HPHY 212 Midterm Study Guide
HPHY 212 Midterm Study Guide HPHY 212
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Scott Morrison on Saturday April 25, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HPHY 212 at University of Oregon taught by Dr. Andrew Karduna in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 389 views. For similar materials see Evidence, Inference and Biostatistics in Human Development at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 04/25/15
HPHY 212 Midterm 1 Study Guide Material from Weeks 14 Variables Independent Variable Values known before experiment This variable is manipulated throughout experiment Dependent Variable Values unknown before experiment This variable is measured throughout the experiment The Scientific Method Observation observe a phenomenon Question why does this phenomenon occur Hypothesis ATESTABLE explanation for the phenomenon This phenomenon occurs because Experiment design an experiment to test the hypothesis Analyze Data Condude Report Results write a scientific article about the results of your experiment NP P PP N Hypothesis Predicts relationship between IV and DV A Theory is NOT the same as a fact or a hypothesis Fact is UNIVERSALLY true A hypothesis status is unknown until it has been tested A theory can be thought of as a hypothesis that has been tested and tested over and over by the scientific community and is widely held to be true although there may be exceptions The Placebo Effect During an experiment it is necessary to administer a placebo to the control group A placebo is a fake treatment like a sugar pill instead of antibiotics The placebo effect is a psychological phenomenon in which a person with a condition who experiences improvement when they have been falsely told they are receiving treatment Using a placebo ensures that the experiment measures only the effects of the experimental process not the psychological effects of receiving treatment Peer Review The process by which researchers have their articles reviewed by experts in their field before the article is published Key Players Researchers 9 write article send it to journal editor Editors 9 edit article and send it out for peer review Reviewers 9 review article send it back to editor with revisions and criticism This step can go through many cycles Publishers 9 if all agree that the article is sound the editor will send the article to the publishers who will then publish the article Advantages of Peer Review only high quality articles get published Holds scientists to a higher standard and ensures that the science is authentic Disadvantages Takes a very long time opens up the possibility of authors fraudulently reviewing their own articles and can get very expensive Who Pays for Publishing Authors pay to have their articles published Libraries pay publishers to publish articles Most of the money goes to the publishers How does an author decide where to publish Authors look for journals relevant to their field and journals that are prestigious Keep in mind that authors can t submit to more than one journal at a time it s not like applying for coHege What could go wrong Biased peer reviewers Time delay Authors fraudulently reviewing their own papers Assumes reviewers are all ethical and interested in preserving the scientific method they re not Pubishers get the money so there is a lot of incentive for publishers to publish anything HPHY 212 Lecture Notes Week 3 Open Access Journals Free to read Free to reuse in other works Publishing in open access is still not free but it should not be as restricted as it currently is with private journals Predatory Publishers kind of like phishing journals will reach out to researchers tell researchers that they will pay for the rights to their articles but never pay the researchers scammers AWE br m 13st mltmm msnm VS SP 51 qu 7 18 m utfr 536 3 3 N1 N m c m E m P Ambzcoszg 85 g u Qummm bx mpr mxnnMMsxo xr LLB 332 335 Q gt TT Kw M Defining the Levels of Evidence Meta Analysis Taking a huge amount of hard data from various other studies compiling all the numbers together and making a new statistical analysis and a conclusion from that data A metaanalysis is a result of a systematic review Systematic Review A systematic process of taking a research question developing a systematic search process with explicit inclusionexclusion criteria including which databases to use levels of evidence of articles used etc to find articles relating to the question and making an analysis of those articles Review A process of taking a research question finding articles relating to that question and making an analysis and a conclusion from those articles Randomized Controlled Trials Experiments that involve two randomly assigned groups one control and one experimental to examine the outcome of a procedure Prospective Cohort Study Prospective involves data that has yet to be collected Cohorts are people who all have a similar outcome cancer A prospective cohort study examines two groups people who all have an outcome compared to a group of people who do not The study has followups with these people over time in order to collect data and examine the cause of the outcome This process involves actively administering a treatment to samples of people Retrospective Cohort Study Retrospective involves events that have already taken place like a patient s past medical history Cohort refers to similar individuals individuals who all have the same outcome cancer A retrospective cohort study looks at two groups people who have an outcome and people who do not This type of study looks BACK at data that has already been collected in order to discover the cause of the outcome CaseControl Study Two preexisting groups with different outcomes eg cancer and cancerfree The two groups are compared to find the cause of the outcome No actual treatment is administered Case Report One individual case No experiment simply the observations of one case Expert Opinion The opinion of an expert No experiments no data Levels of Evidence Moving Up the Ladder When trying to explain a scientific phenomenon it is important to start at a lower level of evidence and THEN move up to the higher ones This is because doing experiments at higher levels of evidence can be timeconsuming and costly if the topic turns out to be something that isn t worth looking into any further it is pointless to do expensive highlevel experiments Vaccines and Autism Using Levels of Evidence to Debunk the Scientific Controversy Vaccines and Autism How Levels of Evidence Relate to a Famous Scientific Controversy The Wakefield article an article published in Lancet a prestigious scientific journal The article involved a case series in which several less than 10 children with autism had developed their symptoms within a short period of receiving the MMR measles mumps rubella vaccine The Wakefield article led to a huge uproar about the use of vaccines on children The level of evidence of the Wakefield article was that of a case series one of the lowest levels on the spectrum It is also known that Wakefield fabricated an astonishing portion of his data Further study was done several meta analyses on the relationship of vaccines and autism have been done Each one has concluded that there is no link between the two Because several existing meta analyses point to the absence of a link between vaccines and autism and the only article that says otherwise is a case series a very low level of evidence especially compared to that of a meta analysis with fake data we can safely conclude that there is no link between vaccines and autism Meta analysis trumps case series Especially if there is only one case series with fabricated data compared to several meta analyses Yet tons of people are not vaccinating their children for fear of vaccinecaused autism because they do not do their research and they do not know their levels of evidence Additional Research Terms Footnote Chasing looking through the footnotes and citations of an article to find additional related material Pearling When newer articles build off of the foundation laid down by older articles like the layering process of the formation of a pearl MeSH Medical Subject Headings A hierarchical system of the organization of scientific articles 16 different major topics each with their own subtopics The same subtopic can exist in more than one major topic MeSH headings organize medical articles by assigning specific words Boolean Searches A search technique that allows the user to easily broaden or narrow the search results To make a search more specific use AND and NOT To make a search more broad use OR
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