catholic church's most important responses tIf you want to learn more check out political science 101 exam 2
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o the Protestant Reformation  o Established many of the ideas that would become central to the Counter Reformation  o What is acceptable in Christian art- what was unaccepted was destroyed or covered  over  • Death of Raphael 1483-1520  • Mannerism- a style emerged primarily in Italy from about 1520-1580. Often characterized by an  emphasis on elegance, technical virtuosity, and artificiality. • Michelangelo, Last Judgement, Sistine Chapel, 1536-1541, fresco o Christ gesturing towards the Damned  o Figures being pulled up to heaven (left)  o Figures being pushed to hell (right)  o Figures are shown as strong and muscular, even the Damned  o Bartholomew (?) is depicted; the skin he is holding is thought to be Michelangelo's self  portrait  o Later on, it was determined that there were too many nude figures in the Last  Judgement so they hired a painter to come in and paint clothes on nuded figures • Palladio, exterior view and plan of Villa Rotonda, Vicenza, Italy, begun 1560s o Influenced later centuries  o Villa meant "a functioning farm"  o Elevated porches lead to main floor, giving better views of the countryside  o Lower level had kitchens and workshops  o Similar elements as a church; included a dorm in the center  ▪ Domes were not used for secular buildings • Parmigianino, Madonna of the Long Neck, 1534-40, oil on wood  o Proportions are off  o Torso and legs are too big for body  o Holding a super elongated child (Christ)  o Tiny figure to the right is St. Gerome o How does this piece display mannerism? ▪ Elongated form (neck) and baby's body ▪ Tightly composed and compressed ▪ Background columns seem unfinished ▪ Small person bottom right (St. Jerome?) shows depth ▪ Figures look delicate Lecture 8The Renaissance outside Italy  The Protestant Reformation and the Art Market • Martin Luther's 95 Thesis  • Saw Veneration of saints and relics through images as idolatry (idolizing), which is a sin  • Printing press was invented during this time making his Thesis easier to print and share, also to  print the Bible  • Protestant Iconoclasm  o Iconoclasm- the banning and destruction of images, particularly religious images  The Northern Renaissance • Matthias Grunewald, Isenheim Altarpiece (closed), c. 1510-1515 o Continued many traditions in religious art  o Emphasized emotional qualities  o Body of Christ- grotesque image of his crucifixion, blood dripping  o Commissioned for a hospital that was devoted to treating skin diseases  o Mary falling in the arms of John the Evangelist  o John the Baptist (right) pointing towards Christ, seen as the Messiah  o Lamb holding a cross with blood coming out of his chest into a challace (referencing  Christ's crucifixion)  o Below is Christ being prepared for burial, skin discolored  • Matthias Grunewald, Isenheim Altarpiece (first opening) c. 1510-1515 o More joyful than when it's closed  o Left- annunciation scene  o Mid-left are heavenly choirs and Mary and baby Jesus to the right of it  ▪ Both scenes are connected in a way even though there is a dark transition  o Right- resurrection of Christ  ▪ Body merges with the lumination behind him  ▪ Emphasis of color and light  • Nikolaus Hagenauer (central panels and predella) and Matthias Grunewald (wings), Isenheim  Altarpiece (second opening) 1510-15 o Side panels- only opened on special feast days  o Right- temptation of St. Anthony by various demons  o Similar to Schongauer's engraving of the same subject  o Seemed hallucinational  • Albrecht Durer, Adam and Eve, 1504 engraving  o Shows his interest in Italian art  o Prints were cheaper and easier to reproduce and sell o Bodies are more idealizing and proportional than German art  o Durer may have seen Greek and Roman sculpture, or Greek and ROman prints  o The Four Humors: an early version of personality tests  ▪ Blood- Sanguino Rabbit  ▪ Yellow Bile (too much bile/ violence)- Choleric Cat ▪ Black Bile (sadness)- Melancholic Elk ▪ Phlegm (less focused on life)- Phlegmatic Ox o Animal symbols of the Four Humors are included in the print • Catholic Counter Reformation o Catholic churches response to Protestant Reformation o Established many udeas that would be central to Counter Reformation era, especially  the way art was made o Art under Counter Reformation ▪ Catholic church reaffirms importance of religious images ▪ Images need to incite the desire to pray (never anything inappropriate) ▪ Don’t use religious images to show off artistic talent ▪ Artists needed to follow religious texts precisely when depicting religious stories • Pieter Bruegel the Elder, The Harvesters, 1565 o Harvesting grain, harvesters under the tree eating bread  o Taken out of religious context, church in the background (hidden)  Renaissance England and Baroque Italy • Anamorphosis- a distorted perspective in which objects are stretched horizontally and are  legible only from an acute angle  • Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger, Queen Elizabeth I (The Ditchley Portrait), c. 1592 oil on canvas o If commissioned by royalty to paint a portrait and the artist didn't make a portrait that  was considered "official," consequences such as jail would happen  o Standing on a map of all of the land that she rules, sign of empowerment  o Dress is white that symbolizes her purity  o Background (right) looks like a storm has passed, suggesting that she'll bring peace to  England 17th Century Europe • Protestants gained control of the North, Catholic's controlled the South  • Growing financial power of the merchant class  • Baroque- a style of European architecture, music, and art the emerged in the 17th century.  Baroque art is often direct, ornate and/or theatrical, intended to engender a heightened  emotional response in the viewer.  o Was used to describe something beautiful in a fascinating yet strange way  o Mystical characteristics are emphasized  • Gianlorenzo Bernini, Cornaro Chapel, Church of Santa Maria Della Vittoria, Rome, with St.  Teresa of Avila in Ecstasy (right) 1545-52 o Sculptures describe Teresa's story  o Sexual and religious fufillment  o Angel plunges arrow at her heart, but the sculpture shows the arrow pointing below  o Ecstasy bringing her to the level of the divine  o Stone that she is on looks like clouds from the sky  o People didn't mind that it looked like she was having an orgasm, but related it to  religious ecstasy  o Bernini, relief sculptures showing members of the Cornaro family watching the scene of  Teresa and angel  o Pavement shows skeleton looking up at the scene o Ceiling has plastered clouds that extend from the painted scene on the ceiling  o Window underneath brings light that shines on the sculpture o How does this piece show Baroque ideals? ▪ Theatrical/movement ▪ Exaggerated detail in fabric folds ▪ Illusionistic ceiling and clouds • Carvaggio, The Conversion of St. Paul, c. 1601 oil on canvas o Paul was not one of Jesus' disciples  o Was blinded for three days  o Focuses on Paul's experience- fell off of his horse who is about to step on him  o Meant to be viewed as if the viewer was actually there  o Chiaroscuro- Italian word designating the contrast of dark and light in a painting,  drawing or print. It Creates spatial depth and volumetric forms through gradations in  the intensity of light and shadow ▪ Dramatic use between light and shadow ▪ Figures emerge from dark background ▪ Most lit portion is St. Paul (main focus) o How is this displaying Counter Reformation ideas? ▪ Easy to read what's happening in the scene ▪ Evokes emotion Baroque Painting Outside of Italy Art of the Courts and the Dutch Golden Age • Diego Velazquez, Las Meninas (The Maids of Honor), 1656 oil on canvas o Associated by Spanish Golden Age  o Was a court painter for the crown  o Shows off his virtuosity as a painter  o Complex group portrait  o Margarita (daughter of the queen) is the main focus, Velasquez includes himself painting  on a large canvas next to her, staring towards the viewer  o Background has a mirror that shows the King and Queen, which is who Velazquez is  staring at/ painting o Who are the individuals? ▪ Small girl (center) is the Princess of Spain, surrounded by court members ▪ Velasquez on the left, painting ▪ Mirror in the back reflects the King and Queen ▪ Viewers are looking at the scene through the king and queens perspective • Rubens and Snyders, Prometheus Bound, c. 1611-18 • Leyster, Self-Portrait, 1635 • Rembrandt, The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicholas Tulp, 1632 o Group portrait of an anatomy lesson o Dissecting the left hand (a sign that the person was a sinner in some way, possibly a  thief/ criminal) • Rembrandt, Three Crosses, 1653, etching17th C England and 18th C France • Jules Hardouin-Mansart and Charles Le Brun, Hall of Mirrors, Palace of Versailles, begun 1678 o Large windows on one side and large mirrors on the other side  o Glass/mirrors were expensive during this time  o When fully lit it would have a glittering effect to it from the reflection off the mirrors  o Was lit with 3,000 candles • Nicolas Poussin, Landscape with St. John on Patmos, 1640, oil o Historical landscapes  o Emphasis on landscape more than the figures that are the subjects  o Commissioned to create these two landscapes in large scale  o Each commissioned separately, but work as a pair  o Figures facing towards each other  o Horizon lines in both paintings are at the same height • Christopher Wren, Façade of St. Paul's Cathedral, London, 1673-1710 o Wren basically rebuilt the city after it burnt down  o Was influenced by Bernini  o Façade consists of 2 levels  o Double columns create a sense of depth, light, and shade  o Verticality is emphasized because the structure gets narrower as it gets higher  o Dome was set further back from the façade to look taller and further away  o Added bell towers in the front and were more successful than Bernini's design for bell  towers Rococo- combines Italian word barocco and French rocaille to describe the refined and fanciful style that  became fashionable in parts of Europe during the 18th century • Jean- Honore Fragonard, The Swing, 1767 oil on canvas o Bishop on right, man in bushes on left looking up her dress, erotic scene  o Dramatic lighting, emphasizing the sensual experience of nature The Grand Tour • Grand Tour:  o Included trips in southern Europe through France and Italy  o In 18th c. More destinations were added to the grand tour  o Neoclassicism 1750- emulates the styles of Ancient Greece and Rome  o 18th century European enlightenment  Italy and Britain in the 18th Century o Art was divided into different categories, artists could choose which genre to master  o Hierarchy of Genres ▪ History painting (includes religious and mythological subjects)  ▪ Portraiture  ▪ Landscape  ▪ Genre painting  ▪ Animal painting ▪ Still life  • Marie-Louise-Elisabeth Vigee-Lebrun, Portrait of Marie Antoinette with her Children, 1787, oil on  canvas o Women are slowly becoming recognized during this time  o Vigee-Lebrun was Marie Antoinette's favorite portrait painter  o Marie Antoinette is portrayed as a "great mother"  o Child pointing towards a crib, hinting towards the child she had that died shortly after  birth  o Elected to royal academy • Jacques-Louis David, Oath of the Horatii, 1784-85 oil on canvas o History painting commissioned by the King of France (Louis XVI)  o Louis believed that art should aim to elevate public morals  o The subject comes from early roman history- the moment when the 3 sons of Horus are  swearing in oath to fight the rival tribe  o Great attention to detail in the body (something the royal academy looked for in an  artist)  o Women are represented with fluid posturing and that they are connected to the rival  city state by marriage, so either their spouses would lose/die, or their brothers would  lose/die? • Jacques-Louis David, Napoleon Crossing the Saint-Bernard, 1800-01 oil on canvas o Napoleon crossing the Alps  o Bonaparte, Hannibal, and Charlemagne's names inscribed in the stones below, they also  crossed the Apls  o Napoleon points up,forward as a way of directing his soldiers • Francisco Goya, Third of May, 1808, 1814-15, oil on canvas o When Napoleon came to power he tried to conquer the world, scene depicts when he  invaded Spain  o French mercenary troops lining up Spaniards on the street and killing them (massacre)  o Central figure is either surrendering or protecting others, similar to the way Christ was  hung on the cross with his arms up  o Emotion of the scene is underscored by Goya's aggressive use of paint

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