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Plantae groupsGlaucophytes = chlorophyll a only; chloroplast with peptidoglycan; some with no cell wall, some with celluloseRed algae = chlorophyll a only; phycobilins,; complex life cycles, no flagellates cells; cellulose cell wallsGreen plants = chlorophyll a & b, starch (includes all green algae and land plants); cellulose cell wallsStreptophytes = plasmodesmata, apical growth, phragmoplast, sporopollenin (Charophytes and land plants)Embryophytes = oogamous, sportic meiosis (land plants)Vascular plants = vascular tissuesSeed plants = seeds and pollen grainsFlowering plants = flowers, double fertilization to produce endosperm
Angiosperms most abundant species at 257,000 and Gymnosperms least abundant at 811Phylogeny of Plants Green algaeLoose term for mostly aquatic protists with chlorophylls a and bIncludes two groups: one NOT related to land plants (Chlorophytes) and one that INCLUDES land plants (Streptophytes)Very diverseOogmaous, isogamous, anisogamousMotile and non-motileThree classeso Ulvophyceae: generally form neither a phycoplast nor a phragmoplast; nuclear envelope persists; spindle persists no cell plateMarine parenchymatous green algaeSproic meiosis
isogamouso Chlorophyceae: form a phycoplast during cell division; a systemof microtubules parallel to plane of division; nuclear envelope persists, spindle disappearsZygotic meiosis IsogamyFlagellated zoospores can function as sexual propagules or gameteso Charophyceae: Advanced groups form a phragmoplast during cell division; a system of microtubules outside the spindle and perpendicular to the plane of division; nuclear envelope breaks down; spindle persists; cell plate is formed. Includes Chara and Coleochaete. Shared by land plants1. Ulvophyceae: generally form neither a phycoplast nor a phragmoplast; nuclear envelope persists; spindle persists; no cell plate 2. Chlorophyceae: form a phycoplast during cell division; a system of microtubles parallel to plane of division; nuclear envelope persists; spindle disappears 3. Charophyceae: advanced groups form a phragmoplast during cell division; a system of microtubules outside the spindle and perpendicular to the plane of division; nuclear envelope breaks down; spindle persists; cell plate is formed. Includes Chara and Coleochaete.Shared by land plants. ChlorophyceaeVolvoxo Colonial chlorphytes o Connected haploid flagellated vegetative cells in a hollow gelatinous matrix; moves in a rolling motiono Asexual daughter colonies form from specialized gonidia; eventually move inside the parent colonyColeaochaeteo Parenchymatous
o Retained egg and zygote, which undergoes immediate meiosis after release (zygotic meiosis)o Specialized multicellular structures for holding gametes (gametangia)o Sporopollenin in zygote coveringCharao Parenchymatous o Zygotic meisosis o Branding apical growth o Nodes and internodes o Plasmodesmata o Entire covering of eggSpirogyraData suggests that the earliest plants that diverged from charophytes were like present-day bryophytes. Also, liverworts are sister to all remaining land
o Alternation of generations life cycle (sporic meiosis) o Oogamous o Apical growth o Motile sperm; requirement for liquid water for fertilization, a hold-over from an aquatic lifestyleo Internal conductive tissue common but probably not in the earliest land plants; hydroids and leptoids in some; try xylem and phloem in othersMany characteristics were adaptations to terrestrial habitatsoMulticellular jacket of cells surrounding gametangia and sporangiao (in protists, gametangia and sporangia are generally unicellular) o Zygote and embryonic sporophytes retained in maternal gametophyte tissueo Spores contained in sporopollenin, a resistant compound not commonly found in the green algae (recently discovered in zygotes of the charophyte Spirogyra)o Internal vascular/conduvtive systemConductive tissue (hydroids and leptoids found in present- day mosses)True xylem and phloemNonvascular plantso Three phyla (do not together form a monophyletic group)Heptatophyta – liverwortsAnthocerophyta – hornwortsBryophyta – mosseso Predominant gametophytes stage and a nutritionally-dependent sporophyteso All parenchymatous (form tissues), but produce no true xylem and phloem (mosses produce hydroids and leptoids)o Some have cuticle and stomatesPhylum Heptatophyta – LiverwortsCalled liverworts because some look superficially like liver tissueBoth leafy and thallose kindsThallus (nonvascular plant body) dorsiventrally flattened; dorsal side has pores and ventral side has rhizoids and scalesAsexual reproduction by gemmaeMarchantia
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School: George Mason University
Professor: Geoffrey Birchard
Term: Summer 2015
Name: Exam #2 Study Guide Dr. Lawrey
Description: A summation of all power points from the Plant portion of the tree of life.