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Short Answers: You will be given eight (8) terms, and you will complete six (6). You will be expected to identify and then clarify their significance for the study of our subject. These answers should be about a paragraph in length (3 or 4 sentences). The significance is the most important part of these answers. Please be as concrete as possible. 1. Russian Revolution a. Russian Revolution: Pre-Bolshevik Russia i.Poor leadership (civilian and military) ii.Lack of material iii.Utter priation on the homefront iv.1917 strikes in major cities and factories and peasant uprisings in the provinces b. From the February to October Revolution i.Based in Petrograd (St. Petersburg) 1. Strikes shut down the city in March 1917 ii.Czar abdicated on March 15, 1917 iii.Return of Lenin in April 1. April Thesis a. Lenin’s promises i.Bread, peace, and land 1. Give people food, get Russia out of the war, give peasants land c. July Days and the rise of Kerensky d. Storming of Winter Palace on November 7, 1917 e. Aftermath i.Power transferred to Soviets ii.Nationalization of banks; seizure of private accounts iii.Church property expropriated iv.Foreign debt repudiated v.Factories under soviet control; 8 hour work day vi.Russian Civil War 2. Great Depression a. Great Depression as the proximate though not necessarily most significant cause of the authoritarian turn b. Great Depression in numbers i.By 1933, six million Germans are unemployed ii.25% of Americans unemployed 1. 5000 banks failed iii.800,000 French lost jobs
iv.Three million unemployed Britons 1. 20% of Britons lacking basic necessities v.700,000 Polish new landowners fell into debt 3. Fascism a. The rightward shift of European politics in the 1920s i.Fears of socialism, discontent with parliamentarianism, hopes for restoration b. The devastation of the Depression c. Enter the Nazis i.And Austro-Fascists, Flange, Iron Guard, Arrow Cross, etc. 1. Essentially, Germany wasn’t alone-- authoritarianism wasn’t an exception, it was the rule, and democracies were exceptions. d. Rise of Authoritarianism i.Attempts to overcome tensions by appealing to fear 1. Call for strong, centralized leadership 2. Anti Democratic, anti-enlightenment e. Reaction to postwar order i.Germans were the latecomers f. Earlier developments i.Italy: Mussolini and Fascism 1. Came to power in 1922; dictatorship by 1925 ii.USSR: Rise of Stalinism 1. First Five Year Plan in 1929 2. Collectivization, purges and terror g. No fascist regime ever “seized” power, they were handed power 4. Schlieffen Plan a. The Schlieffen Plan and Plan XVII i.Cult of the Offensive ii.The Marne, the “Race to the Sea” and Stalemate b. 1.5 million casualties in the first 3 months 5. New Imperialism a. New Imperialism i.Old Version 1. Trade networks, colonies, and settlements 2. Missionary activities ii.New 1. Government takeover of territory 2. Direct rule 3. Capitalist-driven and nationalist-fueled
b. Causes of Imperialism i.Second Industrial Revolution 1. Large corporations in search of new markets c. Nationalism and the balance of power i.“A place in the sun”- every country deserves a place to be great (the greatest) ii.National might and civilized progress 1. Wanting what is best of Europe to come from the country a person lives in. (Germans want the best to be from Germany, French want the best to be from France) 2. Importance of the res of the world thinking that as well (People in Africa/Asia/Latin America thinking the best of Europe comes from the country a person identifies with) d. Carving up the “Dark Continent” i.No longer about the slave trade 1. New forms of violence in pursuit of wealth 6. Civilizing Mission a. Cecil Rhodes (1853-1902) i.Establishes a diamond cartel in South Africa. ii.Exploits humans like it’s going out of style. iii.Unapologetic-- thought what he was doing was best for the world iv.Cecil Rhodes, "Confession of Faith" (1877) 1. “I contend that we are the finest race in the world and that the more of the world we inhabit the better it is for the human race. Just fancy those parts that are at present inhabited by the most despicable specimens of human being what an alteration there would be if they were brought under Anglo-Saxon influence, look again at the extra employment a new country added to our dominions gives. I contend that every acre added to our territory means in the future birth to some more of the English race who otherwise would not be brought into existence. Added to this the absorption of the greater portion of the world under our rule simply means the end of all wars…” b. Congress of Berlin (1884-1885) i.Gunships, railroads, weapons, medicine facilitate conquest ii.Concern over international conflict between colonizing powers, not over rebellion by Africans iii.Rhodes and the diamonds of southern Africa iv.Mahdist Revolt (Egypt and Sudan) against the England
v.Herero and Namaqua Genocide (Namibia)- by Germans; first genocide of the 20th century; blueprint for WW1; 70-90% of people wiped out c. Great Game and Imperialism in Asia i.British Incursions 1. India, Malaysia, and Burma ii.British and Russian rivalry 1. Central Asia (Persia, Afghanistan, China) and threats to India iii.Trans-Siberian Railway as a threat iv.France in Indo-China 7. Social Darwinism a. Darwinian Revolution i.On the Origins of Species (1859) 1. Emergence of social Darwinism 2. Thin line between science and speculations b. Positivism i.Auguste Comte ii.Better living through science 8. Congo Free State a. King Leopold II of Belgium and the Congo i.Ivory and rubber extorted through forced labor ii.Two to fifteen million dead iii.Not under direct Belgian rule 1. King created a privately owned company to extract rubber 2. People were enslaved, and corporal punishment was established iv.Congo Reform Association 1. International humanitarian organization created because conditions were so bad 2. Mark Twain and Sir Arthur Conan Doyle were members 9. Opium Wars a. The Opium Wars were two wars in the mid-19th century involving Anglo-Chinese disputes over British trade in China and China's sovereignty. The disputes included the First Opium War (1839–1842) and the Second Opium War (1856–1860). The wars and events between them weakened the Qing dynasty and forced China to trade with the rest of the world. 10. London Pan-African Congress a. The First Pan-African Conference was held in London from 23 to 25 July 1900. Organized primarily by the Trinidadian barrister Henry Sylvester Williams,it took place in Westminster Hall and was attended by 37 delegates and about 10 other participants and observers from Africa, the West Indies, the US and the UK.
Focus on getting European leaders to struggle against racism, to grant colonies in Africa and the West Indies the right to self-government and demanding political and other rights for African Americans. 11. Origin of the Species a. Darwinian Revolution i.On the Origins of Species (1859) 1. Emergence of Social Darwinism 2. Thin line between science and speculation b. Positivism i.Auguste Comte ii.Better living through science 12. Boer War a. This is intense fighting over the interior of South Africa. The British institute the first concentration camps to house war prisoners and 26,000 Boers die in these camps. The British win in 1902. i.British get political control of South Africa, but grant the Boers self governance. ii.The Boers don’t get slavery, but they do get the disenfranchisement of the Africans. 13. Berlin Conference a. Congress of Berlin (1884-1885) i.Gunships, railroads, weapons, medicine facilitate conquest ii.Concern over international conflict between colonizing powers, not over rebellion by Africans iii.Rhodes and the diamonds of southern Africa iv.Mahdist Revolt (Egypt and Sudan) against the England v.Herero and Namaqua Genocide (Namibia)- by Germans; first genocide of the 20th century; blueprint for WW1; 70-90% of people wiped out 14. Liberalism a. Nationalism after 1848 i.Emergence of Realpolitik 1. Revolutions revealed shortcoming of idealism a. National interest came to the fore i.Liberal nationalist vs national liberals 1. Equality but only for those that are “real” citizens b. The Rise of Authoritarianism and the Great Depression i.Depression grips Germany
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School: University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa
Course: Western Civilization from 1648
Professor: Janek Wasserman
Term: Spring 2017
Name: HY102, Studyguide for Midterm 2
Description: Studyguide for the 04-05-2017 midterm. Essay prompts are answered with notes that can be used to make the outline for an essay, not actual essay outlines. ***IF YOU ARE HAVING PROBLEMS VIEWING THIS, PLEASE EMAIL ME SO I CAN SEND YOU THE STUDYGUIDE***