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Temple - PSY 1001 - Psychology Exam 2 Study Guide - Study Guide

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Schools > Temple University > Psychology > PSY 1001 > Temple - PSY 1001 - Psychology Exam 2 Study Guide - Study Guide

Temple - PSY 1001 - Psychology Exam 2 Study Guide - Study Guide

School: Temple University
Department: Psychology
Course: Elementary Psychology
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: emotions, sensation, perception, memory, thinking, feeling, and social
Name: Psychology Exam 2 Study Guide
Description: This is all the information filled out from Dr. Johnson's study guide for exam 2.
Uploaded: 04/02/2017
0 5 3 18 Reviews
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background image Sensation and Perception Sensation vs Perception o Sensation = the detection of “raw” sensory information from the  environment o Perception = understanding sensory information as meaningful  categories  Senses o Vision, hearing, smell, taste, tough
o 6
th  senses – balance (body orientation), kinesthesia (body  motion), proprioception (limp position), interopception (internal 
organs)
Sensory Transduction  o = the process of turning environment stimuli into signals the  brain can interpret  o Ex) vibrations in the air allow us to hear, particles of light allow  us to see Bottom-up vs Top-down processing o Bottom-up = raw sensory information/basic features  Ex) vision (color), hearing (frequency), taste (salty) o Top-down = meaningful interpretations of raw sensory  information  Ex) shapes and colors make up my friend’s face, sound 
frequencies make up the songs I like, salty and sweet make
up chocolate
Includes “filling in” Perceptual systems compensate for missing 
information
Ex) filling in blind spots, recognizing words without 
vowels
Evidence supporting top-down Gestalt o Perceptions involve organizing basic units into  meaning groups (gestalts)  o Ex) proximity, similarity, continuity, closure,  figure-ground (an object “pops out” relative to 
the background)
Context Effect o = same object can be perceived as entirely  different things depending on context Shape consistency  o = object shape appears to remain the same  even though the visual image changes o Ex) a door always looks “door shaped” to us Size consistency
background image o = expectations about object size influences  perception o Identical images may be seen as different sizes de to context  Color consistency o = perception of color is relevant
o braise bases its interpretation of color n 
amount of available light and presence of other
colors
Hearing words in sounds o Ex) “I scream” for “ice cream” Sin wave speech demo o = distorted versions of speech that can be  understood if given prior expectation  McGurk effect o = perception of language altered by visual,  scent, etc. Attention  o Attention is needed for sensations to become perceptions
o Perception is selective because attention is selective 
o Overt vs Covert
Overt = conscious and intentional attending to a scene or 
stimulus (directed attention)
Covert = when attention is “grabbed” by something that 
we weren’t directly paying attention to
o Inattentional blindness = lack of attention to an obvious stimulus  results from heavily focusing attention on another task o Change blindness = can be blind to changes that occur right in front of us If we’re not looking for it, we probably won’t see it Seeing without Seeing Blindsight  o = ability to sense visual information without the ability to “see” it
o Wieskrantz’s study 
Damage to occipital lobe, but patients could still respond to
visual information with have awareness of visual 
information
Patients could avoid obstacles and point in direction of light
but they could not explain how they “knew” to do these 
things
Visual Agnosia o = inability to recognize specific categories of objects
o Damage to association areas of brain, but vision is fine
background image o Ex) prosopagnosia – visual agnosia specific to faces Perceptions as Constructions o Perceptions are built piece by piece Specialized receptors + specialized organs + specialized 
brain areas
o Perception requires attention Eyes are constantly moving o Specialized brain areas for vision Primary receiving area and association areas Memory = the mechanism used to create, maintain, and retrieve information 
about the past
Process of encoding, storage, and retrieval  Sensory Memory o Iconic = visual sensory memory that lasts about 1 second and  can hold 12 images at a time “Persistence of vision” – seeing a sparkler’s trail of light or 
not noticing TV and films are frame by frame
o Echoic = auditory sensory memory that lasts about 2-3 seconds  longer Short-term Memory (STM) o Digit span = how many numbers can someone hold in memory Typically 5-9 numbers George Miller’s “magic number” 7 +/- 2 o Chunking = a meaningful pattern that organizes multiple items  into one group or chunk Memorizing TUID is easier to remember as 3 groups of 3 
numbers
Long-term Memory (LTM) o Explicit (declarative) memory Episodic memory = personal events from one’s life Mentally “relive” past experiences Ex) remembering what happens at your birthday 
party last year
This is the memory that’s usually lost in amnesia, not
semantic
Semantic memory = general knowledge and factual 
information
Does not require mental time travel Ex) remembering what year the Declaration of 
Independence was signed
o Implicit (non-declarative) memory

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School: Temple University
Department: Psychology
Course: Elementary Psychology
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: emotions, sensation, perception, memory, thinking, feeling, and social
Name: Psychology Exam 2 Study Guide
Description: This is all the information filled out from Dr. Johnson's study guide for exam 2.
Uploaded: 04/02/2017
12 Pages 87 Views 69 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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