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UH / Political Science / POLS 1336 / pols 1336 final exam

pols 1336 final exam

pols 1336 final exam


School: University of Houston
Department: Political Science
Course: US and Texas Const/Politics
Professor: Jeffery cole
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: pols 1336 and U.S. and Texas Constitutions and Politics
Cost: 50
Name: POLS - 1336 Final Exam Review
Description: POLS - 1336 Final Exam Review - Jeffrey Bryan Cole
Uploaded: 04/01/2017
6 Pages 425 Views 0 Unlocks

∙ Why is the incumbency advantage somewhat greater in the House than the Senate?

 Are you going to vote for someone whose name you don’t know?

what do liberals, conservatives, libertarians and populists believe?

````````POLS 1336 #13833 & #19327 Final Exam Review Sheet Fall 2016 Important Notes ∙ This study guide is NOT intended to be exhaustive, i.e. it does not  necessarily include every single topic that might appear on the exam. ∙ My recommendation isDon't forget about the age old question of manufacturing cycle efficiency
Don't forget about the age old question of according to aristotle the good is quizlet
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If you want to learn more check out o What is the most reptile-like bird we know?
If you want to learn more check out political science 101 exam 2
We also discuss several other topics like gly 101 ub
to go through the topics appearing below,  looking through the readings, notes/slides and learn smart modules  (where applicable) as you review them; note, however, that many  questions may be worded differently from how they appear in the  eBook/modules/slides. ∙ Exam covers the chapters listed in the eBook along with ALL slides  AND clips ∙ Current events discussed in class may be on the exam; other current  events will be optional bonus questions Logistics ∙ 50 multiple choice questions + 5 bonus questions with 60 minutes to  complete exam ∙ You will take the exam at the CASA Testing Center during the day on  Thursday, December 8, 2016 ∙ You MUST reserve a space at CASA ASAP; please see Blackboard for  more information ∙ You are responsible for full compliance with all CASA regulations Political Polarization (see slides)  ∙ Note that Chapter 1 of the eBook contains some information about  ideologies ∙ Distinguish between: o Political Polarization: Refers to the placement of people’s  political/ideological views on a left-right scale. Movement away  from the center and towards one of the poles, leading people to  take more extreme positions. (People at or near 0 would be  moderate. However, if more people place themselves at either  end (-3, or 3), then we would say that the electorate is highly  polarized, i.e. it has moved toward the polls.) o Partisan Sorting:   Sorted Electorate: Liberal Democrats, Conservative  Republicans  Unsorted Electorate: Conservative Democrats (common in the South), Liberal Republicans ∙ Distribution of ideologies among American voters, i.e. what do liberals,  conservatives, libertarians and populists believe? o Liberals: 2 Government should not make personal, moral decisions  for people   Concern for the overall safety of the public  Support for greater government regulations of economic  realm  Higher taxes o Conservatives:  Government should act to promote moral values  Individual rights, esp. for gun ownership, must be  protected  Opposition to higher taxes, greater role for government  because such efforts could restrict freedom  Privatization may increase economic competition o Libertarians:  Seek to maximize autonomy and freedom of choice,  emphasizing political freedom, voluntary association, and  the primacy of individual judgment. o Populists:  More power should be given to the government  ∙     Burwell v. Hobby Lobby Stores, Inc. o The requirement that Hobby Lobby had disputed:  Affordable Care Act (“Obamacare”) and HHS rules require  businesses and insurers to provide 20 different types of  contraceptives to women. (Exemptions: churches,  religiously-affiliated institutions) o Arguments made by Hobby Lobby and the Obama  Administration’s Dept. of Health and Human Services  o How the Supreme Court ruled  5-4 in these companies’ favor (Hobby Lobby and  Conestoga Wood Specialties)  Closely held companies reserved the right to operate  based on principle.   Companies hoping to opt out of paying for women’s  contraceptives must fill out a 2-page form Congressional Elections (see slides) ∙ Safe and open seats o “Safe seats” are those with an incumbent o “Open seats” lack incumbents ∙ Reasons for the incumbency advantage: o Name recognition:  Are you going to vote for someone whose name you don’t know? Did  many people vote for someone other than McCain or Obama? 3 The office provides many opportunities for members to get their names  out. (Ex: Rep. Giffords) o Redistricting (also gerrymandering)  The Infamous “I­85 District” in North Carolina  Subsequently declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in  Shaw v. Reno (1993) o Casework  Allows members of Congress to provide nonpartisan services to  constituents while claiming credit for the work they have done during  elections o Franking privilege  Allows Members of Congress to transmit mail matter under their  signature without postage o Pork barrel and earmark spending  Use of gov. money to please electorates and win votes  Government spending for localized projects ∙ Why is the incumbency advantage somewhat greater in the House than the Senate?  ­ Districts v. States o Senators have greater visibility than congresspersons o Senators also have a much more diverse group of constituencies: think about how this manifests itself in Texas o Bipolar House Districts  House of Representatives: “All of my constituents like trees. The  problem is that 50 percent like them vertically and 50 percent like them  horizontally.” Interest Groups, Interest Groups and Lobbying in Texas (Chapters 6, 12) ∙ Interest group: “any organized group that tries to influence public  policy.” (Ex: A Brief History of the NRA, Greenpeace) o Interest groups can educate people on current political issues  Average Americans Mothers Against Drunk Driving  Lawmakers Former State Senator Kip Averitt shares his  view of the role of lobbyists in the legislative process o They also strive to get people involved (grassroots mobilization) ∙ Benefits obtained from interest group membership: o Solidary incentives  Benefits that people receive from interacting with (and  forming friendships with) like-minded individuals  Notice that it’s non-political o Purposive benefits  Satisfaction you get from working on a cause  This is true regardless of the cause o Economic benefits  Abortion rights/restrictions  Cleaner air  Tax breaks  Laws getting passes that benefit industries/workers 4∙ Free rider problem and strategies for overcoming it, including  selective benefits o Aka “collective action problem” o Social pressure (think of small groups) o Trying to make your contributions more personal (Ex: Sarah  McLachlan SPCA Commercial) o Selective benefits: ex. AARP (American Association of Retired  Persons) ∙ Elite and pluralist theories of interest groups: o Elite Theory:  Special interests may gain undue influence  Class bias: Poor interests less likely to receive adequate  attention. “The flaw in the pluralist heaven is that the  chorus sings with an upper-class accent” (E.E.  Schattschneider, Semi-Sovereign People, 1960) o Pluralist Theory:  A theory that holds that policy making is a competition  among diverse interest groups that ensure the  representation of individual interests  Trying to address James Madison’s concerns about the  “mischiefs of faction” (Federalist 10) Pluralism and the Prevention of Factions ∙ Federalist 10 o Checks and balances/separation of powers reduces the risk for factions gaining undue influence ∙ Interest groups compete against each other, preventing one  set of interest from gaining too much power ∙ Interest groups influence in TX relative to other states o Nature and degree of involvement depends heavily on the state  in question o Some state governments have structures that allow for more (or  less) influence, relative to political parties/government  institutions/ the electorate, etc., than in other states ∙ Dominant interests in TX politics ∙ Texas Ethics Commission Political Parties (Chapter 13) ∙ Be able to distinguish political parties from interest groups ∙ Components of political parties: “an organization of ideologically  similar people that nominates and elects its members to office in order  to run the government and shape public policy” o Political party in the electorate o Political party organizations o Political party in the government  Party leadership in Congress (House of Representatives,  Senate) 5 Extends all the way down to city and county governments ∙ Partisan identification: o Definition: which party an individual identifies with o Distribution: northern coastal states tend to be blue o o Effects: encourages straight ticket voting o Characteristics of political independents  Many stem from or resemble a major party ∙ Two-party system and third parties (Why Do We Have a Two-Party  System?) o Duverger’s Law: “single-member districts with plurality  elections tend to produce two-party systems” o Ballot restrictions: In Texas needed 74,108 signatures to get on  ballot for 2008 presidential election and 43,991 signatures for a  new party slate  o Financial reasons: Need at least 5% of the vote to qualify for  public financing in the next presidential election. (Who wants to  give money to a third-party candidate?) o Reasons third parties struggle for success in the United States o Ross Perot: a TX businessman (and billionaire) ran for  President in 1992 and 1996  Outcomes:   1992: Won about 19% of the popular vote  1996: Won about 8% of the popular vote as a  Reform Party Candidate  Top Priorities for Perot and his supporters:  Balancing the federal budget  The Economy – Support for American workers  Reform in government – term limits, less corrupting, etc.   Yet these supporters were both conservatives and liberals o The Dynamics of Third Parties  Major Party Failure  “Successful” third party candidate appears  Constituency excited by the alternatives to the major  parties that this new candidate provides  After election, major parties seek these persons’ support  These persons shift back to one of the major parties Political Parties in Texas (Chapter 5) ∙ History of political parties in Texas: o Modified one-party Democratic state o Modified one-party Republican state o Two party competitive state ∙ Changes in partisan identification among Texans ∙ Possible future of Texas political parties 6Bonus Questions ∙ ALL bonus questions will concern appointees to the Trump  administration ∙ The questions may take these forms: o (Name) has been tapped for which position? o Trump has named whom for (position)?  

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