Lecture 7; Italy in the Late 16th Century Mannerism and the Counter- Reformation • Protestant Reformation- Martin Luther publishes his 95 Theses in 1517 o Grievances against Catholic Church o Indulgences o Sinful behavior o Misuse of images • Council of Trent (1545-63) o One of the catholic church's most important responses tIf you want to learn more check out political science 101 exam 2
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o the Protestant Reformation o Established many of the ideas that would become central to the Counter Reformation o What is acceptable in Christian art- what was unaccepted was destroyed or covered over • Death of Raphael 1483-1520 • Mannerism- a style emerged primarily in Italy from about 1520-1580. Often characterized by an emphasis on elegance, technical virtuosity, and artificiality. • Michelangelo, Last Judgement, Sistine Chapel, 1536-1541, fresco o Christ gesturing towards the Damned o Figures being pulled up to heaven (left) o Figures being pushed to hell (right) o Figures are shown as strong and muscular, even the Damned o Bartholomew (?) is depicted; the skin he is holding is thought to be Michelangelo's self portrait o Later on, it was determined that there were too many nude figures in the Last Judgement so they hired a painter to come in and paint clothes on nuded figures • Palladio, exterior view and plan of Villa Rotonda, Vicenza, Italy, begun 1560s o Influenced later centuries o Villa meant "a functioning farm" o Elevated porches lead to main floor, giving better views of the countryside o Lower level had kitchens and workshops o Similar elements as a church; included a dorm in the center ▪ Domes were not used for secular buildings • Parmigianino, Madonna of the Long Neck, 1534-40, oil on wood o Proportions are off o Torso and legs are too big for body o Holding a super elongated child (Christ) o Tiny figure to the right is St. Gerome o How does this piece display mannerism? ▪ Elongated form (neck) and baby's body ▪ Tightly composed and compressed ▪ Background columns seem unfinished ▪ Small person bottom right (St. Jerome?) shows depth ▪ Figures look delicate Lecture 8The Renaissance outside Italy The Protestant Reformation and the Art Market • Martin Luther's 95 Thesis • Saw Veneration of saints and relics through images as idolatry (idolizing), which is a sin • Printing press was invented during this time making his Thesis easier to print and share, also to print the Bible • Protestant Iconoclasm o Iconoclasm- the banning and destruction of images, particularly religious images The Northern Renaissance • Matthias Grunewald, Isenheim Altarpiece (closed), c. 1510-1515 o Continued many traditions in religious art o Emphasized emotional qualities o Body of Christ- grotesque image of his crucifixion, blood dripping o Commissioned for a hospital that was devoted to treating skin diseases o Mary falling in the arms of John the Evangelist o John the Baptist (right) pointing towards Christ, seen as the Messiah o Lamb holding a cross with blood coming out of his chest into a challace (referencing Christ's crucifixion) o Below is Christ being prepared for burial, skin discolored • Matthias Grunewald, Isenheim Altarpiece (first opening) c. 1510-1515 o More joyful than when it's closed o Left- annunciation scene o Mid-left are heavenly choirs and Mary and baby Jesus to the right of it ▪ Both scenes are connected in a way even though there is a dark transition o Right- resurrection of Christ ▪ Body merges with the lumination behind him ▪ Emphasis of color and light • Nikolaus Hagenauer (central panels and predella) and Matthias Grunewald (wings), Isenheim Altarpiece (second opening) 1510-15 o Side panels- only opened on special feast days o Right- temptation of St. Anthony by various demons o Similar to Schongauer's engraving of the same subject o Seemed hallucinational • Albrecht Durer, Adam and Eve, 1504 engraving o Shows his interest in Italian art o Prints were cheaper and easier to reproduce and sell o Bodies are more idealizing and proportional than German art o Durer may have seen Greek and Roman sculpture, or Greek and ROman prints o The Four Humors: an early version of personality tests ▪ Blood- Sanguino Rabbit ▪ Yellow Bile (too much bile/ violence)- Choleric Cat ▪ Black Bile (sadness)- Melancholic Elk ▪ Phlegm (less focused on life)- Phlegmatic Ox o Animal symbols of the Four Humors are included in the print • Catholic Counter Reformation o Catholic churches response to Protestant Reformation o Established many udeas that would be central to Counter Reformation era, especially the way art was made o Art under Counter Reformation ▪ Catholic church reaffirms importance of religious images ▪ Images need to incite the desire to pray (never anything inappropriate) ▪ Don’t use religious images to show off artistic talent ▪ Artists needed to follow religious texts precisely when depicting religious stories • Pieter Bruegel the Elder, The Harvesters, 1565 o Harvesting grain, harvesters under the tree eating bread o Taken out of religious context, church in the background (hidden) Renaissance England and Baroque Italy • Anamorphosis- a distorted perspective in which objects are stretched horizontally and are legible only from an acute angle • Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger, Queen Elizabeth I (The Ditchley Portrait), c. 1592 oil on canvas o If commissioned by royalty to paint a portrait and the artist didn't make a portrait that was considered "official," consequences such as jail would happen o Standing on a map of all of the land that she rules, sign of empowerment o Dress is white that symbolizes her purity o Background (right) looks like a storm has passed, suggesting that she'll bring peace to England 17th Century Europe • Protestants gained control of the North, Catholic's controlled the South • Growing financial power of the merchant class • Baroque- a style of European architecture, music, and art the emerged in the 17th century. Baroque art is often direct, ornate and/or theatrical, intended to engender a heightened emotional response in the viewer. o Was used to describe something beautiful in a fascinating yet strange way o Mystical characteristics are emphasized • Gianlorenzo Bernini, Cornaro Chapel, Church of Santa Maria Della Vittoria, Rome, with St. Teresa of Avila in Ecstasy (right) 1545-52 o Sculptures describe Teresa's story o Sexual and religious fufillment o Angel plunges arrow at her heart, but the sculpture shows the arrow pointing below o Ecstasy bringing her to the level of the divine o Stone that she is on looks like clouds from the sky o People didn't mind that it looked like she was having an orgasm, but related it to religious ecstasy o Bernini, relief sculptures showing members of the Cornaro family watching the scene of Teresa and angel o Pavement shows skeleton looking up at the scene o Ceiling has plastered clouds that extend from the painted scene on the ceiling o Window underneath brings light that shines on the sculpture o How does this piece show Baroque ideals? ▪ Theatrical/movement ▪ Exaggerated detail in fabric folds ▪ Illusionistic ceiling and clouds • Carvaggio, The Conversion of St. Paul, c. 1601 oil on canvas o Paul was not one of Jesus' disciples o Was blinded for three days o Focuses on Paul's experience- fell off of his horse who is about to step on him o Meant to be viewed as if the viewer was actually there o Chiaroscuro- Italian word designating the contrast of dark and light in a painting, drawing or print. It Creates spatial depth and volumetric forms through gradations in the intensity of light and shadow ▪ Dramatic use between light and shadow ▪ Figures emerge from dark background ▪ Most lit portion is St. Paul (main focus) o How is this displaying Counter Reformation ideas? ▪ Easy to read what's happening in the scene ▪ Evokes emotion Baroque Painting Outside of Italy Art of the Courts and the Dutch Golden Age • Diego Velazquez, Las Meninas (The Maids of Honor), 1656 oil on canvas o Associated by Spanish Golden Age o Was a court painter for the crown o Shows off his virtuosity as a painter o Complex group portrait o Margarita (daughter of the queen) is the main focus, Velasquez includes himself painting on a large canvas next to her, staring towards the viewer o Background has a mirror that shows the King and Queen, which is who Velazquez is staring at/ painting o Who are the individuals? ▪ Small girl (center) is the Princess of Spain, surrounded by court members ▪ Velasquez on the left, painting ▪ Mirror in the back reflects the King and Queen ▪ Viewers are looking at the scene through the king and queens perspective • Rubens and Snyders, Prometheus Bound, c. 1611-18 • Leyster, Self-Portrait, 1635 • Rembrandt, The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicholas Tulp, 1632 o Group portrait of an anatomy lesson o Dissecting the left hand (a sign that the person was a sinner in some way, possibly a thief/ criminal) • Rembrandt, Three Crosses, 1653, etching17th C England and 18th C France • Jules Hardouin-Mansart and Charles Le Brun, Hall of Mirrors, Palace of Versailles, begun 1678 o Large windows on one side and large mirrors on the other side o Glass/mirrors were expensive during this time o When fully lit it would have a glittering effect to it from the reflection off the mirrors o Was lit with 3,000 candles • Nicolas Poussin, Landscape with St. John on Patmos, 1640, oil o Historical landscapes o Emphasis on landscape more than the figures that are the subjects o Commissioned to create these two landscapes in large scale o Each commissioned separately, but work as a pair o Figures facing towards each other o Horizon lines in both paintings are at the same height • Christopher Wren, Façade of St. Paul's Cathedral, London, 1673-1710 o Wren basically rebuilt the city after it burnt down o Was influenced by Bernini o Façade consists of 2 levels o Double columns create a sense of depth, light, and shade o Verticality is emphasized because the structure gets narrower as it gets higher o Dome was set further back from the façade to look taller and further away o Added bell towers in the front and were more successful than Bernini's design for bell towers Rococo- combines Italian word barocco and French rocaille to describe the refined and fanciful style that became fashionable in parts of Europe during the 18th century • Jean- Honore Fragonard, The Swing, 1767 oil on canvas o Bishop on right, man in bushes on left looking up her dress, erotic scene o Dramatic lighting, emphasizing the sensual experience of nature The Grand Tour • Grand Tour: o Included trips in southern Europe through France and Italy o In 18th c. More destinations were added to the grand tour o Neoclassicism 1750- emulates the styles of Ancient Greece and Rome o 18th century European enlightenment Italy and Britain in the 18th Century o Art was divided into different categories, artists could choose which genre to master o Hierarchy of Genres ▪ History painting (includes religious and mythological subjects) ▪ Portraiture ▪ Landscape ▪ Genre painting ▪ Animal painting ▪ Still life • Marie-Louise-Elisabeth Vigee-Lebrun, Portrait of Marie Antoinette with her Children, 1787, oil on canvas o Women are slowly becoming recognized during this time o Vigee-Lebrun was Marie Antoinette's favorite portrait painter o Marie Antoinette is portrayed as a "great mother" o Child pointing towards a crib, hinting towards the child she had that died shortly after birth o Elected to royal academy • Jacques-Louis David, Oath of the Horatii, 1784-85 oil on canvas o History painting commissioned by the King of France (Louis XVI) o Louis believed that art should aim to elevate public morals o The subject comes from early roman history- the moment when the 3 sons of Horus are swearing in oath to fight the rival tribe o Great attention to detail in the body (something the royal academy looked for in an artist) o Women are represented with fluid posturing and that they are connected to the rival city state by marriage, so either their spouses would lose/die, or their brothers would lose/die? • Jacques-Louis David, Napoleon Crossing the Saint-Bernard, 1800-01 oil on canvas o Napoleon crossing the Alps o Bonaparte, Hannibal, and Charlemagne's names inscribed in the stones below, they also crossed the Apls o Napoleon points up,forward as a way of directing his soldiers • Francisco Goya, Third of May, 1808, 1814-15, oil on canvas o When Napoleon came to power he tried to conquer the world, scene depicts when he invaded Spain o French mercenary troops lining up Spaniards on the street and killing them (massacre) o Central figure is either surrendering or protecting others, similar to the way Christ was hung on the cross with his arms up o Emotion of the scene is underscored by Goya's aggressive use of paint