````````POLS 1336 #13833 & #19327 Final Exam Review Sheet Fall 2016 Important Notes ∙ This study guide is NOT intended to be exhaustive, i.e. it does not necessarily include every single topic that might appear on the exam. ∙ My recommendation isDon't forget about the age old question of manufacturing cycle efficiency
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to go through the topics appearing below, looking through the readings, notes/slides and learn smart modules (where applicable) as you review them; note, however, that many questions may be worded differently from how they appear in the eBook/modules/slides. ∙ Exam covers the chapters listed in the eBook along with ALL slides AND clips ∙ Current events discussed in class may be on the exam; other current events will be optional bonus questions Logistics ∙ 50 multiple choice questions + 5 bonus questions with 60 minutes to complete exam ∙ You will take the exam at the CASA Testing Center during the day on Thursday, December 8, 2016 ∙ You MUST reserve a space at CASA ASAP; please see Blackboard for more information ∙ You are responsible for full compliance with all CASA regulations Political Polarization (see slides) ∙ Note that Chapter 1 of the eBook contains some information about ideologies ∙ Distinguish between: o Political Polarization: Refers to the placement of people’s political/ideological views on a left-right scale. Movement away from the center and towards one of the poles, leading people to take more extreme positions. (People at or near 0 would be moderate. However, if more people place themselves at either end (-3, or 3), then we would say that the electorate is highly polarized, i.e. it has moved toward the polls.) o Partisan Sorting: Sorted Electorate: Liberal Democrats, Conservative Republicans Unsorted Electorate: Conservative Democrats (common in the South), Liberal Republicans ∙ Distribution of ideologies among American voters, i.e. what do liberals, conservatives, libertarians and populists believe? o Liberals: 2 Government should not make personal, moral decisions for people Concern for the overall safety of the public Support for greater government regulations of economic realm Higher taxes o Conservatives: Government should act to promote moral values Individual rights, esp. for gun ownership, must be protected Opposition to higher taxes, greater role for government because such efforts could restrict freedom Privatization may increase economic competition o Libertarians: Seek to maximize autonomy and freedom of choice, emphasizing political freedom, voluntary association, and the primacy of individual judgment. o Populists: More power should be given to the government ∙ Burwell v. Hobby Lobby Stores, Inc. o The requirement that Hobby Lobby had disputed: Affordable Care Act (“Obamacare”) and HHS rules require businesses and insurers to provide 20 different types of contraceptives to women. (Exemptions: churches, religiously-affiliated institutions) o Arguments made by Hobby Lobby and the Obama Administration’s Dept. of Health and Human Services o How the Supreme Court ruled 5-4 in these companies’ favor (Hobby Lobby and Conestoga Wood Specialties) Closely held companies reserved the right to operate based on principle. Companies hoping to opt out of paying for women’s contraceptives must fill out a 2-page form Congressional Elections (see slides) ∙ Safe and open seats o “Safe seats” are those with an incumbent o “Open seats” lack incumbents ∙ Reasons for the incumbency advantage: o Name recognition: Are you going to vote for someone whose name you don’t know? Did many people vote for someone other than McCain or Obama? 3 The office provides many opportunities for members to get their names out. (Ex: Rep. Giffords) o Redistricting (also gerrymandering) The Infamous “I85 District” in North Carolina Subsequently declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in Shaw v. Reno (1993) o Casework Allows members of Congress to provide nonpartisan services to constituents while claiming credit for the work they have done during elections o Franking privilege Allows Members of Congress to transmit mail matter under their signature without postage o Pork barrel and earmark spending Use of gov. money to please electorates and win votes Government spending for localized projects ∙ Why is the incumbency advantage somewhat greater in the House than the Senate? Districts v. States o Senators have greater visibility than congresspersons o Senators also have a much more diverse group of constituencies: think about how this manifests itself in Texas o Bipolar House Districts House of Representatives: “All of my constituents like trees. The problem is that 50 percent like them vertically and 50 percent like them horizontally.” Interest Groups, Interest Groups and Lobbying in Texas (Chapters 6, 12) ∙ Interest group: “any organized group that tries to influence public policy.” (Ex: A Brief History of the NRA, Greenpeace) o Interest groups can educate people on current political issues Average Americans Mothers Against Drunk Driving Lawmakers Former State Senator Kip Averitt shares his view of the role of lobbyists in the legislative process o They also strive to get people involved (grassroots mobilization) ∙ Benefits obtained from interest group membership: o Solidary incentives Benefits that people receive from interacting with (and forming friendships with) like-minded individuals Notice that it’s non-political o Purposive benefits Satisfaction you get from working on a cause This is true regardless of the cause o Economic benefits Abortion rights/restrictions Cleaner air Tax breaks Laws getting passes that benefit industries/workers 4∙ Free rider problem and strategies for overcoming it, including selective benefits o Aka “collective action problem” o Social pressure (think of small groups) o Trying to make your contributions more personal (Ex: Sarah McLachlan SPCA Commercial) o Selective benefits: ex. AARP (American Association of Retired Persons) ∙ Elite and pluralist theories of interest groups: o Elite Theory: Special interests may gain undue influence Class bias: Poor interests less likely to receive adequate attention. “The flaw in the pluralist heaven is that the chorus sings with an upper-class accent” (E.E. Schattschneider, Semi-Sovereign People, 1960) o Pluralist Theory: A theory that holds that policy making is a competition among diverse interest groups that ensure the representation of individual interests Trying to address James Madison’s concerns about the “mischiefs of faction” (Federalist 10) Pluralism and the Prevention of Factions ∙ Federalist 10 o Checks and balances/separation of powers reduces the risk for factions gaining undue influence ∙ Interest groups compete against each other, preventing one set of interest from gaining too much power ∙ Interest groups influence in TX relative to other states o Nature and degree of involvement depends heavily on the state in question o Some state governments have structures that allow for more (or less) influence, relative to political parties/government institutions/ the electorate, etc., than in other states ∙ Dominant interests in TX politics ∙ Texas Ethics Commission Political Parties (Chapter 13) ∙ Be able to distinguish political parties from interest groups ∙ Components of political parties: “an organization of ideologically similar people that nominates and elects its members to office in order to run the government and shape public policy” o Political party in the electorate o Political party organizations o Political party in the government Party leadership in Congress (House of Representatives, Senate) 5 Extends all the way down to city and county governments ∙ Partisan identification: o Definition: which party an individual identifies with o Distribution: northern coastal states tend to be blue o o Effects: encourages straight ticket voting o Characteristics of political independents Many stem from or resemble a major party ∙ Two-party system and third parties (Why Do We Have a Two-Party System?) o Duverger’s Law: “single-member districts with plurality elections tend to produce two-party systems” o Ballot restrictions: In Texas needed 74,108 signatures to get on ballot for 2008 presidential election and 43,991 signatures for a new party slate o Financial reasons: Need at least 5% of the vote to qualify for public financing in the next presidential election. (Who wants to give money to a third-party candidate?) o Reasons third parties struggle for success in the United States o Ross Perot: a TX businessman (and billionaire) ran for President in 1992 and 1996 Outcomes: 1992: Won about 19% of the popular vote 1996: Won about 8% of the popular vote as a Reform Party Candidate Top Priorities for Perot and his supporters: Balancing the federal budget The Economy – Support for American workers Reform in government – term limits, less corrupting, etc. Yet these supporters were both conservatives and liberals o The Dynamics of Third Parties Major Party Failure “Successful” third party candidate appears Constituency excited by the alternatives to the major parties that this new candidate provides After election, major parties seek these persons’ support These persons shift back to one of the major parties Political Parties in Texas (Chapter 5) ∙ History of political parties in Texas: o Modified one-party Democratic state o Modified one-party Republican state o Two party competitive state ∙ Changes in partisan identification among Texans ∙ Possible future of Texas political parties 6Bonus Questions ∙ ALL bonus questions will concern appointees to the Trump administration ∙ The questions may take these forms: o (Name) has been tapped for which position? o Trump has named whom for (position)?