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UA / History / HY 102 / What was francisco franco best known for?

What was francisco franco best known for?

What was francisco franco best known for?

Description

School: University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa
Department: History
Course: Western Civilization from 1648
Professor: Janek wasserman
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: history
Cost: 50
Name: HY102, Studyguide for Midterm 2
Description: Studyguide for the 04-05-2017 midterm. Essay prompts are answered with notes that can be used to make the outline for an essay, not actual essay outlines. ***IF YOU ARE HAVING PROBLEMS VIEWING THIS, PLEASE EMAIL ME SO I CAN SEND YOU THE STUDYGUIDE***
Uploaded: 04/02/2017
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Short Answers: You will be given eight (8) terms, and you will complete six (6). You will be expected to identify and then clarify their significance for the study of our subject. These answers should be about a paragraph in length (3 or 4 sentences). The significance is the most important part of these answers. Please be as concrete as possible.


What was francisco franco best known for?



1. Russian Revolution

a. Russian Revolution: Pre-Bolshevik Russia

i. Poor leadership (civilian and military)

ii. Lack of material If you want to learn more check out What is a conjugative plasmid?

iii. Utter priation on the homefront

iv. 1917 strikes in major cities and factories and peasant uprisings in the provinces

b. From the February to October Revolution

i. Based in Petrograd (St. Petersburg)

1. Strikes shut down the city in March 1917

ii. Czar abdicated on March 15, 1917

iii. Return of Lenin in April

1. April Thesis

a. Lenin’s promises

i. Bread, peace, and land

1. Give people food, get Russia out of the war,

give peasants land


What happens during the revolutions of 1848?



c. July Days and the rise of Kerensky

d. Storming of Winter Palace on November 7, 1917

e. Aftermath

i. Power transferred to Soviets If you want to learn more check out What is the basic morphology of leafy moss?

ii. Nationalization of banks; seizure of private accounts

iii. Church property expropriated

iv. Foreign debt repudiated

v. Factories under soviet control; 8 hour work day

vi. Russian Civil War

2. Great Depression

a. Great Depression as the proximate though not necessarily most significant cause of the authoritarian turn

b. Great Depression in numbers

i. By 1933, six million Germans are unemployed

ii. 25% of Americans unemployed

1. 5000 banks failed


When was the league of nations formed and why?



iii. 800,000 French lost jobs

iv. Three million unemployed Britons

1. 20% of Britons lacking basic necessities

v. 700,000 Polish new landowners fell into debt

3. Fascism

a. The rightward shift of European politics in the 1920s

i. Fears of socialism, discontent with parliamentarianism, hopes for restoration

b. The devastation of the Depression

c. Enter the Nazis

i. And Austro-Fascists, Flange, Iron Guard, Arrow Cross, etc.

1. Essentially, Germany wasn’t alone-- authoritarianism wasn’t an

exception, it was the rule, and democracies were exceptions.

d. Rise of Authoritarianism If you want to learn more check out What is the byzantine empire known for?
We also discuss several other topics like What is the principle of radiation balance?

i. Attempts to overcome tensions by appealing to fear

1. Call for strong, centralized leadership

2. Anti Democratic, anti-enlightenment

e. Reaction to postwar order

i. Germans were the latecomers

f. Earlier developments

i. Italy: Mussolini and Fascism

1. Came to power in 1922; dictatorship by 1925

ii. USSR: Rise of Stalinism

1. First Five Year Plan in 1929

2. Collectivization, purges and terror

g. No fascist regime ever “seized” power, they were handed power 4. Schlieffen Plan

a. The Schlieffen Plan and Plan XVII

i. Cult of the Offensive

ii. The Marne, the “Race to the Sea” and Stalemate

b. 1.5 million casualties in the first 3 months

5. New Imperialism

a. New Imperialism

i. Old Version

1. Trade networks, colonies, and settlements

2. Missionary activities

ii. New

1. Government takeover of territory

2. Direct rule

3. Capitalist-driven and nationalist-fueledWe also discuss several other topics like Bateson and punnett refers to what?

b. Causes of Imperialism

i. Second Industrial Revolution

1. Large corporations in search of new markets

c. Nationalism and the balance of power

i. “A place in the sun”- every country deserves a place to be great (the greatest) If you want to learn more check out Why are information technology ethical issues important?

ii. National might and civilized progress

1. Wanting what is best of Europe to come from the country a person lives in. (Germans want the best to be from Germany, French want

the best to be from France)

2. Importance of the res of the world thinking that as well (People in

Africa/Asia/Latin America thinking the best of Europe comes from

the country a person identifies with)

d. Carving up the “Dark Continent”

i. No longer about the slave trade

1. New forms of violence in pursuit of wealth

6. Civilizing Mission

a. Cecil Rhodes (1853-1902)

i. Establishes a diamond cartel in South Africa.

ii. Exploits humans like it’s going out of style.

iii. Unapologetic-- thought what he was doing was best for the world iv. Cecil Rhodes, "Confession of Faith" (1877)

1. “I contend that we are the finest race in the world and that the more of the world we inhabit the better it is for the human race. Just

fancy those parts that are at present inhabited by the most

despicable specimens of human being what an alteration there

would be if they were brought under Anglo-Saxon influence, look

again at the extra employment a new country added to our

dominions gives. I contend that every acre added to our territory

means in the future birth to some more of the English race who

otherwise would not be brought into existence. Added to this the

absorption of the greater portion of the world under our rule simply

means the end of all wars…”

b. Congress of Berlin (1884-1885)

i. Gunships, railroads, weapons, medicine facilitate conquest

ii. Concern over international conflict between colonizing powers, not over rebellion by Africans

iii. Rhodes and the diamonds of southern Africa

iv. Mahdist Revolt (Egypt and Sudan) against the England

v. Herero and Namaqua Genocide (Namibia)- by Germans; first genocide of the 20th century; blueprint for WW1; 70-90% of people wiped out

c. Great Game and Imperialism in Asia

i. British Incursions

1. India, Malaysia, and Burma

ii. British and Russian rivalry

1. Central Asia (Persia, Afghanistan, China) and threats to India

iii. Trans-Siberian Railway as a threat

iv. France in Indo-China

7. Social Darwinism

a. Darwinian Revolution

i. On the Origins of Species (1859)

1. Emergence of social Darwinism

2. Thin line between science and speculations

b. Positivism

i. Auguste Comte

ii. Better living through science

8. Congo Free State

a. King Leopold II of Belgium and the Congo

i. Ivory and rubber extorted through forced labor

ii. Two to fifteen million dead

iii. Not under direct Belgian rule

1. King created a privately owned company to extract rubber

2. People were enslaved, and corporal punishment was established

iv. Congo Reform Association

1. International humanitarian organization created because conditions were so bad

2. Mark Twain and Sir Arthur Conan Doyle were members

9. Opium Wars

a. The Opium Wars​ were two wars in the mid-19th century involving Anglo-Chinese disputes over British trade in China and China's sovereignty. The disputes included the First Opium War (1839–1842) and the Second Opium War (1856–1860). The wars and events between them weakened the Qing dynasty and forced China to trade with the rest of the world. 

10. London Pan-African Congress

a. The First Pan-African Conference​ was held in London from 23 to 25 July 1900. Organized primarily by the Trinidadian barrister Henry Sylvester Williams, it took place in Westminster Hall and was attended by 37 delegates and about 10 other participants and observers from Africa, the West Indies, the US and the UK.

Focus on getting European leaders to struggle against racism, to grant colonies in Africa and the West Indies the right to self-government and demanding political and other rights for African Americans. 

11. Origin of the Species

a. Darwinian Revolution

i. On the Origins of Species (1859)

1. Emergence of Social Darwinism

2. Thin line between science and speculation

b. Positivism

i. Auguste Comte

ii. Better living through science

12. Boer War

a. This is intense fighting over the interior of South Africa. The British institute the first concentration camps to house war prisoners and 26,000 Boers die in these camps. The British win in 1902.

i. British get political control of South Africa, but grant the Boers self governance.

ii. The Boers don’t get slavery, but they do get the disenfranchisement of the Africans.

13. Berlin Conference

a. Congress of Berlin (1884-1885)

i. Gunships, railroads, weapons, medicine facilitate conquest

ii. Concern over international conflict between colonizing powers, not over rebellion by Africans

iii. Rhodes and the diamonds of southern Africa

iv. Mahdist Revolt (Egypt and Sudan) against the England

v. Herero and Namaqua Genocide (Namibia)- by Germans; first genocide of the 20th century; blueprint for WW1; 70-90% of people wiped out

14. Liberalism

a. Nationalism after 1848 

i. Emergence of Realpolitik

1. Revolutions revealed shortcoming of idealism

a. National interest came to the fore

i. Liberal nationalist vs national liberals

1. Equality but only for those that are “real”

citizens

b. The Rise of Authoritarianism and the Great Depression 

i. Depression grips Germany

1. Great Depression as the proximate though not necessarily most

significant cause of the authoritarian turn

a. Role of liberal democratic traditions, regional variation

ii. The rightward shift of European politics in the 1920s

1. Fears of socialism, discontent with parliamentarianism, hopes for

restoration

iii. The devastation of the Depression

1. Enter the Nazis

a. And Austro-Fascists, Flange, Iron Guard, Arrow Cross, etc.

i. Essentially, Germany wasn’t alone--

authoritarianism wasn’t an exception, it was the

rule, and democracies were exceptions.

15. Franco-Prussian War

a. German unification: Blood and Iron

i. Prussian domination of the project

1. Bismarck (1815-1898) an architect

b. Cooperation of the liberals through conquest

c. Wars:

i. Denmark (1864), Austria (1866), France (1870),

1. Proclamation of German Empire at Versailles, in January of 1871.

d. The Franco-Prussian War​ (19 July 1870 – 10 May 1871), was a conflict between the Second French Empire of Napoleon III and the German states of the North German Confederation led by the Kingdom of Prussia. The conflict was caused by Prussian ambitions to extend German unification and French fears of the shift in the European balance of power that would result if the Prussians succeeded. Some historians argue that the Prussian chancellor Otto von Bismarck deliberately provoked a French attack in order to draw the independent southern German states—Baden, Württemberg, Bavaria and Hesse-Darmstadt—into an alliance with the North German Confederation dominated by Prussia, while others contend that Bismarck did not plan anything and merely exploited the 

circumstances as they unfolded. 

16. Antisemitism

a. The Treaty of Versailles

i. Occupation of Rhineland and Saarland

ii. Reduction of German armed forces

iii. Loss of territory

iv. Reparations

v. War Guilt Clause

1. Germany has to assume full responsibility for war.

2. Has to pay everyone

3. People that sign the clause are seen as traitors

vi. “Germany’s Mutilation”

b. Turmoil of Early Republic

i. The Freikorps and the Kapp Putsch

1. “Stab in the back” myth

a. Sentiment against Jewish people surfaces

17. Bolsheviks

a. Russian Revolution: Pre-Bolshevik Russia

i. Poor leadership (civilian and military)

ii. Lack of material

iii. Utter priation on the homefront

iv. 1917 strikes in major cities and factories and peasant uprisings in the provinces

b. From the February to October Revolution

i. Based in Petrograd (St. Petersburg)

1. Strikes shut down the city in March 1917

ii. Czar abdicated on March 15, 1917

iii. Return of Lenin in April

1. April Thesis

a. Lenin’s promises

i. Bread, peace, and land

1. Give people food, get Russia out of the war,

give peasants land

iv. July Days and the rise of Kerensky

v. Storming of Winter Palace on November 7, 1917

c. Aftermath

i. Power transferred to Soviets

ii. Nationalization of banks; seizure of private accounts

iii. Church property expropriated

iv. Foreign debt repudiated

v. Factories under soviet control; 8 hour work day

d. Russian Civil War

18. Franz Ferdinand

a. World War 1 1914-1918 

b. General story told in high school classes

i. Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated on June 28, 1914 in Sarajevo by a Serbian Nationalist named Gavrilo Princip. This is the powderkeg

that leads to the Habsburgs issuing demands to Serbia, and war breaks out on August 1, 1914.

c. “Long” and “Short” fuses of WWI

i. Long

1. No major wars since Napoleon (1815)

2. Pigid alliance structure

3. Imperial rivalries

4. Smoldering domestic tensions

5. Culture ferment

ii. Short

1. Brinkmanship of leaders

2. Ongoing Balkan instability

3. Assassination of Franz Ferdinand

19. Gallipoli

a. 1916 on the Battlefield

i. Verdun

1. Approximately 1 million casualties

ii. Somme

1. 1.25 million casualties

iii. French casualties, Habsburg depletion

1. Mutinies and unrest

iv. Brusilov Offensive and Gallipoli

b. The Gallipoli Campaign​, was a campaign of the First World War that took place on the Gallipoli peninsula in the Ottoman Empire between 25 April 1915 and 9 January 1916. The peninsula forms the northern bank of the Dardanelles, a strait that provided a sea route to the Russian Empire, one of the Allied powers during the war. Intending to secure it, Russia's allies Britain and France launched a naval attack followed by an amphibious landing on the peninsula, with the aim of capturing the Ottoman capital of Constantinople. The naval attack was repelled and after eight months' fighting, with many casualties on both sides, the land campaign was abandoned and the invasion force was withdrawn to Egypt.

c. The campaign was one of the greatest Ottoman victories during the war. 20. Verdun

a. 1916 on the Battlefield

i. Verdun

1. Approximately 1 million casualties

ii. Somme

1. 1.25 million casualties

iii. French casualties, Habsburg depletion

1. Mutinies and unrest

iv. Brusilov Offensive and Gallipoli

b. The Battle of Verdun​ fought from 21 February to 18 December 1916, was the largest and longest battle of the First World War on the Western Front between the German and French armies. The battle took place on the hills north of Verdun-sur-Meuse in north-eastern France. The German 5th Army attacked the defences of the Fortified Region of Verdun and those of the French Second Army on the right bank of the Meuse.

c. Poor weather delayed the beginning of the German attack until 21 February, but the Germans enjoyed initial success. Afterwards the German advance slowed, despite many French casualties. By 29 March, French artillery on the west bank had begun a constant bombardment of German positions on the east bank, which caused many German infantry casualties.

d. The Battle of Verdun lasted for 303 days and became the longest and one of the most costly battles in human history.

21. Total war

a. World War 1 1914-1918 

b. The first “total war”

i. Battlefield deaths

1. 5.2 million Entente

2. 3.4 million Central Powers

ii. Casualties

1. 22.1 million Entente

2. 15.4 million Central Powers

iii. 65 million mobilized total

iv. Home front catastrophe

1. 6-7 million dead total

v. Demographic crises because men are being sent to die, leading to way more women than men

vi. Influenza Pandemic (Spanish Flu)

1. 50-100 million dead worldwide

2. 3 million dead in Europe

3. Most in India and Asia

22. Vladimir Lenin

a. Lenin and October revolution

b. Russian Revolution: Pre-Bolshevik Russia

i. Poor leadership (civilian and military)

ii. Lack of material

iii. Utter priation on the homefront

iv. 1917 strikes in major cities and factories and peasant uprisings in the provinces

c. From the February to October Revolution

i. Based in Petrograd (St. Petersburg)

1. Strikes shut down the city in March 1917

ii. Czar abdicated on March 15, 1917

iii. Return of Lenin in April

1. April Thesis

a. Lenin’s promises

i. Bread, peace, and land

1. Give people food, get Russia out of the war,

give peasants land

iv. July Days and the rise of Kerensky

v. Storming of Winter Palace on November 7, 1917

d. Aftermath

i. Power transferred to Soviets

ii. Nationalization of banks; seizure of private accounts

iii. Church property expropriated

iv. Foreign debt repudiated

v. Factories under soviet control; 8 hour work day

vi. Russian Civil War

23. Treaty of Versailles

a. The Treaty of Versailles

i. Occupation of Rhineland and Saarland

ii. Reduction of German armed forces

iii. Loss of territory

iv. Reparations

v. War Guilt Clause

1. Germany has to assume full responsibility for war.

2. Has to pay everyone

3. People that sign the clause are seen as traitors

vi. “Germany’s Mutilation”

b. Turmoil of Early Republic

i. The Freikorps and the Kapp Putsch

1. “Stab in the back” myth

a. Sentiment against Jewish people surfaces

ii. Reparations and hyperinflation

c. The Hungarian Case

i. Treaty of Thanon

d. The Biggest Loser: Hungary

i. 3.3 million ethnic Hungarians outside of Hungary

1. 900,000 in Slovakia, 1.7 million in Romania

2. Lost 72% of territory, 64% of population

ii. Aster and Red Revolutions

1. Hungarians “Restoration”

a. Reestablishment of the Kingdom of Hungary

i. “A kingdom without a king, ruled by an admiral

without a fleet”- Miklos Horthy’s

e. Romania wins in a major way

f. Victor’s Burden: Romania

i. Acquisition of Transylvania, Bucovina and Bessarabia

1. Nouveaux Riches of Europe?

a. 5 times the territory, much larger population

2. Corneliu Codreanu and the rise of ethnic nationalism

24. Collectivization

a. USSR: Rise of Stalinism

i. First Five Year Plan in 1929

ii. Collectivization, purges and terror

b. Collectivization was a policy of forced consolidation of individual peasant households into collective farms as carried out by the Soviet government in the late 1920’s - early 1930’s. By introducing this system, Stalin meant to overcome the food crisis holding the country and to increase peasant labor productivity. 25. Weimar Germany

a. Death of Weimar and the Rise of Nazism

i. Sidebar: no fascist regime ever “seized” power, they were handed power. ii. Depression shattered illusion in Germany

1. Crises of the Welfare State

b. Era of Presidential Regimes

i. Heinrich Brüning,Franz Papen, and Hurt Schlicher

ii. Attempting to institute one party rule before the Nazis but were outsmarted by the Nazis

iii. Set in motion mechanism that allows Hitler to come to power

c. End of Weimar Democracy

i. Fall of the Great Coalition in March, 1930

ii. Article 48 and presidential rule

1. Lack of popular support forced authoritarians, conservatives to

consider alliances with Nazis

iii. January 30, 1933: Hitler appointed Chancellor

iv. March 23, 1933: Enabling Act

1. Parliament votes itself out of existence

v. By August, 1934 Hitler was Fuhrer.

1. This takes time-- it isn’t an overnight thing

26. National Socialist German Workers Party

a. Era of Presidential Regimes

i. Heinrich Brüning,Franz Papen, and Hurt Schlicher

ii. Attempting to institute one party rule before the Nazis but were

outsmarted by the Nazis

iii. Set in motion mechanism that allows Hitler to come to power

b. End of Weimar Democracy

i. Fall of the Great Coalition in March, 1930

ii. Article 48 and presidential rule

1. Lack of popular support forced authoritarians, conservatives to

consider alliances with Nazis

iii. January 30, 1933: Hitler appointed Chancellor

iv. March 23, 1933: Enabling Act

1. Parliament votes itself out of existence

v. By August, 1934 Hitler was Fuhrer.

1. This takes time-- it isn’t an overnight thing

27. Cecil Rhodes

a. Cecil Rhodes (1853-1902)

i. Establishes a diamond cartel in South Africa.

ii. Exploits humans like it’s going out of style.

iii. Unapologetic-- thought what he was doing was best for the world iv. Cecil Rhodes, "Confession of Faith" (1877)

1. “I contend that we are the finest race in the world and that the more of the world we inhabit the better it is for the human race. Just

fancy those parts that are at present inhabited by the most

despicable specimens of human being what an alteration there

would be if they were brought under Anglo-Saxon influence, look

again at the extra employment a new country added to our

dominions gives. I contend that every acre added to our territory

means in the future birth to some more of the English race who

otherwise would not be brought into existence. Added to this the

absorption of the greater portion of the world under our rule simply

means the end of all wars…”

28. Haile Selassie II

a. Haile Selassie (​23 July 1892 – 27 August 1975) was Ethiopia's regent from 1916

to 1930 and emperor from 1930 to 1974. 

b. At the League of Nations in 1936, the emperor condemned the use of chemical weapons by Italy against his people during the Second Italo–Ethiopian War. His internationalist views led to Ethiopia becoming a charter member of the League of Nations, and his political thought and experience in promoting multilateralism and collective security have proved seminal and enduring. 

c. Among the Rastafari movement, whose followers are estimated at between two and four million, Haile Selassie is revered as the returned messiah of the Bible, God incarnate. Beginning in Jamaica in the 1930s, the Rastafari movement perceives Haile Selassie as a messianic figure who will lead a future golden age of eternal peace, righteousness, and prosperity. Haile Selassie was an Ethiopian Orthodox Christian throughout his life. 

29. Paul von Hindenburg

a. Paul von Hindenburg​ (2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934) was a German military officer, statesman, and politician who served as the second President of Germany from 1925 until his death in 1934. 

b. As Germany's Chief of the General Staff from August 1916, Hindenburg's reputation rose greatly in German public esteem. He and his deputy Erich Ludendorff then led Germany in a de facto military dictatorship throughout the remainder of the war, marginalizing German Emperor Wilhelm II as well as the German Reichstag (Parliament). In line with Lebensraum ideology, he advocated sweeping annexations of territories in Poland, Ukraine, and Russia in order to resettle Germans there. 

c. Hindenburg retired again in 1919, but returned to public life in 1925 to be elected the second President of Germany. In 1932, Hindenburg was persuaded to run for re-election as German president, although 84 years old and in poor health, because he was considered the only candidate who could defeat Adolf Hitler. Hindenburg was re-elected in a runoff. He was opposed to Hitler and was a major player in the increasing political instability in the Weimar Republic that ended with Hitler's rise to power. He dissolved the Reichstag twice in 1932 and finally, under pressure, agreed to appoint Hitler Chancellor of Germany in January 1933. In February, he signed off on the Reichstag Fire Decree, which suspended various civil liberties, and in March he signed the Enabling Act of 1933, which gave Hitler's regime arbitrary powers. Hindenburg died the following year, after which Hitler declared the office of President vacant and made himself head of state. 30. March on Rome

a. March on Rome, October 19, 1922

i. Italy called the treaty and peace a “mutilated victory”

ii. Benito Mussolini leads his men into Rome and is handed power by the king

31. Francisco Franco

a. Francisco Franco ​(4 December 1892 – 19/20 November 1975) was a Spanish general who ruled over Spain as a military dictator for 36 years from 1939 until his death. 

b. As a conservative and a monarchist, he opposed the abolition of the monarchy and the establishment of a republic in 1931. With the 1936 elections, the conservative Spanish Confederation of Autonomous Right-wing Groups lost by a narrow margin and the leftist Popular Front came to power. Intending to overthrow the republic, Franco followed other generals in attempting a failed coup that precipitated the Spanish Civil War. With the death of the other generals, Franco quickly became his faction's only leader. 

c. Franco gained military support from various regimes and groups, especially Nazi Germany and the Kingdom of Italy, while the Republican side was supported by Spanish communists and anarchists as well as help from the Soviet Union, Mexico, and the International Brigades. Leaving half a million dead, the war was eventually won by Franco in 1939. He established a military dictatorship, which he defined as a totalitarian state. Franco proclaimed himself Head of State and Government under the title El Caudillo, a term similar to Il Duce (Italian) for Benito Mussolini and Der Führer (German) for Adolf Hitler. Under Franco, Spain became a one-party state, as the various conservative and royalist factions were merged into the fascist party and other political parties were outlawed. 

d. Franco's regime committed a series of violent politically-motivated human rights abuses against the Spanish people, which included the establishment of concentration camps, the use of forced labor and executions, mostly against political and ideological enemies, causing an estimated 200,000 to 400,000 deaths, depending on how the deaths in the more than 190 concentration camps are considered. Although Franco's Spain maintained an official policy of neutrality during World War II, his regime helped the Axis in numerous ways. The German and Italian navies were allowed to use Spanish harbors from 1940 to 1943, the Abwehr gathered intelligence in Spain on Allied activities, and the Blue Division fought alongside the European Axis Powers against the Soviet Union until 1944. Franco's regime has been called a fascist one. 

32. “Guernica”

a. "Guernica (Picasso)." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 25 Mar. 2017. Web. 01 Apr. 2017.

b. Guernica​ is a mural-sized oil painting on canvas by Spanish artist Pablo Picasso completed in June 1937. The painting is regarded by many art critics as one of the most moving and powerful anti-war paintings in history. The large mural shows the suffering of people wrenched by violence and chaos. Prominent in the composition are a gored horse, a bull, and flames.

c. The painting was created in response to the bombing of Guernica, a Basque Country village in northern Spain, by Nazi German and Fascist Italian warplanes at the request of the Spanish Nationalists. Upon completion, Guernica was exhibited at the Spanish display at the Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne (Paris International Exposition) in the 1937 World's Fair in Paris and then at other venues around the world. The touring exhibition was used to raise funds for Spanish war relief. The painting became famous and widely acclaimed, and it helped bring worldwide attention to the Spanish Civil War.

33. Five Year Plan

a. USSR: Rise of Stalinism

i. First Five Year Plan in 1929

ii. Collectivization, purges and terror

34. Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

a. The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk​ was a peace treaty signed on 3 March 1918 between the new Bolshevik government of Soviet Russia and the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire), that ended Russia's participation in World War I. The treaty was signed at Brest-Litovsk, after two months of negotiations. The treaty was forced on the Bolshevik government by the threat of further advances by German and Austrian forces. According to the treaty, Soviet Russia defaulted on all of Imperial Russia's commitments to the Triple Entente alliance. 

b. In the treaty, Bolshevik Russia ceded the Baltic States to Germany; they were meant to become German vassal states under German princelings. Russia also ceded its province of Kars Oblast in the South Caucasus to the Ottoman Empire and recognized the independence of Ukraine. Furthermore, Russia agreed to pay six billion German gold marks in reparations. Congress Poland was not mentioned in the treaty, as Germans refused to recognize the existence of any Polish representatives, which in turn led to Polish protests. 

c. The treaty was effectively terminated in November 1918, when Germany surrendered to the Allies. However, in the meantime, it did provide some relief to the Bolsheviks, already fighting the Russian Civil War, by the renouncement of Russia's claims on Poland, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Ukraine and Lithuania.

35. Revolutions of 1848

a. Revolutions of 1848, series of republican revolts against European monarchies, beginning in Sicily, and spreading to France, Germany, Italy, and the Austrian Empire. They all ended in failure and repression, and were followed by widespread disillusionment among liberals. 

36. League of Nations

a. The League of Nations was an international organization, headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, created after the First World War to provide a forum for resolving international disputes. Though first proposed by President Woodrow Wilson as part of his Fourteen Points plan for an equitable peace in Europe, the United States never became a member. 

b. The idea of the League was grounded in the broad, international revulsion against the unprecedented destruction of the First World War and the contemporary understanding of its origins. 

37. Neville Chamberlain

a. Arthur Neville Chamberlain​ (18 March 1869 – 9 November 1940) was a British Conservative politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from May 1937 to May 1940. Chamberlain is best known for his appeasement 

foreign policy, and in particular for his signing of the Munich Agreement in 1938, conceding the German-speaking Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia to Germany. However, when Adolf Hitler later invaded Poland, the UK declared war on Germany on 3 September 1939, and Chamberlain led Britain through the first eight months of World War II. 

b. When Stanley Baldwin retired in May 1937, Chamberlain took his place as Prime Minister. His premiership was dominated by the question of policy toward the increasingly aggressive Germany, and his actions at Munich were widely popular among Britons at the time. When Hitler continued his aggression, Chamberlain pledged Britain to defend Poland's independence if the latter were attacked, an alliance that brought Britain into war when Germany attacked Poland in 1939. Chamberlain resigned the premiership on 10 May 1940 after the Allies were forced to retreat from Norway, as he believed a government supported by all parties was essential, and the Labour and Liberal parties would not join a government headed by him. He was succeeded by Winston Churchill but remained very well regarded in Parliament, especially among Conservatives. Before ill health forced him to resign he was an important member of Churchill's War Cabinet, heading it in the new premier's absence. Chamberlain died of cancer six months after leaving the premiership. 

38. Anschluss/Sudetenland

a. The Sudetenland​ is the German name to refer to those northern, southern, and

western areas of Czechoslovakia which were inhabited primarily by ethnic German speakers, specifically the border districts of Bohemia, Moravia, and those parts of Czech Silesia located within Czechoslovakia, since they were part of Austria until the end of World War I. 

b. The word "Sudetenland" did not come into existence until the early 20th century and did not come to prominence until after the First World War, when the German-dominated Austria-Hungary was dismembered and the Sudeten Germans found themselves living in the new country of Czechoslovakia. The Sudeten crisis of 1938 was provoked by the demands of Nazi Germany that the Sudetenland be annexed to Germany, which in fact took place after the later infamous Munich Agreement. Part of the borderland was invaded and annexed by Poland. When Czechoslovakia was reconstituted after the Second World War, the Sudeten Germans were largely expelled, and the region today is inhabited almost exclusively by Czech speakers. 

c. Parts of the current Czech regions of Karlovy Vary, Liberec, Olomouc, Moravia-Silesia, and Ústí nad Labem are situated within the former Sudetenland. d. Anschluss​ is the term used to describe the annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany in March 1938. 

e. The idea of an Anschluss (Austria and Germany united to form a "Greater Germany")[a] began after the Unification of Germany excluded Austria and the Austrian Germans from the Prussian-dominated German nation-state in 1871. Following the end of World War I, in 1918, the Republic of German-Austria attempted union with Germany, but the Treaty of Saint Germain (10 September 1919) and the Treaty of Versailles (28 June 1919) forbade both the union and the continued use of the name "German-Austria" and cutting several territories like the Sudetenland off. 

39. “Metropolis” (film)

a. Cosmopolitanism and urbanism

i. An international network of modernism

ii. Capturing the city: novels, film, and design

1. Berlin (Doblin), Dublin (Joyce), New York (Dos Passos)

2. Fritz Lang, Metropolis and M; Charlie Chaplin, Modern Times

40. Bauhaus

a. Cosmopolitanism and urbanism

i. An international network of modernism

ii. Capturing the city: novels, film, and design

1. Berlin (Doblin), Dublin (Joyce), New York (Dos Passos)

2. Fritz Lang, Metropolis and M; Charlie Chaplin, Modern Times

b. Bauhaus and Neue Sachlichkeit

i. Bauhaus Building, Dessau (1925-26)

41. "The Bauhaus Building by Walter Gropius (1925-26)." The Bauhaus Building by Walter Gropius (1925-26) : School Building : Stiftung Bauhaus Dessau / Bauhaus Dessau Foundation. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Mar. 2017.

<http://www.bauhaus-dessau.de/the-bauhaus-building-by-walter-gropius.html>

Essay: Two of the following three essays will appear on the exam. You only have to do one. Your essay will be assessed on its argument, clarity of thought and organization, and its use of information from both lecture and readings. An essay that does not refer to primary sources will be inadequate. ​You do not have to quote from the books we have read; you merely have to reference them.

42. Historians have argued that the era of 1914 to 1945 could be understood as a second “Thirty Years War” in Europe. Considering the events of World War I, the subsequent interwar period, and the outbreak of World War II, test this thesis. In short, can you make the case that the outbreak of World War II was directly linked to the results of World War I and the subsequent turmoil of the interwar period?

a. Because of our notes only reaching to the end of WWI, I can provide notes for that, and the notes from Monday (04-03-2017) should cover the WWII portion-- if they don’t, common knowledge surrounding how anti semitism spread post-WWI and that connection to concentration camps, as well as the German feeling of not really losing but still being punished being connected to them attacking the rest of the world.

b. End of WWI

i. Spring Offensive and the collapse of the Central Power

ii. Suing for peace and the “Stab in the back”

iii. Revolutions and independence

iv. Armistice on November 11, 1918

c. War Consequences 

i. Paris Peace Accords and the Postwar “order” 

d. Hall of Mirrors during Peace Accords, 1919

e. In Versailles

i. Sight of revenge

ii. Deliberately chosen

f. Introduction: Paris Peace Conference

i. Touchstone moment for interwar period

1. Treaty or Diktat

a. Decision made with no choice by losers

2. Indemnities and war War Guilt

a. Who pays what to who?

3. Self-Determination

a. Not meant for losers, not meant for colonial civilization

b. Austria, Alsace and Lorraine, Bratislava

g. Map changes drastically

h. Overview

i. Post-Versailles “order”

1. Turmoil across the continent

2. Discontent among “winners” and “losers”

ii. Case Studies

1. Losers:

a. Germany

i. Events in Germany up to Versailles

i. November 9, 1918

1. Socialist stirrings and the “Red Menace”

2. Spartacus Uprising

3. Bavarian Soviet Republic

4. The “Weimar Coalition”

j. The Treaty of Versailles

i. Occupation of Rhineland and Saarland

ii. Reduction of German armed forces

iii. Loss of territory

iv. Reparations

v. War Guilt Clause

1. Germany has to assume full responsibility for war.

2. Has to pay everyone

3. People that sign the clause are seen as traitors

vi. “Germany’s Mutilation”

k. Turmoil of Early Republic

i. The Freikorps and the Kapp Putsch

1. “Stab in the back” myth

2. Sentiment against Jewish people surfaces

ii. Reparations and hyperinflation

l. The Rise of Authoritarianism and the Great Depression 

i. Depression grips Germany

ii. Introduction

1. Historical events are overdetermined

2. Great Depression as the proximate though not necessarily most significant cause of the authoritarian turn

3. Role of liberal democratic traditions, regional variation

iii. Overview

1. The rightward shift of European politics in the 1920s

a. Fears of socialism, discontent with parliamentarianism,

hopes for restoration

2. The devastation of the Depression

3. Enter the Nazis

a. And Austro-Fascists, Flange, Iron Guard, Arrow Cross, etc.

i. Essentially, Germany wasn’t alone--

authoritarianism wasn’t an exception, it was the

rule, and democracies were exceptions.

iv. March on Rome, October 19, 1922

1. Italy called the treaty and peace a “mutilated victory”

2. Benito Mussolini leads his men into Rome and is handed power by the king

m. Rise of Authoritarianism

i. Attempts to overcome tensions by appealing to fear

1. Call for strong, centralized leadership

ii. Anti Democratic, anti-enlightenment

n. Reaction to postwar order

i. Germans were the latecomers

o. Earlier developments

i. Italy: Mussolini and Fascism

1. Came to power in 1922; dictatorship by 1925

ii. USSR: Rise of Stalinism

1. First Five Year Plan in 1929

2. Collectivization, purges and terror

p. Panic on Wall Street, October 1929

i. Economic Climate of 1920s

1. Stabilization and prosperity

2. “Roaring 20s”

ii. Overextended credit and strict lending requirements lead to the stock market crash

q. Great Depression in numbers

i. By 1933, six million Germans are unemployed

r. Social tensions and responses

i. Declining birth rates and neo-Malthusianism

1. Idea that our world is overpopulated and we need a purge, but if

we’re the best we need to continue producing children of our race--

re emergence of social darwinism.

s. Death of Weimar and the Rise of Nazism

i. Sidebar: no fascist regime ever “seized” power, they were handed power. ii. Depression shattered illusion in Germany

1. Crises of the Welfare State

t. Era of Presidential Regimes

i. Heinrich Brüning,Franz Papen, and Hurt Schlicher

ii. Attempting to institute one party rule before the Nazis but were

outsmarted by the Nazis

iii. Set in motion mechanism that allows Hitler to come to power

u. End of Weimar Democracy

i. Fall of the Great Coalition in March, 1930

ii. Article 48 and presidential rule

1. Lack of popular support forced authoritarians, conservatives to

consider alliances with Nazis

iii. January 30, 1933: Hitler appointed Chancellor

iv. March 23, 1933: Enabling Act

1. Parliament votes itself out of existence

v. By August, 1934 Hitler was Fuhrer.

1. This takes time-- it isn’t an overnight thing

43. While rooted in some of the same ideas of “Old Imperialism,” New Imperialism offered a new take on an old subject. In what ways are Old and New Imperialism similar? How are they different? What motivations drove New Imperialists that did not exist previously? What were the reasons given by authorities/governments to justify their movements in these places? How did their actions correlate to these reasons? In the end, were these imperialists justified in their behaviors? Be sure to mention any people or places which had a profound impact on New Imperialism, either positive or negative. a. Cecil Rhodes (1853-1902)

i. Establishes a diamond cartel in South Africa.

ii. Exploits humans like it’s going out of style.

iii. Unapologetic-- thought what he was doing was best for the world iv. Cecil Rhodes, "Confession of Faith" (1877)

1. “I contend that we are the finest race in the world and that the more of the world we inhabit the better it is for the human race. Just

fancy those parts that are at present inhabited by the most

despicable specimens of human being what an alteration there

would be if they were brought under Anglo-Saxon influence, look again at the extra employment a new country added to our

dominions gives. I contend that every acre added to our territory

means in the future birth to some more of the English race who

otherwise would not be brought into existence. Added to this the

absorption of the greater portion of the world under our rule simply means the end of all wars…”

b. New Imperialism

i. Old Version

1. Trade networks, colonies, and settlements

2. Missionary activities

ii. New

1. Government takeover of territory

2. Direct rule

3. Capitalist-driven and nationalist-fueled

c. Overview

i. Accounting for the shift to New Imperialism

1. Second Industrial Revolution and Nationalism

ii. Examining waves of expansion

1. Scramble for Africa

2. Great Game in Asia

iii. Imperial Society and culture

1. Was this a western triumph or embarrassment?

d. Causes of Imperialism

i. Second Industrial Revolution

1. Large corporations in search of new markets

ii. Nationalism and the balance of power

1. “A place in the sun”- every country deserves a place to be great (the greatest)

2. National might and civilized progress

a. Wanting what is best of Europe to come from the country a

person lives in. (Germans want the best to be from

Germany, French want the best to be from France)

b. Importance of the res of the world thinking that as well

(People in Africa/Asia/Latin America thinking the best of

Europe comes from the country a person identifies with)

e. Carving up the “Dark Continent”

i. No longer about the slave trade

ii. New forms of violence in pursuit of wealth

f. King Leopold II of Belgium and the Congo

i. Ivory and rubber extorted through forced labor

ii. Two to fifteen million dead

iii. Not under direct Belgian rule

1. King created a privately owned company to extract rubber

2. People were enslaved, and corporal punishment was established iv. Congo Reform Association

1. International humanitarian organization created because conditions were so bad

2. Mark Twain and Sir Arthur Conan Doyle were members

g. Congress of Berlin (1884-1885)

i. Gunships, railroads, weapons, medicine facilitate conquest

ii. Concern over international conflict between colonizing powers, not over rebellion by Africans

iii. Rhodes and the diamonds of southern Africa

iv. Mahdist Revolt (Egypt and Sudan) against the England

v. Herero and Namaqua Genocide (Namibia)- by Germans; first genocide of the 20th century; blueprint for WW1; 70-90% of people wiped out h. Great Game and Imperialism in Asia

i. British Incursions

1. India, Malaysia, and Burma

ii. British and Russian rivalry

1. Central Asia (Persia, Afghanistan, China) and threats to India 2. Trans-Siberian Railway as a threat

iii. France in Indo-China

i. Darwinian Revolution

i. On the Origins of Species (1859)

1. Emergence of social Darwinism

2. Thin line between science and speculations

ii. “Survival of the fittest” doesn’t come from Darwin

iii. Positivism

1. Auguste Comte

2. Better living through science

44. While the Italian Fascists and German Nazis are the most conspicuous authoritarian groups of interwar Europe, they were by no means the only ones. What are some other nations that saw a surge of nationalist authoritarianism? How did the Nazis and Fascists gain power in their respective countries? How popular were they initially? What factors led to their eventual rise to power? Most importantly, was their rise to power ‘inevitable’? Make sure to mention specific persons and historical events in making your case.

a. Professor Wasserman said multiple times in class that this wasn’t inevitable, so keep that in mind when applying these notes to your essay.

b. Post WWI Romania

i. Acquisition of Transylvania, Bucovina and Bessarabia

ii. Nouveaux Riches of Europe?

1. 5 times the territory, much larger population

iii. Corneliu Codreanu and the rise of ethnic nationalism

c. The rightward shift of European politics in the 1920s

i. Fears of socialism, discontent with parliamentarianism, hopes for restoration

d. The devastation of the Depression

e. Enter the Nazis

i. And Austro-Fascists, Flange, Iron Guard, Arrow Cross, etc.

1. Essentially, Germany wasn’t alone-- authoritarianism wasn’t an

exception, it was the rule, and democracies were exceptions.

f. March on Rome, October 19, 1922

i. Italy called the treaty and peace a “mutilated victory”

ii. Benito Mussolini leads his men into Rome and is handed power by the king

g. Rise of Authoritarianism

i. Attempts to overcome tensions by appealing to fear

ii. Call for strong, centralized leadership

1. Anti Democratic, anti-enlightenment

iii. Reaction to postwar order

1. Germans were the latecomers

h. Earlier developments

i. Italy: Mussolini and Fascism

1. Came to power in 1922; dictatorship by 1925

ii. USSR: Rise of Stalinism

1. First Five Year Plan in 1929

2. Collectivization, purges and terror

i. Panic on Wall Street, October 1929

i. Economic Climate of 1920s

1. Stabilization and prosperity

2. “Roaring 20s”

ii. Overextended credit and strict lending requirements lead to the stock market crash

j. Great Depression in numbers

i. By 1933, six million Germans are unemployed

ii. 25% of Americans unemployed

1. 5000 banks failed

iii. 800,000 French lost jobs

iv. Three million unemployed Britons

1. 20% of Britons lacking basic necessities

v. 700,000 Polish new landowners fell into debt

k. Economic Responses (bad)

i. Austerity Measures (tighter credit, reduced spending)

ii. Deficit (Japan)

1. Quicker turnaround, eventually US and Germany emulated this l. Social tensions and responses

i. Gender trouble: women as breadwinners

ii. Declining birth rates and neo-Malthusianism

1. Idea that our world is overpopulated and we need a purge, but if we’re the best we need to continue producing children of our race-- re emergence of social darwinism.

m. Death of Weimar and the Rise of Nazism

i. Sidebar: no fascist regime ever “seized” power, they were handed power. ii. Depression shattered illusion in Germany

1. Crises of the Welfare State

n. Era of Presidential Regimes

i. Heinrich Brüning,Franz Papen, and Hurt Schlicher

ii. Attempting to institute one party rule before the Nazis but were outsmarted by the Nazis

iii. Set in motion mechanism that allows Hitler to come to power o. End of Weimar Democracy

i. Fall of the Great Coalition in March, 1930

ii. Article 48 and presidential rule

iii. Lack of popular support forced authoritarians, conservatives to consider alliances with Nazis

iv. January 30, 1933: Hitler appointed Chancellor

v. March 23, 1933: Enabling Act

1. Parliament votes itself out of existence vi. By August, 1934 Hitler was Fuhrer.

1. This takes time-- it isn’t an overnight thing

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