Sociological Perspectives (SYG 1000)
w/ Dr. CarrenoLukasik
Study Guide 2
Your second exam will consist of multiple choice questions that can address any of the concepts below:
chapter 7: Interaction, Groups, and Organizations
∙ definition and examples of social aggregate and social category – are these groups?
People who happen to be in the same place at the same time.
Ex: : tri rail waiting in line. Everyone in that line would be a social aggregate.
Or the people waiting in line to buy a movie ticket.
People who share a common characteristic
WHAT IS A GROUP?
A. DEFINITION GROUP:
A group of two people would be called a dyad. A group of three would be Triad. Any more would just be referred to as a group.
∙ definitions and examples of ingroups and outgroups
group towards which you feel loyalty and respect. ( Group that You are In) Mainly from your perspective and point of view. Don't forget about the age old question of What is the definition of spontaneous?
Group towards which you feel contempt or exclusion
( Group you are outside of)
ex: My big fat greek wedding if your greek you can marry my daughter you are in if not you are out
∙ definitions and examples of primary groups and secondary groups PRIMARY GROUPS:
small, characterized by face to face interaction, intimacy, and a sense of commitment If you want to learn more check out What is it called when military takes over government?
ex: Gina’s family powerpoint of her family group
purpose: emotional connection
larger, impersonal; involve very little emotional attachment
Purpose: There to achieve a goal
∙ definition and examples of reference group
a group that provides a standard for judging your own behavior. Anticipatory socialization: group that you will be a part of
group you want to be a part of, but you never will be
∙ what is conformity? Going along with a group or you follow orders *Milgram’s obedience (not everyone conforms)
∙ Weber’s characteristics of bureaucracy
1. Division of labor
2. A hierarchy of authority and accountability
4. Written rules and records
∙ Ritzer’s McDonaldization of Society – know his main argument (all aspects of human life, not just fastfood restaurants, are becoming increasingly regulated / rationalized / impersonal)
∙ in text, not in lecture:
o definition of Thomas Theorem: When we consider both our spontaneous interpretation of the circumstances at hand as well as what society has taught us about those circumstances. Our interpretation then infulences how we act. “if men define situations as real, they are real in their consequences.” If you want to learn more check out What are the six specific components of intimacy?
o Helps understand how interpretations of a situation shape social interaction on various levels.
o Helps understand stereotypes
o definition of stereotypes: exaggerated, distorted, or untrue generalizations about categories of people that do not acknowledge individual variation. o how do the Asch experiments demonstrate conformity?:
The Asch experiments suggested that group pressure can generate
chapter 8: Deviance and Social Control
∙ definition of deviance
Any behavior that goes against society’s norms
∙ what do we mean when we say that deviance is socially constructed? know examples
What is considered deviant varies across time and place ∙ definitions and examples of external versus internal social control
DEFINITION: Ways we promote conformity to norms
EXTERNAL VS INTERNAL
External: Norms are enforced through sanctions (Threat of punishment) Internal: Internalize norms - generalized other - conscience - feel guilty
Example: Linda is taking Gina’s exam, she studied really hard but has test anxiety and blanks, she can see the scantron next to her and is tempted to cheat but doesn’t want Gina to see and give her a zero. Don't forget about the age old question of Are beta blockers agonists or antagonists?
Answer: External (WHY?) She is tempted but she is worried about getting a zero. WORRIED ABOUT THE THREAT OF PUNISHMENT!!!
∙ be able to define and apply the sociological explanations of deviance (strain theory, control theory, differential association theory, and labeling theory)– for labeling theory, know primary deviation, secondary deviation, and selffulfilling prophecy
EXPLANATIONS OF DEVIANCE
Biological predisposition to deviant behavior
1. STRAIN THEORY
Deviance occurs when there is a conflict between goals and means (Example: There is a lot of illegal drugs in society, one is ‘speed’, one group is the fastest group of speed users in country and it’s Soccer Moms, juggling mom-wife-job-blah blah blah, stressed out and can’t keep up take the drug and get shit done, energetic, use this deviant way to get shit done when you’re stressed.)
2. CONTROL THEORY
Strong social bonds help prevent deviance; weak social bonds may lead to deviance (Connections between people) Limitation? Gangs We also discuss several other topics like How did imperialism affect india?
If you want to learn more check out What is the difference between brand recognition and brand recall?
3. DIFFERENTIAL ASSOCIATION THEORY
We learn deviance in primary groups
4. LABELING THEORY
Deviance exists when some members of society or a group label someone as deviant...
Primary deviation - first deviant act; “first screw up”
Secondary deviation - caught; labeled “deviant” and overtime you internalize label (believe the label is true)
Self-fulfilling Prophecy - engage in more deviant behavior
Example: Had a friend and were in class, she knew his brother and when school year started he kind of fell in a bad crowd. He was out on a weekend and they were stealing stuff off cars and a cop drove by and saw. Cop cut him a break and called up
family. Got grounded and such, next week and teachers were talking about how they got busted, kid kept getting in more trouble. Years later in college she comes home for break, watching TV, sees a mugshot of friends brother - arrested because he held a guy at gunpoint.
∙ how are the FBI Uniform Crime Reports compiled? i.e., where do these data come from? know the main criticism of FBI Uniform Crime Reports – which
crimes are recognized? which crimes are omitted? here know definitions and examples of street crime, white collar crime, and corporate crime – what is the problem with focusing primarily on street crime? which costs more (money and human life) – street crime, or white collar and corporate crime?
STATISTICS - F.B.I. UNIFORM CRIME REPORTS
Data volunteered by police departments across the U.S. Problems? Voluntary, Underreporting, Fudging/Lying
A. CRITICISM OF STATISTICS
1. PROBLEM: IGNORES DIFFERENT TYPES OF CRIME
Included: Street crimes = crimes committed against a person or their property
Not included: White collar crimes = crimes committed by upper class, crime related to their business activities $
-Embezzlement (Someone in a position of power uses their position in power to steal(theft)..... Stealing through the business.)
- Insider Trading (Illegally obtain inside information that a stock will come up or downfall and use that for their own gain)
None of this is a police’s job
Not included: Corporate crimes = crimes committed by businesses
-Workplace discrimination (Gender Sexuality and Gender Orientation are NOT protected by the government)
-Selling faulty products
-Hazardous working conditions
∙ Every single year, white collar and corporate crime cost us over $200 billion
∙ Every single year in the U.S., five times more people die from hazardous working conditions than are murdered
∙ video: Blackfish
Why was blackfish a part of our unit?
Levels of conformity - when baby was taken from the mother, workers said they knew it was wrong but they were just doing what they were told.
∙ know about prison in the U.S. – how does the U.S. compare to other nations in the number of people relative to the population it imprisons? does prison work? i.e., does it help prevent crime? how do you know this? (i.e., what is recidivism, and what is the rate of recidivism in U.S. prisons?) what are some possible reasons
why prison does not seem to be an effective method of crime control? * alternative to prison: victimoffender mediation programs – how do these programs work?
∙ Prison should help prevent crime in the first place
∙ Prison should help prevent future crime
∙ Recidivism - rearrested and sent back to prison= 3/4 A. PRISON :
∙ Cost us $31k per year/per inmate
∙ We are the world’s incarceration leader = (we lock up the most people)
∙ 1 in 100 adults in the U.S. are in prison
∙ 1 in 32 adults in the U.S. are in the prison system
∙ Poor; minorities; mental illness; alcohol and drug addictions ∙ Over half in prison are there for nonviolent drug offenses Goal of prison: crime control
2. CRITICISMS ( limitations to prison)
∙ Inadequate resocialization (changing your ways, habits, etc. but people don’t just have an on and off switch)
∙ Inadequate rehabilitation (referring to the nonviolent drug addiction, if solid rehab is not offered, those people will just come out of jail going back to their habits)
∙ Label of “criminal” (never really goes away) -- psychological component (labeling theory-get called it then it becomes internal and you start to think it and it doesn’t get better or go away)
B. ALTERNATIVES TO PRISON
∙ Victim-offender mediation programs = offered for property crimes, victim of crime given choice to go through this, go through a mediation in safe meetings you face defender, shows a sense of empowerment and closure
∙ *plan of restitution - (payback) ↴
Example: Let’s say you get mugged, but you don’t have a way of getting your stuff back. Plan of restitution is the form of getting your payback.
∙ *it lowers recidivism
* in text, not in lecture:
^ definition of stigma: refers to the shame attached to a behavior or status that is considered socially unacceptable or discrediting.
^ definition of positive deviance: “sometimes occurs”
Overconformity is when one follows cultural expectations to an excessive degree such as those who result having an eating disorder. People often respond negatively to over conformity but when overconformity gets a positive response it is referred to as Positive Deviance.
EX: we all appreciate unusually helpful neighbors, and we reward soldiers and police officers who take dramatic risks on our behalf.
^ arguments for and against capital punishment
No punishment is more severe than capital punishment, otherwise known as the death penalty.
Justified primarily as a deterrent and a form of protection
death penalty would cost less than housing a prisoner for life.
Argues that death penalty does not have a deterrent effect. Death penalty does not reduce murder rate.
At times the one sentenced to death is innocent which can be proved. those who kill white are far more likely to be convicted than those who were to kill African Americans or non white Hispanics. Race division
chapter 9: Class and Global Inequality
∙ definition of stratification
Official poverty line – what is this? This is the annual income below which you are considered officially poor
How does the government compute this line?
Formula: Compute the cost of a nutritionally adequate diet, multiply by three - DIET x THREE
(The government says if you have a household unit of one you can live on an annual income of $12,060; unit of 2 is $16,240; unit of 3 is $20,420 and so on…)
What are some criticisms of the poverty line?
∙ Ignores the fact that the cost of living varies geographically ∙ Formula outdated = housing
∙ Ignores differences in health care costs
∙ Misses entire groups of people = census = homeless; institutionalized; military; unauthorized immigrants
∙ Does not adjust for inflation
According to the poverty line, how many Americans are considered officially poor? 13.5% = 43 million people are living in official poverty
who are poor in the U.S.? don’t memorize numbers here, but know patterns – who is at higher risk of being poor in terms of gender, raceethnicity, nativity, family structure, and age?
WHO IS MORE LIKELY TO BE POOR IN THE U.S.?
∙ Race-ethnicity (Ex: 9% White; 21% Hispanic, 24% African Americans, 27% Native Americans)
∙ Gender (15% Women)
∙ Single parents; especially single moms; especially single minority moms
∙ Nativity - immigrants
∙ DIsabilities - 29%
∙ Children - 20%
∙ video: Poverty Line
what are some consequences of being poor? consider our discussion of comparing poor children and nonpoor children (don’t need to know specific statistics, just patterns, such as how poor children are at higher risk for death in childhood)
EXAMPLE OF CONSEQUENCES: POOR CHILDREN
Death in childhood
Partial or complete deafness and blindness
Lower GPA; lower test scores; higher risk for disabilities ∙ how do many people in the U.S. view the poor? understand Social Darwinism SOCIAL DARWINISM AND INDIVIDUALISM:
We blame poor people themselves for being poor
know how to debunk (prove wrong) the following myths / stereotypes about poor people in the U.S.:
refuse to work(Federal minimum wage is not enough ($7.25/hour)
welfare dependency (TANF = Temporary Assistance for Needy Families - 1996 Bill Clinton) 5 Characteristics of TANF
1. TANF operates through a Block Grant = federal government gives each state money, but it is up to the states how they spend it on welfare = $16 billion
2. Work Requirement = required to get a job within 2 years of getting welfare - studies show people are working more than one job
3. Lifetime cap = Says you can receive welfare for no more than 5 years total in your lifetime = most receive it for less than 2 years total = gets rid of the stereotype that people stay on welfare their whole life
4. Family cap = if you have a child while receiving welfare, you do not get more money = most families receiving welfare have between 1-2 kids = average monthly payment in the U.S. is $349/month
5. Citizenship- TANF Law requires proof of U.S. citizenship to even apply for welfare
raceethnicity (Stereotype: Most people are black
Truth: most poor people are white
Racial ethnic minorities are mostly the ones who are poor)
^ for refuse to work, know for those people working paid jobs, why are they still in poverty? think about the federal minimum wage and if it is possible to live on that income
^ for welfare dependency: know TANF – what does that stand for? who signed TANF into law and when? how does TANF work? (know details about the five characteristics we discussed in class – block grant, work requirement, lifetime cap, family cap, and citizenship requirement) – then, looking at those characteristics and also statistics / information I gave in class, know how that information proves that “welfare dependency” is a myth – also think about corporate welfare –
what is corporate welfare?
*WHAT ABOUT CORPORATE WELFARE?
∙ Government gives money to big rich corporations
∙ Money stays at the top (In 1980, the average CEO is making 42x more than the average worker, and so on..... 1990: 96x present: 204-343x)
∙ It pays to outsource! (2004-2005: $8 million, top outsourcing: $11 million)
∙ Money stays at the top even in retirement
does corporate welfare benefit our overall economy? how do we know the answer to that question?
^ for raceethnicity: what is the stereotypical raceethnicity of most poor people? know that in reality, most poor people in the U.S. are what race?
* sociological explanations for poverty – know definitions and examples SOCIOLOGICAL EXPLANATIONS OF POVERTY
A. INSTITUTIONAL DISCRIMINATION
Society is structured in a way that disadvantages poor people B. POLITICAL ECONOMY
Capitalism = individual, personal profit
∙ in text, not in lecture:
^ definition of Weber’s life chances: page 227 in textbook
the likelihood a person has of obtaining valued economic and cultural resources. ^ causes of global inequality:
Most sociologists acknowledge two major social causes of global inequality: Culture and Power.