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FAU / Sociology / SOC 1000 / What is social aggregate?

What is social aggregate?

What is social aggregate?

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Sociological Perspectives (SYG 1000)


What is social aggregate?



w/ Dr. Carreno­Lukasik

Study Guide 2

Your second exam will consist of multiple choice questions that can address any of the  concepts below:

chapter 7: Interaction, Groups, and Organizations 

∙ definition and examples of social aggregate and social category – are these  groups?

SOCIAL AGGREGATE:

People who happen to be in the same place at the same time. 

Ex: : tri rail waiting in line. Everyone in that line would be a social  aggregate.

Or the people waiting in line to buy a movie ticket.

SOCIAL CATEGORY:

People who share a common characteristic

WHAT IS A GROUP?

A. DEFINITION GROUP:

A group of two people would be called a dyad. A group of three would be Triad. Any more would just be referred to as a group.


What is the social category?



∙ definitions and examples of in­groups and out­groups

IN­GROUPS: 

group towards which you feel loyalty and respect. ( Group that You are In) Mainly  from your perspective and point of view. Don't forget about the age old question of What is the definition of spontaneous?

OUT­GROUPS: 

Group towards which you feel contempt or exclusion 

( Group you are outside of) 

ex: My big fat greek wedding if your greek you can marry my daughter you are in if not you are out

∙ definitions and examples of primary groups and secondary groups PRIMARY GROUPS: 

small, characterized by face to face interaction, intimacy, and a sense of  commitment If you want to learn more check out What is it called when military takes over government?

ex: Gina’s family powerpoint of her family group

purpose: emotional connection 


What is the definition of a group?



SECONDARY GROUPS: 

larger, impersonal; involve very little emotional attachment

Purpose: There to achieve a goal

∙ definition and examples of reference group

REFERENCE GROUPS: 

a group that provides a standard for judging your own behavior.  ­Anticipatory socialization: group that you will be a part of

 ­ group you want to be a part of, but you never will be 

∙ what is conformity?  Going along with a group or you follow orders *Milgram’s obedience (not everyone conforms)

video: Compliance

∙ Weber’s characteristics of bureaucracy 

Text: 

1. Division of labor

2. A hierarchy of authority and accountability

3. Impersonality

4. Written rules and records

∙ Ritzer’s McDonaldization of Society – know his main argument (all aspects of  human life, not just fast­food restaurants, are becoming increasingly regulated /  rationalized / impersonal) 

∙ in text, not in lecture:

o definition of Thomas Theorem: When we consider both our spontaneous  interpretation of the circumstances at hand as well as what society has  taught us about those circumstances. Our interpretation then infulences  how we act. “if men define situations as real, they are real in their  consequences.” If you want to learn more check out What are the six specific components of intimacy?

o Helps understand how interpretations of a situation shape social  interaction on various levels.

o Helps understand stereotypes

o definition of stereotypes: exaggerated, distorted, or untrue generalizations  about categories of people that do not acknowledge individual variation. o how do the Asch experiments demonstrate conformity?:

The Asch experiments suggested that group pressure can generate 

conformit.

chapter 8: Deviance and Social Control

∙ definition of deviance

DEVIANCE:  

Any behavior that goes against society’s norms

∙ what do we mean when we say that deviance is socially constructed?  know  examples

SOCIALLY CONSTRUCTED:

What is considered deviant varies across time and place ∙ definitions and examples of external versus internal social control

SOCIAL CONTROL

DEFINITION: Ways we promote conformity to norms

EXTERNAL VS INTERNAL

External: Norms are enforced through sanctions (Threat of punishment) Internal: Internalize norms - generalized other - conscience - feel guilty

Example: Linda is taking Gina’s exam, she studied really hard  but has test anxiety and blanks, she can see the scantron next  to her and is tempted to cheat but doesn’t want Gina to see  and give her a zero. Don't forget about the age old question of Are beta blockers agonists or antagonists?

Answer: External (WHY?) She is tempted but she is worried about  getting a zero. WORRIED ABOUT THE THREAT OF PUNISHMENT!!!  

∙ be able to define and apply the sociological explanations of deviance (strain  theory, control theory, differential association theory, and labeling theory)– for  labeling theory, know primary deviation, secondary deviation, and self­fulfilling  prophecy

EXPLANATIONS OF DEVIANCE

A. BIOLOGICAL

Biological predisposition to deviant behavior

B. PSYCHOLOGICAL

Deviant personality

C. SOCIOLOGICAL

1. STRAIN THEORY

Deviance occurs when there is a conflict between goals and means  (Example: There is a lot of illegal drugs in society, one is ‘speed’, one  group is the fastest group of speed users in country and it’s Soccer  Moms, juggling mom-wife-job-blah blah blah, stressed out and can’t  keep up take the drug and get shit done, energetic, use this deviant  way to get shit done when you’re stressed.)  

2. CONTROL THEORY

Strong social bonds help prevent deviance; weak social bonds may  lead to deviance (Connections between people) Limitation? Gangs We also discuss several other topics like How did imperialism affect india?
If you want to learn more check out What is the difference between brand recognition and brand recall?

3. DIFFERENTIAL ASSOCIATION THEORY

We learn deviance in primary groups

4. LABELING THEORY

Deviance exists when some members of society or a group label  someone as deviant...

Primary deviation - first deviant act; “first screw up”

Secondary deviation - caught; labeled “deviant” and overtime you  internalize label (believe the label is true)

Self-fulfilling Prophecy - engage in more deviant behavior

Example: Had a friend and were in class, she knew his brother  and when school year started he kind of fell in a bad crowd. He was out on a weekend and they were stealing stuff off cars and a cop drove by and saw. Cop cut him a break and called up  

family. Got grounded and such, next week and teachers were  talking about how they got busted, kid kept getting in more  trouble. Years later in college she comes home for break,  watching TV, sees a mugshot of friends brother - arrested  because he held a guy at gunpoint.  

∙ how are the FBI Uniform Crime Reports compiled?  i.e., where do these data  come from?  know the main criticism of FBI Uniform Crime Reports – which 

crimes are recognized?  which crimes are omitted?  here know definitions and  examples of street crime, white collar crime, and corporate crime – what is the  problem with focusing primarily on street crime?  which costs more (money and  human life) – street crime, or white collar and corporate crime?

STATISTICS - F.B.I. UNIFORM CRIME REPORTS

Data volunteered by police departments across the U.S. Problems? Voluntary, Underreporting, Fudging/Lying

A. CRITICISM OF STATISTICS

1. PROBLEM: IGNORES DIFFERENT TYPES OF CRIME

Included: Street crimes = crimes committed against a person or their  property

Not included: White collar crimes = crimes committed by upper class,  crime related to their business activities $

-Tax fraud/evasion

-Embezzlement (Someone in a position of power uses their  position in power to steal(theft)..... Stealing through the  business.)

- Insider Trading (Illegally obtain inside information that a stock  will come up or downfall and use that for their own gain)

None of this is a police’s job

Not included: Corporate crimes = crimes committed by businesses

-Workplace discrimination (Gender Sexuality and Gender  Orientation are NOT protected by the government)

-Selling faulty products

-Hazardous working conditions

∙ Every single year, white collar and corporate crime cost us over  $200 billion  

∙ Every single year in the U.S., five times more people die from  hazardous working conditions than are murdered

∙ video: Blackfish

Why was blackfish a part of our unit?

Levels of conformity - when baby was taken from the mother, workers  said they knew it was wrong but they were just doing what they were  told.  

∙ know about prison in the U.S. – how does the U.S. compare to other nations in the number of people relative to the population it imprisons?  does prison work?  i.e.,  does it help prevent crime?  how do you know this?  (i.e., what is recidivism, and  what is the rate of recidivism in U.S. prisons?)  what are some possible reasons 

why prison does not seem to be an effective method of crime control?  * alternative to prison: victim­offender mediation programs – how do these programs  work?

CRIME CONTROL

∙ Prison should help prevent crime in the first place

∙ Prison should help prevent future crime

∙ Recidivism - rearrested and sent back to prison= 3/4 A. PRISON :  

1. STATISTICS

∙ Cost us $31k per year/per inmate

∙ We are the world’s incarceration leader = (we lock up the most  people)

∙ 1 in 100 adults in the U.S. are in prison

∙ 1 in 32 adults in the U.S. are in the prison system

∙ Poor; minorities; mental illness; alcohol and drug addictions ∙ Over half in prison are there for nonviolent drug offenses Goal of prison: crime control

2. CRITICISMS ( limitations to prison)

∙ Inadequate resocialization (changing your ways, habits, etc. but  people don’t just have an on and off switch)

∙ Inadequate rehabilitation (referring to the nonviolent drug  addiction, if solid rehab is not offered, those people will just come out of jail going back to their habits)

∙ Label of “criminal” (never really goes away) -- psychological  component (labeling theory-get called it then it becomes internal and you start to think it and it doesn’t get better or go away)

B. ALTERNATIVES TO PRISON

∙ Victim-offender mediation programs = offered for property  crimes, victim of crime given choice to go through this, go  through a mediation in safe meetings you face defender, shows a sense of empowerment and closure  

∙ *plan of restitution - (payback) ↴

Example: Let’s say you get mugged, but you don’t have a  way of getting your stuff back. Plan of restitution is the form of getting your payback.  

∙ *it lowers recidivism

* in text, not in lecture:

^ definition of stigma: refers to the shame attached to a behavior or status that is  considered socially unacceptable or discrediting. 

^ definition of positive deviance: “sometimes occurs” 

Over­conformity is when one follows cultural expectations to an excessive degree such as those who result having an eating disorder. People often respond negatively to over conformity but when over­conformity gets a positive response it is referred to as Positive  Deviance.

EX: we all appreciate unusually helpful neighbors, and we reward soldiers and police  officers who take dramatic risks on our behalf. 

^ arguments for and against capital punishment

No punishment is more severe than capital punishment, otherwise known as the death  penalty. 

For: 

­Justified primarily as a deterrent and a form of protection

­ death penalty would cost less than housing a prisoner for life. 

Against:

­Argues that death penalty does not have a deterrent effect. Death penalty does not reduce murder rate.

­ At times the one sentenced to death is innocent which can be proved. ­ those who kill white are far more likely to be convicted than those who were to kill  African Americans or non white Hispanics. Race division 

chapter 9: Class and Global Inequality 

∙ definition of stratification

STRATIFICATION: Inequality

Official poverty line – what is this? This is the annual income below which you  are considered officially poor

How does the government compute this line? 

Formula: Compute the cost of a nutritionally adequate diet,  multiply by three - DIET x THREE

(The government says if you have a household unit of one you can live  on an annual income of $12,060; unit of 2 is $16,240; unit of 3 is  $20,420 and so on…)

What are some criticisms of the poverty line? 

 CRITICISMS

∙ Ignores the fact that the cost of living varies geographically ∙ Formula outdated = housing

∙ Ignores differences in health care costs

∙ Misses entire groups of people = census = homeless;  institutionalized; military; unauthorized immigrants

∙ Does not adjust for inflation

According to the poverty line, how many Americans are considered officially poor? 13.5% = 43 million people are living in official poverty

who are poor in the U.S.?  don’t memorize numbers here, but know patterns – who is at  higher risk of being poor in terms of gender, race­ethnicity, nativity, family structure, and age?

WHO IS MORE LIKELY TO BE POOR IN THE U.S.?

∙ Race-ethnicity (Ex: 9% White; 21% Hispanic, 24% African  Americans, 27% Native Americans)

∙ Gender (15% Women)

∙ Single parents; especially single moms; especially single minority moms

∙ Nativity - immigrants  

∙ DIsabilities - 29%

∙ Children - 20%

∙ video: Poverty Line

what are some consequences of being poor?  consider our discussion of comparing poor  children and nonpoor children  (don’t need to know specific statistics, just patterns, such  as how poor children are at higher risk for death in childhood)

EXAMPLE OF CONSEQUENCES: POOR CHILDREN

Death in childhood  

Anemia

Partial or complete deafness and blindness

Lower GPA; lower test scores; higher risk for disabilities ∙ how do many people in the U.S. view the poor?  understand Social Darwinism SOCIAL DARWINISM AND INDIVIDUALISM:

We blame poor people themselves for being poor

know how to debunk (prove wrong) the following myths / stereotypes about poor people  in the U.S.: 

­refuse to work(Federal minimum wage is not enough ($7.25/hour)

­welfare dependency (TANF = Temporary Assistance for Needy Families -  1996 Bill Clinton) 5 Characteristics of TANF 

1. TANF operates through a Block Grant = federal government  gives each state money, but it is up to the states how they spend it on welfare = $16 billion

2. Work Requirement = required to get a job within 2 years of  getting welfare - studies show people are working more than one  job

3. Lifetime cap = Says you can receive welfare for no more than 5 years total in your lifetime = most receive it for less than 2 years total = gets rid of the stereotype that people stay on welfare  their whole life

4. Family cap = if you have a child while receiving welfare, you do  not get more money = most families receiving welfare have  between 1-2 kids = average monthly payment in the U.S. is  $349/month

5. Citizenship- TANF Law requires proof of U.S. citizenship to even  apply for welfare

­race­ethnicity (Stereotype: Most people are black

Truth: most poor people are white

Racial ethnic minorities are mostly the ones who are poor)

^ for refuse to work, know for those people working paid jobs, why are they still in  poverty?  think about the federal minimum wage and if it is possible to live on that  income 

^ for welfare dependency: know TANF – what does that stand for?  who signed TANF  into law and when?  how does TANF work?  (know details about the five characteristics  we discussed in class – block grant, work requirement, lifetime cap, family cap, and  citizenship requirement) – then, looking at those characteristics and also statistics /  information I gave in class, know how that information proves that “welfare dependency” is a myth – also think about corporate welfare – 

what is corporate welfare?

  *WHAT ABOUT CORPORATE WELFARE?

∙ Government gives money to big rich corporations

∙ Money stays at the top (In 1980, the average CEO is making 42x  more than the average worker, and so on..... 1990: 96x present: 204-343x)

∙ It pays to outsource! (2004-2005: $8 million, top outsourcing:  $11 million)

∙ Money stays at the top even in retirement

does corporate welfare benefit our overall economy?  how do we know the answer to that question? 

^ for race­ethnicity: what is the stereotypical race­ethnicity of most poor people?   know that in reality, most poor people in the U.S. are what race?

* sociological explanations for poverty – know definitions and examples SOCIOLOGICAL EXPLANATIONS OF POVERTY

A. INSTITUTIONAL DISCRIMINATION

Society is structured in a way that disadvantages poor people B. POLITICAL ECONOMY

Capitalism = individual, personal profit

∙ in text, not in lecture:

^ definition of Weber’s life chances: page 227 in textbook

the likelihood a person has of obtaining valued economic and cultural resources.  ^ causes of global inequality:

Most sociologists acknowledge two major social causes of global inequality:  Culture and Power. 

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