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NYU - PSYCH-UA 1 012 - Intro to Psych: Exam 2 Study Guide - Study

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Schools > New York University > OTHER > PSYCH-UA 1 012 > NYU - PSYCH-UA 1 012 - Intro to Psych: Exam 2 Study Guide - Study

NYU - PSYCH-UA 1 012 - Intro to Psych: Exam 2 Study Guide - Study

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background image Eun-Sung Chang
Intro to Psych
Exam 2 Review Exam Date: 4/3/17 **Please do not rely solely on this review for the exam.** Learning •  Basic hardware components: responding o  1. Sensation: ability to discriminate stimuli – notice when there is something relevant to us (food/predator/etc.) using our senses (eyes/ears/etc.) o  2. Reflex: hardwired stimulus-response circuits – born with something without learning it o  3. Habituation: circuit breaker – tendency to stop reflex in response to stimulus, knows to stop and mitigate reflex •  Ability to predict environment: critical for survival because if you predict something will happen, it will increase your chances of success •  Concepts of Prediction: Pavlovian software o  Learn associations: prediction – predicting something will happen based on associating that event with another change in environment §   Ex.) Rat salivates when it sees cheese – if a light lights up every time rat
gets cheese à rat will associate light with cheese and start to salivate at
light before it sees the cheese
•  US – cheese
•  UR – rat salivates
•  CS – light
•  CR – rat salivates
o  Learn sloppily: generalization – applying basic knowledge to various situations §   Ex.) It would be helpful if rat could learn to generalize all cats/bells à if a
neighbor’s cat that is slightly different looking with a different bell comes,
rat could still know to run
o  Learn sparingly: blocking – learning patterns of relationships that only benefit you §   Ex.) If you add sound to light, rat will not salivate to sound à rat will
think it already has a good predictor (light) and sound is doing what light
already was doing so it is unnecessary
o  Learn slowly: latent inhibition – learn patterns that are only there a number of times
background image §   Ex.) If there is a light first and nothing happens for a while, and then the
light starts cueing food à rat will take a longer time/lot more exposure
to associate light with food
o  Unlearn slowly: extinction §   Ex.) If rat continues to see light without food à rat will unlearn to
associate light with food
o  Relearn quickly: spontaneous recovery §   Ex.) Rat could relearn very quickly that light predicts food after extinction •  Stimulus/response in classical conditioning: o  Unconditioned stimulus: elicits and unconditioned response without any training/teaching §   Ex.) dog food in Pavlov’s experiment o  Conditioned stimulus: signal that has no importance until it is paired with something that has importance §   Ex.) bell in Pavlov’s experiment o  Unconditioned response: natural/instinctual reaction to an unconditioned stimulus §   Ex.) dog salivating to food in Pavlov’s experiment o  Conditioned response: almost always the same as unconditioned response, reaction to conditioned stimulus §   Ex.) dog salivating to bell in Pavlov’s experiment •  Real world example of classical conditioning: o  US – cat
o  CS – cat’s bell
o  UR – rat running away from cat
o  CR – rat running away from sound of cat’s bell
•  Little Albert: experiment by John Watson – baby Albert has no fear in the beginning à Watson shows him a white rat and then makes a loud clanging noise, so Albert gets
scared à Watson repeats over and over à Albert gets scared of noise/rat and
generalizes fear to all small furry animals (like a bunny)
o  Example of overgeneralization – overgeneralized fear of rat to all small animals
o  Example of behaviorism – fears are learned, not inherited
o  US – loud clanging noise
o  CS – rat
o  UR – crying because of the loud noise
o  CR – crying because of the rat
•  Overgeneralization: not helpful to our survival o  Ex.) If rats overgeneralized all cats à it would fear stuffed animal cats
background image •  Classical vs. operant conditioning o  Classical/Pavlovian conditioning: procedure in which an initially neutral stimulus (conditioned stimulus) is paired with an unconditioned stimulus à result is that
CS begins to elicit a conditioned response
§   Ex.) Ivan Pavlov’s dog experiment – rang a bell and gave dog food à dog
started salivating at bell sound and treated the bell as a signal for food
o  Operant/instrumental conditioning: process in which animals learn about the relationship between their behaviors and their consequences; studies how
effects of a behavior influence probability that behavior will occur again
§   Ex.) B. F. Skinner box – pigeon kept in a box à pigeon was fed every time
it turned so it learned to keep turning
•  The law of effect: formed by Edward Thorndike – idea that operant responses are influenced by their effects à when a behavior has positive effect, it is likely to be
repeated in the future; when a behavior has negative effect, it is less likely to be
repeated in the future
•  Examples of operant condition: o  Ex.) Edward Thorndike – developed a box and put cats inside à cats would not like it à reward selects behavioral “mutations” §   Cats would scratch, push, dig, meow, then press button §   Behavior that led to bad outcome – do something (scratch, push, dig,
meow) and floor would shock cat
§   Behavior that led to good outcome – press button and be let out à cat
learned to go straight to pressing button next time it went into box
o  Ex.) B.F. Skinner – dancing pigeon à pigeon learned to keep turning if it wanted to be fed o  Ex.) Professor pigeon – class paid attention only when professor stood on left side of the stage •  “Schedules of reinforcement”: o  Continuous reinforcement: every time you do a certain behavior, you get a reward §   Ex.) Every time your dog sits when you tell it to, you give it a treat o  Fixed ratio reinforcement: rewarded every 3 rd /5 th /10 th /etc. time a person does something §   Ex.) Buy 3, get 1 free! sales o  Fixed interval reinforcement: pensioner §   Ex.) Pigeon gets rewarded every 2 minutes no matter how many times it
pushes button
o  Variable ratio reinforcement: gambler, randomized reward schedule
background image §   Ex.) Slot machine o  Variable interval reinforcement: rewarded a specific time during a span of time §   Ex.) Radio gives concert tickets away to lucky caller sometime in the next
hour à you don’t know when in the hour so you keep calling
•  Radical behaviorism: all behavior is a result of its reinforcement history; John Watson – everything is about the environment in which you grew up in à idea of “it doesn’t
matter how rich/smart you are, as long as you try you can do it”
•  Blank slate hypothesis: people come into the world knowing nothing à anyone can be anything •  Phenomena not well explained by behaviorism: behaviorism is not the only thing the mind does o  Ex.) Some things we don’t learn à babies are born knowing things/having preferences of certain facial structures over others (not likely that a baby saw a
bunch of faces and picked which ones it liked)
o  Ex.) Biological preparedness hypothesis à babies have a natural threat detector to spiders before having any experience with spiders o  Ex.) Some things we can’t learn via conditioning à language is not learned through conditioning
Memory 1
•  Types of memory: o  Sensory: ability to retain impressions of sensory information §   Iconic: short term visual memory §   Echoic: short term auditory memory o  Working: memory you bring to mind and hold while performing operations
o  Long term: when information is stored in memory for long periods of time
§   Explicit: distributed representation refers to “brain cells fire in patterns”
in a way that corresponds to memory
•  Semantic: “meaning” à refers to factual information of the world, knowledge of names of things •  Episodic: considered the “classic version” of memory à memory of events/episodes of your life §   Implicit: memory known beforehand that is already in the brain •  Procedural: ability to learn/remember how to do things
•  Priming: create retrieval cues so it’s easier to remember memory
later on •  Purpose of iconic/echoic memory: visual/auditory memory helps monitor our daily lives

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School: New York University
Department: OTHER
Course: Intro to Psychology
Professor: Marjorie Rhodes
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: Psychology, psych, Intro to Psychology, NYU, psychology nyu, learning, memory, Language, thinking, sleep, socialcognition, and groups
Name: Intro to Psych: Exam 2 Study Guide
Description: Exam 2 Study Guide -Learning -Memory 1 and 2 -Language -Thinking -Sleep -Social Cognition -Groups
Uploaded: 04/02/2017
16 Pages 186 Views 148 Unlocks
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